Man and Environmental Change in South America

  • Hilgard O’Reilly Sternberg
Part of the Monographiæ Biologicæ book series (MOBI, volume 18)


A gaping hole at Chuquicamata, in the Atacama desert, provides impressive evidence of man’s efficiency in altering the face of the earth when he applies himself to mining the materials of the crust. I refer, of course, to the Anaconda open pit mine, from which more than 350 million cubic meters of rock have been removed since operations began in 1915. Less spectacular, perhaps, but certainly no less significant as to volume and value of the materials involved, is the stripping of topsoil from the lands of South America, by forces of nature which man has unleashed or aggravated.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anchieta, J. 1946 [1585]. A Provmcia do Brasil. Col. Bras. Divulg. Serv. Doc. Min. Ed. Saude. Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  2. Andrade, E. N. 1961. O Eucalipto. Comp. Paul. Estr. Ferro. Jundiai, S. Paulo. 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  3. Arens, K. 1956. Reasons for the Occurrence of Dense Forests of Babaçu Palms in the North of Brazil. 18th int. Geogr. Congr. Rio de Janeiro. Abstracts of Papers.Google Scholar
  4. Armillas, P. 1961. Land Use in Pre-Columbian America in L. D. Stamp (ed.). A History of Land Use in Arid Regions, UNESCO, Paris, 255–276.Google Scholar
  5. Aubreville, A. 1961. Étude écologique des principales formations végétales du Brésil et contribution ä la connaissance des forêts de l’Amazonie Brésilienne. Cent. Techn. Forest. Trop., Nogent-sur-Marne.Google Scholar
  6. Audy, J. R. 1962. The Social Aspects of Disease: Man Contrasted with Other Animals. Proc. 9th Pac. Sei. Cong. 1957. 17: 155–158.Google Scholar
  7. Avé-Lallement, R. 1859. Reise durch Süd-Brasilien im Jahre 1858. F. U. Brockhaus. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  8. Azara, F. 1943 [1847]. Descripción e Historia del Paraguay y del Rio de la Plata. Edit. Bajel. Buenos Aires. 3d. ed.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, R. E. D. 1952. Anglo-Colombian Cacao-Collecting Expedition in A Report on Cacao Research. Imp. Coll. Trop. Agr. Trinidad, 8–29.Google Scholar
  10. Baker, R. E. D., F. W. Cope, P. C. Holliday, B. G. Bartley & D. J. Taylor. 1953. The Anglo-Colombian Cacao-Collecting Expedition. Imp. Coll. Trop. Agr. Trinidad, 8–29.Google Scholar
  11. Baldwin Jr., J. T. 1947. Hevea: a First Interpretation. J. Hered 38: 54–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barlow, R. 1932 [1540–41]. A Brief Summe of Geographie. The Hakluyt Society. London.Google Scholar
  13. Batchelder, R. B. & F. H. Hirt. 1966. Fire in Tropical Forests and Grasslands. Techn. Rep. 67–41-ES. U. S. Army Natick Lab. Natick.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berger, R. & W. F. Libby. 1966. UCLA Radiocarbon Dates V. Radiocarbon. 8:467–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borah, W. 1964. America as Model: The Demographic Impact of European Expansion upon the Non-European World. Actas y Mem. XXXV Congr. int. Am. Mexico 1962: 379–387.Google Scholar
  16. Bryson, R. A. & D. A. Baerreis. 1967. Possibilities of Major Climatic Modification and their Implications: Northwest India, a Case for Study. Bull. Amer. meteor. Soc. 48: 136–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Budowski, G. 1966. Fire in Tropical American Lowland Areas. Paper presented at 5th Tall Timbers Fire Ecol. Conf. Tallahassee, Florida.Google Scholar
  18. Carneiro, R. L. 1961. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation among the Kuikuru and its Implications for Cultural Development in the Amazon Basin in J. Wilbert (ed.). The Evolution of Horticultural Systems in Native South America. Soc. Cienc. Nat. La Salle. Caracas.Google Scholar
  19. Carneiro, R. L. 1964. Logging and the Patron System among the Amahuaca of Eastern Peru, Actasy Mem. XXXV Congr. int. Am. Mexico 1962: 323–327.Google Scholar
  20. Carvalho, J. C. M. 1952. Notas de Viagem ao Rio Negro. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  21. Cieza de Leon, P. 1864 [1553]. The Travels of Pedro de Cieza de Leon, A. D. 1532–1550 The Hakluyt Soc. London.Google Scholar
  22. Denevan, W. M. 1962. Informe Preliminar sobre la Geografia de los Llanos de Mojos, Nordeste de Bolivia. Bol. Soc. Geogr. Hist. Sucre. 47: 91–113.Google Scholar
  23. Denevan, W. M. 1963. Additional Comments on the Earthworks of Mojos in Northeastern Bolivia. Amer. Antiq. 28: 540–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Denevan, W. M. 1966. The Aboriginal Cultural Geography of the Llanos de Mojos of Bolivia.Ibero-Am. 48. U. C. Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  25. Derby, O. A. 1879. The Artificial Mounds of the Island of Marajo, Brazil.Amer. Natur. 13: 224–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DES/ESI (Dep. Esg. Sanit./Eng. Sci., Ine.). 1964. A Master Plan of Waste Disposal for Rio de Janeiro, State of Guanabara, Brazil. SURSAN, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  27. Deshler, W. 1967. Letter to the Editors. Sei. Amer. 217: 8.Google Scholar
  28. Dobrizhoffer, M. 1822 [1784]. An Account of the Abipones, an Equestrian People of Paraguay. John Murray. London.Google Scholar
  29. Dobyns, H. F. 1966. Estimating Aboriginal American Population. Curr. Anthropol. 7: 395–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Drewes, W. U. & A. T. 1957. Climate and Related Phenomena of the Eastern Andean Slopes of Central Peru. Syracuse Univ. Res. Inst.Google Scholar
  31. Dunn, F. L. 1965. On the Antiquity of Malaria in the Western Hemisphere.Hum. Biol. 37:385–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Elizalde Mc-C., R. 1958. La Sobrevivencia de Chile. Depart. Conserv. y Admin. Ree. Agr. y For. Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  33. Espy, J. P. 1841. The Philosophy of Storms. Charles C. Little & James Brown. Boston.Google Scholar
  34. FAO(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1965. Informe de la Sección de Plantaciones del Comité Latino Americano de Investigaciones Forestales, Bol. For. y Ind. For. Am. Lat. 45. Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  35. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 1966. Noticias Nacionales. Bol. For. y Ind. For. Am. Lat. 52: 17–36. Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  36. Flohn, H. 1961. Man’s Activity as a Factor in Climatic Change. Ann. N.T. Acad. Sei. 95: 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frith, A. C., 1966. El Pino Parana (Arauearia angustifolia) en Argentina. Inst. For. Lat. Am. Invest. Capaeit., Bol. 22: 3–17.Google Scholar
  38. Geijkes, D. C., P. Leentvaar, J. van der Heide & J. van Donselaar. 1965. Biological Brokopondo Research Project, Surinam. Progress Reports. Found. Sei. Res. Surinam & Netherlands Antilles. Utrecht.Google Scholar
  39. Haddad, R. 1963. A Poluigao Atmosférica em Sao Paulo Metropolitano. Bol. CICPAA. Num. esp. Sao Paulo.Google Scholar
  40. Heide, J. van der. 1966. Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  41. Heinsdjik, D., R. O. Scares & H. Haufe. 1962. The Future of BraziHan Pine Forests. Proc. 5th World Forest Congr. 1960. 1: 669–673.Google Scholar
  42. Heltne, P. G. 1967. Animals from the Amazon Basin. Science 157: 134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Herath, K. A. 1967. Eucalyptus in Peru. J Amer. Forests 73: 20–22.Google Scholar
  44. Hess, M. L. 1964. Despejos Industriais na Area de Sao Paulo. Sem. Proc. Biol. Tratam. Äguas Resid. Control. Poluigao Äguas. Sao Paulo.Google Scholar
  45. Holanda, S. B. 1957. Caminhos e Fronteiras. Livr. José Olympio Edit. Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  46. Hurt, W. R. 1964. Recent Radiocarbon Dates for Central and Southern Brazil.Amer. Antiq. 30: 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Knoch, K. 1926. Die starke atmosphärische Trübung im Jahre 1926 in Venezuela. Meteorol. 43: 421.Google Scholar
  48. Knoche, W. 1937. Der Einfluss von Vegetationsbränden auf die Witterung. Meteorol. Z. 54: 243–254.Google Scholar
  49. Koenig, R. P. 1967. Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  50. Kroeber, A. L. 1939. Cultural and Natural Areas of Native North America. U. C. Publ. Am. Archaeol. & Ethnol. 38. Berkeley.Google Scholar
  51. Lathrap, D. W. 1966. The ‘Hunting’ Economies of the Tropical Zone of South America: An Attempt at Historical Perspective. Unpubl. Univ. Illinois.Google Scholar
  52. Lowden, M. S. 1963. Unpublish. report by Director, Division of Fire Control, Forest Service, U.S. Dept. Agr. to U.S. Consul. Curitiba, Parana.Google Scholar
  53. Lowden, M. S. 1965. Fire Crisis in Brazil. Amer. Forests 71: 42–44 & 46.Google Scholar
  54. Lowden, M. S., & M. K. Pierce. 1962. Forest Fire Control in Argentina. Typed Report to AID, Washington.Google Scholar
  55. Maack, R., 1953. Devastagao das Matas do Parana e sua Solu9ao. Rev. Cons. Nac. Econ. 13: 22–32.Google Scholar
  56. Mann, G. [1965]. Recursos Animales—Sudamerica Andina. UNESCO/CAST ALA 2.1.2., 8.1. Paris.Google Scholar
  57. Maybury-Lewis, D. 1965. The Savage and the Innocent. Evans Bros. Limited. London.Google Scholar
  58. Meggers, B. 1960. Environment and Culture in the Amazon Basin. Pan Am. Union. Washington.Google Scholar
  59. Mecor (Min. Extr. Coord. Org. Reg.). 1967. Administragao General Mario de Barros Cavalcanti. SUDAM.Google Scholar
  60. Meiches, J. 1964. Contribuição para o Estudo das Limitagoes Impostas pela Qualidade das Äguas Naturais para o seu Aproveitamento. Univ. S. Paulo.Google Scholar
  61. Mitchell Jr., J. M. 1965. Theoretical Paleoclimatology in H. E. Wright & D. G. Frey (eds.). The Quaternary of the United States. Princeton. 881–901.Google Scholar
  62. Motulsky, A. G. 1964. Hereditary Red Cell Traits and Malaria. Suppl. to Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 13: 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Murra, J. V. 1965. Herds and Herders in the Inca State in A. Leeds & A. P. Vayda (eds.). Man, Culture and Animals, AAAS. Washington, D.C. 185–215.Google Scholar
  64. Nordenskiöld, E. 1917. Die Anpassung der Indianer an die Verhältnisse in den Überschwemmungsgebieten in Südamerika. Tmer. 36: 138–155.Google Scholar
  65. O.E.A. (Organización de los Estados Americanos). 1966. Simposio sobre Salinidad. La Molina.Google Scholar
  66. Otero, J. R. 1961. Informações sobre algumas Plantas Forrageiras. Serv. Inform. Agr. Min. Agr., Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  67. Panero, R. B. 1967. On the Use of Low Dams as a Possible Stimulant to South American Development. Hudson Institute. New York.Google Scholar
  68. Parsons, J. J. & W. Bowen. 1966. Ancient Ridged Fields of the San Jorge River Floodplain, Colombia. Geogr. R. 56: 317–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Parsons, J. J. & W. M. Denevan. 1967. Pre-Columbian Ridged Fields. Sei. Amer. 217: 93–100.Google Scholar
  70. Pires, J. M. 1964. Sobre o Conceito ‘Zona dos Cocais’ de Sampaio. Anais XII Congr. Soc. Bot. Bras. 1962. Recife. 271–275.Google Scholar
  71. Plafker, G. 1963. Observations on Archaeological Remains in Northeastern Bolivia. Amer. Antiq. 28: 372–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Prego, A. J. 1962. La Erosion Eólica en la Republica Argentina. Inst. Nac. Tec. Agropecuar. Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  73. Ratisbonna, L. R. 1966. Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  74. Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. & A. 1961. The People of Aritama. U. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  75. Rosell, R. a. 1967. Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  76. Roseveare, G. M. 1948. The Grasslands of Latin America. Imp. Bur. Past. & Field Crops. Bull. 36.Google Scholar
  77. Rouse, I. & J. M. Cruxent. 1963. Some Recent Radiocarbon Dates for Western Venezuela.Amer. Antiq. 28: 537–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rubin, M. & S. M. Berthold. 1961. U.S. Geological Survey Radiocarbon Dates VI. Radiocarbon 3: 86–98. New Haven.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ruschi, a. 1961. Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  80. Saint-Hilaire, A. 1824. Histoire des Plantes les plus Remarquables du Brésil et du Paraguay. A. Berlin, Impr. Libr. Paris.Google Scholar
  81. Sampaio, T. 1928. O Tupi na Geographia Nacional. Secçáo Graphica. Esc. Aprend. Art. Bahia. 3rd. ed.Google Scholar
  82. Sauer, C. O. 1958. Man in the Ecology of Tropical America. Proc. 9th Pacific Sei. Bangkok 1957. 20: 104–110.Google Scholar
  83. Schultes, R. E. 1956. The Amazon Indian and Evolution in Hevea and Related Genera. J. Arnold Arboretum 37: 123–152.Google Scholar
  84. Schwerdtfeger, W. 1955. Betrachtungen über eine Klima-Änderung in Argentinien. Meteorol. Rdsch. 8: 1–4.Google Scholar
  85. Schwerdtfeger, W. 1967. Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  86. Schwerdtfeger, W. & C.J. Vasino. 1954. La Variación Secular de las Precipitaciones en el Este y Centro de la Republica Argentina. Meteoros 4: 174–193.Google Scholar
  87. Sick, H. 1963. Hybridization in Certain Brazilian Fringillidae (Sporophila and Oryzo- borus), Proc. 13th Int. Ornithol Congr. 161–170.Google Scholar
  88. Sioli, H. 1955. Eine Masernepidemie bei den Mundurucu-Indianern. Acta trop. 12: 38–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith, T. L. 1963. The Growth of Population in Central and South America in Study of Population and Immigration Problems, Western Hemisphere H. Committee on the Judic., Subcomm. 1, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. 151–176.Google Scholar
  90. Soares, L. O. 1964. Florecimento de ‘Red Water’ em Consêquencia da Poluição. Paper presented to IX Congr. Assoc. Interam. Eng. Sanit. Bogota, Colombia. SURSAN. Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  91. Sternberg, H.OR. 1951. Floods and Landslides in the Paraiba Valley, December 1948—Influence of Destructive Exploitation of the Land. C. R. Congr. int. Geogr, Lisbon 1949. 3: 335–364.Google Scholar
  92. SURSAN (Superintendencia de Urbanizagao e Saneamento), 1966. Os Aguaceiros e as Encostas da Guanabara. Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  93. Uribe, H. A. 1966. Conservación de Suelos en Plantaciones de Café sin Sombra. Cenicafé 17: 17–29. Colombia.Google Scholar
  94. Vasconcelos, A. & P. T. Alvim. 1967. Programa de Replantación de Cacaotales Viejos en Bahia. Cacao 12: 6–11. Turrialba, Costa Rica.Google Scholar
  95. Watson, C. E. 1964. Comercio y Tendencias del Mercado en los Productos de la Region de la Selva Peruana. Publ. Progr. Inv. Des. 1. Universidad Agraria. Lima.Google Scholar
  96. Weickman, H. (ed.). 1960. Physics of Precipitation. Proc. Cloud Phys. Conf. Woods Hole, Mass. Geophysical Union. Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  97. Whyte, R. O., T. R. G. Moir & J. P. Cooper. 1959. Grasses in Agriculture. FAO Agric. Studies. Rome.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk N.V., Publishers, The Hague 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilgard O’Reilly Sternberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations