Ethacridine (Rivanol®)—catheter technique in second trimester abortion

  • C. A. Ingemanson
Part of the Advances in Reproductive Health Care book series (ARHE, volume 3)


At present the mortality and morbidity is higher in mid-trimester than in first trimester abortion, and even if the mid-trimester abortions are few in many countries, there is a need to find safe and effective methods to interrupt a midtrimester pregnancy. Since the early 1960s the most frequently used method for second trimester abortion in Sweden has been the intra- or extra-amniotic instillation of 20% saline. A report by Bengtsson in 1967 of three deaths and a number of serious complications in 6161 saline abortions prompted investigation of other and safer methods. The saline method has gradually been abandoned, and is mainly used in the few pregnancies which are interrupted after the 20th week of gestation as the saline method causes fetal death which is not achieved with prostaglandins or ethacridine—catheter in most cases. Prostaglandins, or the ethacridine—catheter method, are nowadays the most commonly used ways to interrupt a mid-trimester pregnancy in Sweden.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bengtsson, L. P. (1967). Legal abortion by intrauterine injections. Läkartidningen, 64, 5037Google Scholar
  2. Fylling, P. and Refsdal, A. (1973). Rivanol induced midtrimester abortion. Arch. Gynaecol., 215, 359Google Scholar
  3. Gustavii, B. (1977). Rivanol induced alterations of cultured cells. Contraception, 1, 89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Himmelman, A., Myhrman, P. and Svanberg, S. G. (1975). Induction of second trimester abortion. Comparison between Rivanol and prostaglandin F2-alfa regarding time factors and complications. Contraception, 12, 645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ingemanson, C. A. (1973). Legal abortion by extra-amniotic instillation of Rivanol in combination with rubber catheter insertion into the uterus after the twelth week of pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 115, 211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ingemanson, C. A. (1979). The ethacridine-catheter method in second-trimester abortion. In Zatuchni, G. I., Sciarra, J. J. and Speidel, J. J. (eds) Pregnancy Termination, Procedures, Safety and New Developments, p. 277. (Hagerstown: Harper & Row)Google Scholar
  7. Kashiwara, N. and Fujibayashi, Y. (1949). Interruption of pregnancy by extraovular instillation of a solution. Sanfu, Shinpo, 1, 24Google Scholar
  8. Manabe, Y., Manabe, A. and Sagawa, N. (1982). Stretch-induced cervical softening and initiation of labor at term. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand., 61, 279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ölund, A. R. (1979). The effect of indomethacin on the instillation—abortion interval in Rivanol induced midtrimester abortion. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand., 58, 121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ölund, A. R. (1981). Extra-amniotic instillation of Rivanol in the management of patients with missed abortion and fetal death. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand., 60, 313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ölund, A. R. and Bistoletti, P. (1980). Koagulations und fibrinolysesystem bei Rivanol induzierten schwangershaftsabbruch. Zbl. Gynäkol., 102, 507Google Scholar
  12. Ölund, A. R. and Larsson, B. (1978). Comparison of extraamniotic instillation of Rivanol and PGF2-alfa either separately or in combination followed by oxytocin for second trimester abortion. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand., 57, 333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ölund, A. R., Kindahl, H., Oliw, E., Lindgren, J. A. and Larsson, B. (1980). Prostaglandins and thromboxanes in amniotic fluid during Rivanol-induced abortion and labour. Prostaglandins, 19(15), 791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pytel, A. Y., Lopatkin, N. A. and Kuchinsky, I. N. (1963). Acute renal insufficiency associated with intrauterine retromembranous administration of Rivanol for the interruption of pregnancy and its treatment with hemodialysis. Akush. Ginek. (MoSk)., 39, 5Google Scholar
  15. Sepeika, N. (1934). The action of acriflavine on the uterus. Pharm. Pharmacol., 7, 44Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MTP Press Limited 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Ingemanson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations