Biogeography and Ecology of Land Arthropods of Antarctica

  • J. L. Gressitt
Part of the Monographiae Biologicae book series (MOBI, volume 15)


Arthropods (certain insects and mites) appear at present to have the southernmost known records for resident animals (nearly 84° S. Lat.). Possibly rotifers, tardigrades or protozoans may occur farther south. Arthropods are the dominant strictly land animals of Antarctica, as they are also of oceanic islands and of unfavorable environments in general, such as high mountain ridges or other cold areas. It is true that arthropods are the dominant land animals throughout the world, but in the less favorable environments and on land separated from continental areas by wide sea barriers, the land arthropods hold a much greater position of dominance. Land vertebrates, particularly mammals, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fish, are generally lacking in such situations, and land birds are generally few or lacking so that the only vertebrates are often sea birds, marine mammals and fish. This is likewise the situation on the Antarctic continent, and to a large degree on the subantarctic islands also.


Antarctic Peninsula Elephant Seal Antarctic Continent Giant Petrel South Orkney Island 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Alexander, C. P. 1962. Insects of Macquarie Island. Diptera: Tipulidae. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 939–944, 8 figs.Google Scholar
  2. Brookes, A. E. 1951. The Coleoptera of the Auckland and Campbell Islands. Cape Expedition Series, Bull. 5: 1–68, 22 figs.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, K. 1964. Insects of Heard Island. B 1: 1–39, illust.Google Scholar
  4. Brundin, L. 1962. Insects of Macquarie Island. Diptera: Chironomidae. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 945–954, 5 figs.Google Scholar
  5. Cailleux, A. 1961. Endémicité actuelle et passée de l’Antarctique. C. R. Soc. Biogeogr., Paris 38 (334): 65–71.Google Scholar
  6. Dalenius, PER & OVE WILsoN. 1958. On the soil fauna of the Antarctic and of the Sub-Antarctic Islands. The Oribatidae (Acari). Arkiv f. Zool. ser. 2, 11 (23): 393–425, 12 figs.Google Scholar
  7. Eastop, V. F. 1962. Insects of Macquarie Island. Hemiptera: Homoptera: Aphididae. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 937–938.Google Scholar
  8. Falla, R. A. 1960. Oceanic birds as dispersal agents. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., ser. B 152: 655–659, 1 pl.Google Scholar
  9. Forster, R. R. 1955. Spiders from the Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand. Rec. Dominion Mus. 2 (4): 167–203, 60 figs.Google Scholar
  10. Gislen, T. 1948. Aerial plankton and its condition of life. Biol. Rev. 23: 109–126.Google Scholar
  11. Gressitt, J. L. 1961. Problems in the zoogeography of Pacific and Antarctic insects. Pacific Ins. Monogr. 2: 1–94, illust.Google Scholar
  12. Gressitt, J. L. 1962. Insects of Macquarie Island. Introduction. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 905–915, 3 figs.Google Scholar
  13. Gressitt, J. L. & R. E. LEECH, 1961. Insect habitats in Antarctica. Polar Rec. 10 (68): 501–504, 1 pl.Google Scholar
  14. Gressitt, J. L., R. E. Leech & K. A. J. WISE, 1963. Entomological investigations in Antarctica. Pacific Ins. 5 (1): 287–304, 9 figs.Google Scholar
  15. Gressitt, J. L. & M. E. PRYOR, 1961. Supplement to “Bibliographic introduction to Antarctic-Subantarctic entomology”. Pacific Ins. 3 (4): 563–567.Google Scholar
  16. Gressitt, J. L. & N. A. WEBER, 1960. Bibliographic introduction to Ant-arctic-Subantarctic entomology. Pacific Ins. 1 (4): 441–480.Google Scholar
  17. Gressitt, J. L. & C. M. YosniMozo, 1964. Dispersal of animals in the Pacific. In GRESSITT, Pac. Basin Biogeography, 283–292.Google Scholar
  18. Gressitt, J. L. (Editor). 1964. Pacific Basin Biogeography: A Symposium. Bishop Museum, 563 pp., many maps and illustrations.Google Scholar
  19. Gressitt, J. L. & Collaborators. 1964. Insects of Campbell Island. Pacific Insects Monograph 7; 663 pp., many maps and illustrations.Google Scholar
  20. Hardy, D. E. 1962. Insects of Macquarie Island. Diptera: Coelopidae. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 963–971, 4 figs.Google Scholar
  21. Harrison, R. A. 1955. The Diptera of Auckland and Campbell Islands. Rec. Dominion Mus. 2 (4): 205–231, 9 figs.Google Scholar
  22. Holdgate, M. W. 1960. The fauna of the mid-Atlantic islands. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., ser. B, 152: 550–567, figs.Google Scholar
  23. Holdgate, M. W. 1961. Biological routes between the southern continents. New Scientist 239: 636–638, 3 figs.Google Scholar
  24. Holdgate, M. W. 1964. Ecology on the Antarctic fringe. SCAR Symposium Antarctic Biol., Paris.Google Scholar
  25. Holdgate, M. W. & N.M. WACE. 1961. The influence of man on the floras and faunas of southern islands. Polar Rec. 10 (68): 475–493.Google Scholar
  26. Illies,J. 1963. The Plecoptera of the Auckland and Campbell Islands. Rec. Dominion Mus. 4 (19): 255 265,7 figs.Google Scholar
  27. Janetschek, H. 1963. On the terrestrial fauna of the Ross-Sea area, Antarctica (preliminary report). Pacific Ins. 5 (1): 305–311, 2 figs.Google Scholar
  28. Jeannel, R. 1940a. Croisière du Bougainville aux îles australes françaises. I. Partie générale. Mem. Mus. Mist. Nat. Paris, ser. 2, 14: 1–46, 8 pls.Google Scholar
  29. Jeannel, R. 1940b. Coléoptères. Croisière du Bougainville aux îles australes françaises. 1.c.: 63–201, 280 figs.Google Scholar
  30. Kohn, M. A. 1962. Insects of Macquarie Island. Diptera: Dolichopodidae. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 959–962,1 fig.Google Scholar
  31. Kubiena, W. L. 1948. Entwicklungslehre des Bodens, Springer, Wien. KuseHEL, G. 1960. Terrestrial zoology in southern Chile. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond.,ser. B, 152: 540 550,1 fig.Google Scholar
  32. Kuschel, G. 1962. The Curculionidae of Gough Island and the relationships of the weevil fauna of the Tristan da Cunha group. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 173: 69–78, 3 figs.Google Scholar
  33. Mani, M. S. 1962. Introduction to high altitude entomology. M.thuen, 302 pp. MURRAY, M. D. 1958._ Ecology of the louse Lepidophthirus macrorhini Ender-lein 1904 on the elephant seal Mirounga leonina (L.). Nature, Lond. 182 (4632): 404.Google Scholar
  34. Pryor, M. E. 1962. Some environmental features of Hallet Station, Antarctica, with special reference to soil arthropods. Pacific Ins. 4 (3): 681–728, 35 figs.Google Scholar
  35. Salmon, J. T. 1949. New Sub-Antarctic Collembola. Bull. Cape Expedition, New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Expedition, 1941–45. 4: 1–56, 167 figs., 2 maps.Google Scholar
  36. Salmon, J. T. 1962a. New Collembola from 83 deg. South in Antarctica. Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 2 (18): 147–152, 20 figs.Google Scholar
  37. Salmon, J. T. 1962b. A new species and redescriptions of Collembola from Antarctica. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 887–894, 41 figs.Google Scholar
  38. Salmon, J. T. & J. D. Bradley, 1956. Lepidoptera from the Cape Expedition and Antipodes Islands. Rec. Dominion Mus.Wellington 3: 61–81, 45 figs.Google Scholar
  39. Schweiger, H. 1958. ‘Ober einige von der Skottsberg expedition im Antarkto Archiplata-Gebiet aufgesammelte Koleopteren’. Arkiv f. Zool. ser. 2, 12 (1): 1–43.Google Scholar
  40. Seguy, E. 1940. Diptères. Croisière du Bougainville aux îles australes françaises. Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, ser. 2, 14: 203–267, 139 figsF. G. A. M. & G. M.Google Scholar
  41. Dunnet, 1962. A new genus and species of flea from Antarctica. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 895–903, 10 figs.Google Scholar
  42. Smithers, C. N. 1962. Insects of Macquarie Island. Psocoptera: Philotarsidae. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 929–932, 6 figs.Google Scholar
  43. Stannard, L. J. 1962. Insects of Macquarie Island. Thysanoptera: Thripidae. Pacific Ins. 4 (4): 933–936, 2 figs.Google Scholar
  44. Taylor, B. W. 1954. An example of long distance dispersal. Ecology 35 (4): 569–572.Google Scholar
  45. Torres, B. A. 1953. Sobre la existencia del Tendipedido “Belgica antarctica” Jacobs en el Archipiélago Melchior. An.(n.s.)Zool., Mus. Ciudad Eva Peron 1: 1–22, 18 figs. 3 pls.Google Scholar
  46. Torres, B. A. 1959. Primer hallazgo de Tendipedidos alados en la region Antarctica. Podonominae, una nueva subfamilia para la citada region. An. Soc. Cient. Argent., Buenos Aires 161 (4–6): 41–52, 8 figs.Google Scholar
  47. Tyndale-Biscoe, H. C. 1960. On the occurrence of life near the Beardmore Glacier, Antarctica. Pacific Ins. 2 (2): 251–253, map.Google Scholar
  48. Womersley, H. & R. W. Strandtmann, 1963. On some free living prostig- matic mites of Antarctica. Pacific Ins. 5 (2): 451–472, 59 figs.Google Scholar
  49. Wygodzinsky, P. & S. Coscarón, 1962. On the relationships and zoogeographical significance of Austrosimulium anthracinum (Bigot), a blackfly from southern South America. Pacific Ins. 4 (1): 235–244, 4 figs.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Gressitt
    • 1
  1. 1.Bishop MuseumHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations