The Climatology of South America

  • Robert C. Eidt
Part of the Monographiæ Biologicæ book series (MOBI, volume 18)


The climatology, or average long-term meteorological condition, of a place depends both on what Küppen has referred to as a broad group of external factors, i.e., astronomical location, general circulation, surface features, altitude and exposure, and on a group of climatic elements which characterize each of the broad factors and are closely interrelated with them. These elements include temperature and rainfall averages and extremes, atmospheric pressures, wind speeds and directions, relative humidity and cloudiness. Since the climatic factors and elements all depend upon the daily weather conditions, the discussion of the climates of South America must necessarily draw heavily on meteorological data. It should be noted that long-term weather records are frequently unavailable for this part of the world, so that much extrapolation and interpretation must be carried out in order to arrive at a generalized idea of climate.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anu. Met. Colombia. 1937–1946. Bogota, 3 vols.Google Scholar
  2. De Aparicio, F. & Difrieri, A. 1958. La Argentina: Suma de Geografia. Buenos Aires, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  3. Aschmann, H. 1956. Informe preliminar sobre investigaciones efectuadas en la Peninsula de la Guajira. Bol. Soc. geogr. Colombia, nos 51, 52: 144–174.Google Scholar
  4. Berninger, O. 1933. Die chilenische Frontera als Landschafts- und Kulturscheide. Geogr. 39: 412–420.Google Scholar
  5. Daus, F. A. 1955. Resena geografica de las Isias Malvinas. Buenos Aires, Instituto de Geografia, Serie A, No. 19.Google Scholar
  6. Eidt, R. C. 1952. La climatologia de Cundinamarca. Rev. Acad, colomb. Cienc. exact, fis. nat, 8 (32): 489–503.Google Scholar
  7. Enciclopèdi’a Dos Municipios Brasileiros. 1958. Esp. vol. 6, Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica.Google Scholar
  8. Freise, F. W. 1938. The drought region of northeastern Brazil. Geogr. Rev 28: 363–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Geografia Económica De Colombia: Choco, 1943. Vol. 6, Bogota, Republica de Colombia: 46.Google Scholar
  10. Hovstell, W. E. 1965. Twelve years of cloud seeding in the Andes of northern Peru. J. appl. Met 4 (6): 693–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. James, P. E. 1959. Latin America. New York.Google Scholar
  12. Koppen, W. 1931. Grundriss der Klimatologie. Berlin.Google Scholar
  13. Koppen, W.& Geiger, R. 1936. Handbuch der Klimatologie. Berlin. Esp. vol. 2, part G.Google Scholar
  14. Lydolph, P. 1957. A comparative analysis of the dry western littorals. Ann. Ass. Amer. Geogr 47, (3): 213–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Murphy, R. C. 1926. Oceanic and climatic phenomena along the west coast of South America during 1925. Geogr. Rev 16, (1): 36–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Primeras Jornadas De Meteorologia. 1951. Lima, Sociedad Geograficia de Lima.Google Scholar
  17. Prohaska, F. J. 1961. Algunos aspectos del clima de la alta cordillera y de la puna argentina. Bol. de Estudios Geogrdphicos, 8 (30): 21–30.Google Scholar
  18. Sauer, C. O. 1963. The geography of South America. In: J. H. STEWARD (ed.) Handbook of South American Indians, Vol. 6: 331–340.Google Scholar
  19. Schmieder, O., 1962. Mittel- und Südamerika. In: Die Neue Welt, vol. 1. Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  20. Schweigger, H. 1940. Studies of the Peru coastal current with reference to the extraordinary summer of 1939. In: Proc. 6th pacif. Sei. Congr., 3: 177–195.Google Scholar
  21. Serra, A. 1963. Clima da America do Sul. Rev. geogr. Inst, panam. Geogr. Hist 33 (59): 93–126.Google Scholar
  22. Shanahan, E. W. 1953. South America: An economic and regional geography. London.Google Scholar
  23. Sheppard, G. 1933. The rainy season of 1932 in southwest Ecuador. Geogr. Rev 23 (2): 210–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Simpson, R. H. 1947. Synoptic aspects of the intertropical convergence near Central and South America. Bull. Amer. met. Soc 28 (7): 335–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Szyszlo, V. 1955. La naturaleza en la América Equatorial. Lima.Google Scholar
  26. Trewartha, G. T. 1961. The Earth’s Problem CHmates. Madison: esp. pp. 11–72.Google Scholar
  27. Troll, C. 1931–1932. Die geographischen Grundlagen der andinen Kulturen und des Inkareiches. Ibero-Amer. Arch 5: 258–294.Google Scholar
  28. Wallace, A. R. 1878. Tropical nature and other essays. London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wilhelmy, H.& Rohmeder, W. 1963. Die La Plata-Länder: Argentinien-Paraguay- Uruguay. Braunschweig.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk N.V., Publishers, The Hague 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert C. Eidt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyThe University of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations