Environmental and internal control of seasonal growth in seaweeds

  • Klaus Lüning
Conference paper
Part of the Developments in Hydrobiology book series (DIHY, volume 85)


Elaborate control systems activate and inactivate growth meristems of certain seaweeds so that their seasonal phases of growth and rest are exactly synchronized to the environmental annual course. Recent tank experiments with kelp species demonstrate the existence of endogenous, circannual clocks which are synchronized to the period of the natural year by the annual course of daylength.

Key words

Laminariales growth rhythm circannual seasonal 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, D. M. & B. A. Keafer, 1987. An endogenous annual clock in the toxic marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax tamarensis.Nature 325: 616-617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aschoff, J. (ed.), 1981. Handbook of behavioral neurobiology. Vol. 4. Biological rhythms. Plenum, New York, 563 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Aschoff, J. & H. Pohl, 1978. Phase relations between a circadian rhythm and its Zeitgeber within the range of entrainment.Naturwiss. 6: 80-84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Black, W. A. P., 1950. The seasonal variation in weight and chemical composition of the common British Laminariaceae.J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 29: 45-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borchert, R., 1973. Simulation of rhythmic tree growth under constant conditions. Physiol. Plant. 29: 173-180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bornkamm, R., 1966. Ein Jahresrhythmus des Wachstums bei Lemna minor L. Planta (Berl.) 69: 178-186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buggeln, R. G., 1978. Physiological investigations on Alaria esculenta (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). IV. Inorganic and organic nitrogen in the blade. J. Phycol. 14: 156-160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bünning, E., 1949. Zur Physiologie der endogenen Jahres-rhythmik in Pflanzen, speziell in Samen. Z. Naturforsch. B4: 167-176.Google Scholar
  9. Bünning, E., 1973. The physiological clock. Third edition. Springer, Berlin, 258 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Chapman, A. R. O. & E. M. Burrows, 1970. Experimental investigations into the controlling effects of light conditions on the development and growth of Desmarestia aculeata (L.) Lamour. Phycologia 9: 103-108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chapman, A. R. O. & E. M. Burrows, 1971. Field and culture studies of Desmarestia aculeata (L.) Lamour. Phycologia 10: 63-76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chapman, A. R. O. & J. S, 1977. Seasonal growth in Laminaria longicruris: relations with dissolved inorganic nutrients and internal reserves of nitrogen. Mar. Biol 40: 197-205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapman, A. R. O. & J. E. Lindley, 1980. Seasonal growth of Laminaria solidungula in the Canadian high Arctic in relation to irradiance and dissolved nutrient concentrations: a year-round study. Mar. Biol. 57: 1x2013;5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conolly, N. J. & E. A. Drew, 1985a. Physiology of Laminaria.III. Effect of a coastal eutrophication gradient on seasonal patterns of growth and tissue composition in L. digitata Lamour. and L. saccharina (L.) Lamour. P. S. Z. N. I. Mar. Ecol. 6: 181-195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Conolly, N. J. & E. A. Drew, 1985b. Physiology of Laminaria.IV. Nutrient supply and daylength, major factors affecting growth of L. digitata and L. saccharina. P. S. Z. N. I. Mar. Ecol. 6: 299-320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Costas, E. & V. Lopez-Rodas, 1991. Evidence for an annual rhythm in cell ageing in Spirogyra insignis (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 30: 597-599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costas, E . & M. Varela, 1988. Evidence of an endogenous circannual rhythm in growth rates in dinoflagellates. Chronobiologia 15: 223-226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Costas, E. & M. Varela, 1989. Circannual rhythm in cyst formation and growth rates in the dinoflagellate Scripsiella trochoidea Stein. Chronobiologia 16: 265-270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Davison, I. R., 1987. Adaptation of photosynthesis in Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta) to changes in growth temperature.J. Phycol. 23: 273-283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davison, I. R. & J. O. Davison, 1987. The effect of growth temperature on enzyme activities in the brown alga Laminaria saccharina. Br. phycol. J. 22: 11-87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Wreede, R. E., 1984. Growth and age class distribution of Pterygophora califomica (Phaeophyta). Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 19: 93-100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Wreede, R. E., 1986. Demographic characteristics of Pterygophora californica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta). Phycologia 25: 11-17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dring, M. J., 1984. Photoperiodism and phycology. Prog. Phycol. res. 3: 159-192.Google Scholar
  24. Druehl, L. D., E. L. Cabot. & K. E. Lloyd, 1987. Seasonal growth of Laminaria groenlandica as a function of plant age. Can. J. Bot. 65: 1599-1604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunton, K. H., 1985. Growth of dark-exposed Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. and Laminaria solidungula J. Ag. (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. Biol. Ecol. 94: 181-189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farner, D. S., 1985. Annual rhythms. Ann. Revue Physiol. 47: 65-82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gwinner, E., 1981. Circannuale Rhythmen bei Tieren und ihre photoperiodische Synchronisation. Naturwissenschaften 68: 542-551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gwinner, E., 1986. Circannual rhythms. Endogenous annual clocks in the organization of seasonal processes. Springer, Berlin, 154 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gwinner, E., 1989. Photoperiod as a modifying and limiting factor in the expression of avian circannual rhythms. J. biol. Rhythms 4: 237-250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gwinner, E. & J. Dittami, 1990. Endogenous reproductive rhythms in a tropical bird. Science 249: 906-908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gwinner, E., G. Gänshirt & L. Dittami, 1989. Starling circannual systems: are they arrested in long photoperiods? J. comp. Physiol. A 165: 35-39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gwinner, E. & J. Wozniak, 1982. Circannual rhythms in European starlings: why do they stop under long photoperiods? J. comp. Physiol. 146: 419-421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harder, R., 1915. Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Gaswechsels der Meeresalgen. Jb. wiss. Bot. 56: 254-198.Google Scholar
  34. Hatcher, B. G., A. R. O. Chapman & K. H. Mann, 1977. An annual carbon budget for the kelp Laminaria longicruris. Mar. Biol. 44: 85-96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haug, A. & A. Jensen, 1954. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of Alaria esculenta, Laminaria saccharina, Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria digitata from northern Norway. Norsk Institutt for Tang og Tareforskning, Rep. No. 4: 1–14.Google Scholar
  36. Henry, E. C., 1987. The life history of Phyllariopsis brevipes (= Phyllaria reniformis) (Phyllariaceae, Laminariales, Phaeo-phyceae),a kelp with dioecious but sexually monomorphic gametophytes. Phycologia 27: 234-240.Google Scholar
  37. Hymanson, Z. P., D. C. Reed, M. S. Foster & J. W. Carter, 1990. The validity of using morphological characteristics as predictors of age in the kelp Pterygophora californica (Laminariales,Phaeophyta). Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 59: 295-304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnston, C. S., R. G. Jones & R. D. Bunt, 1977. A seasonal carbon budget for a laminarian population in a Scottish sea-loch. Helgoländer Meeresunters. 30: 527-545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kain, J. M., 1963. Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea.II. Age, weight and length. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 43: 129-151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kain, J. M., 1979. A view of the genus Laminaria. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. ann. Rev. 17: 101-161.Google Scholar
  41. Kain, J. M., 1984. Seasonal growth of two subtidal species of Rhodophyta off the Isle of Man. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 82: 207220.Google Scholar
  42. Kain, J. M., 1987. Photoperiod and temperature as triggers in the seasonality of Delesseria sanguinea. Helgoländer Meeresunters.41: 355-370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kain, J. M., 1989. The seasons in the subtidal. Br. phycol. J. 24: 203-215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kain, J. M. & T. A. Norton, 1990. Marine ecology. In K. M. Cole & R. G. Sheath (eds), Biology of the red algae. University Press, Cambridge: 377-422.Google Scholar
  45. Kanwisher, J. W., 1966. Photosynthesis and respiration in some seaweeds. In H. Barnes (ed.), Some Contemporary Studies im Marine Science. H. Barnes (ed.). Allen and Unwin, London: 407-420.Google Scholar
  46. Kniep, H., 1914. Über die Assimilation und Atmung der Meeresalgen. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. Hydrogr. 7: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lüning, K., 1969. Growth of amputated and dark-exposed individuals of the brown alga Laminaria hyperborea. Mar. Biol. 2: 218-223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lüning, K., 1971. Seasonal growth of Laminaria hyperborea under recorded underwater light conditions near Helgoland.In D. J. Crisp (ed.), Fourth European Marine Biology Symposium. University Press, Cambridge: 347-361.Google Scholar
  49. Lüning, K., 1979. Growth strategies of three Laminaria species (Phaeophyceae) inhabiting different depth zones in the sublittoral region of Helgoland (North Sea). Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 1: 195-207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lüning, K., 1986. New frond formation in Laminaria hyperborea (Phaeophyta): a photoperiodic response. Br. phycol. J. 21: 269-273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lüning, K., 1988. Photoperiodic control of sorus formation in the brown alga Laminaria saccharina. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 45: 137-144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lüning, K., 1990. Seaweeds. Their environment, biogeography and ecophysiology. Wiley, New York, 527 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Lüning, K., 1991. Circannual growth rhythm in a brown alga, Pterygophora californica. Bot. Acta 104: 157-162.Google Scholar
  54. Lüning, K. & P. Kadel, 1993. Daylength range for circannual rhythmicity in Pterygophora californica (Alariaceae, Phaeophyta)and synchronization of seasonal growth by day-length cycles in several other brown algae. Phycologia 32 (in press).Google Scholar
  55. Lüning, K. & I. tom Dieck, 1989. Environmental triggers in algal seasonality. Bot. mar. 32: 389-397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nakahara, H., 1984. Alternations of generations of some brown algae in unialgal and axenic cultures. Sci. Pap. Inst. Algol. Res. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. 7: 75-194.Google Scholar
  57. Ott, J. A., 1979. Persistence of a seasonal growth rhythm in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile under constant conditions of temperature and illumination. Mar. Biol. Lett. 1: 99-104.Google Scholar
  58. Parke, M., 1948. Studies on the British Laminariaceae. I. Growth in Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 27: 651-709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pérez, R., 1969. Croissance de Laminaria digitata (L. ) Lamouroux etudiée sur trois années consécutives. Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp. 6: 329-344.Google Scholar
  60. Petrov, J. E., 1972. De systemate specierum nonnullarum Laminariae Lamour. ex oriente extremo. Novit. System. Plant. Non Vasc. 9: 47-48.Google Scholar
  61. Sanbonsuga, Y., & Y. Hasegawa, 1969. Studies on Laminariales in culture. II. Effects of culture conditions on the zoo sporangium formation in Costaria costata (TURN). SAUNDERS. Bull. Hokkaido reg. Fish. Res. Lab. 35: 198-202.Google Scholar
  62. Schaffelke, B., 1992. Circannuale Rhythmik der Brauntange Laminaria hyperborea und L. digitata bezüglich Wachstums-aktivität und jahreszeitlichem Gehalt an Abseisinsäure, Laminaran sowie Mannit. Dissertation, Universität Hamburg,109 pp.Google Scholar
  63. Spruyt, E., L. Maes, J.-P. Verbelen, E. Moereels & J. A. De Greef, 1983. Circannual course of photomorphogenetic reacitivity in etiolated bean seedlings. Photochem. Photo-biol.37: 471-473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Spruyt, E., J.-P. Verbelen & J. A. De Greef, 1987. Expression of circaseptan and circannual rhythmicity in the imbibition of bean seeds. Plant Physiol. 84: 707-710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Spruyt, E., J.-P. Verbelen & J. A. De Greef, 1988. Ultradian and circannual rhythmicity in germination of Phaseolus seeds. J. Plant Physiol. 132: 234-238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sweeney, B. M., 1969. Rhythmic phenomena in plants. Academic Press, London, 147 pp.Google Scholar
  67. Thomson, A. L., 1950. Factors determining the breeding seasons of birds: an introductory review. Ibis 92: 173-184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. tom Dieck (Bartsch), I., 1991: Circannual growth rhythm and photoperiodic sorus induction in the kelp Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta). J. Phycol. 27: 341-350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wiencke, C., 1990a. Seasonaliy of brown macroalgae from Antarctica — a long-term culture study under fluctuating Antarctic daylengths. Polar Biol. 10: 589-600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wiencke, C., 1990b. Seasonality of red and green macroalgae from Antarctica — a long-term culture study under fluctuating Antarctic daylengths. Polar Biol. 10: 601-607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Lüning
    • 1
  1. 1.Biologische Anstalt HelgolandHamburg 52Germany

Personalised recommendations