Advertisement

Plant Viruses

  • Donald Grierson
  • Simon N. Covey
Chapter
Part of the Tertiary Level Biology book series (TLB)

Abstract

Viruses are pathogenic agents, and some of the diseases they cause have significant social and economic consequences for man. A knowledge of the mechanisms of virus multiplication at the molecular level can provide information about the disease syndrome and, perhaps, suggest the means for its control. Viruses are also useful tools for probing the molecular processes of cells. They have added greatly to our understanding of gene organization, expression and function in organisms of many taxonomic groups. Viruses are genetic elements that subvert normal cellular processes to ensure their replication and maturation as transmissible entities. Virus propagation is specified by its own genome (either DNA or RNA), but always requires the energy-generating and protein-synthesizing machinery of host cells. The virus genome is usually protected during its extracellular phase by encapsidation in a protein or lipoprotein coat.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlquist, P., Dasgupta, R. and Kaesberg, P. (1984) Nucleotide sequence of the brome mosaic virus genome and its implications for viral replication. J. Mol. Biol. 172, 369–383.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Covey, S.N. (1985) Organization and expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus genome. In Molecular Plant Virology, Vol. II, ed. J.W. Davies, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 121–160.Google Scholar
  3. Deom, C.M., Oliver, M. J. and Beachy. R.N. (1987) The 30 kilodalton gene product of tobacco mosaic virus potentiates virus movement. Science 237, 389–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Donson, J., Morris-Krsinich, B.A.M., Mullineaux, P.M., Boulton, M.I. and Davies, J.W. (1984) A putative primer for second strand DNA synthesis of maize streak virus is virion associated. EMBO J. 3, 3069–3097.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Forster, A.C. and Symons, R.H. (1987) Self-cleavage of virusoid RNA is performed by the proposed 55-nucleotide active site. Cell 50, 9–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Godet, P., Lomonossoff, G.P., Butler, P.J.G., Akam, M.E., Gait, M.G. and Karan, J. (1982) Nucleotide sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5818–5822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldbach, R. and van Kamman, A. (1985) Structure, replication, and expression of the bipartite genome of cowpea mosaic virus. In Molecular Plant Virology, Vol. II, ed. J.W. Davies, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 83–120.Google Scholar
  8. Goldbach, R. (1987) Genome similarities between plant and animal RNA viruses. Microbiol. Sci. 4, 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Grimsley, N., Hohn, T., Davies, J.W. and Hohn, B. (1987) Agrobacterium mediated delivery of infectious maize streak virus into maize plants. Nature (London) 272, 375–377.Google Scholar
  10. Hall, T.C., Marsh, L. and Dreher, T.W. (1987) Analysis of brome mosaic virus replication and aminoacylation functions by site-specific mutagenesis. J. Cell. Sci. (Suppl. 7 ), 287–302.Google Scholar
  11. Hohn, T., Hohn, B. and Pfeiffer, P. (1985) Reverse transcription in CaMV. Trends Biochem. Sci. 10, 205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hull, R. and Covey, (1983) Replication of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA. Science Prog., Oxfd. 68, 403–422.Google Scholar
  13. Hull, R., Covey, S.N. and Maule, A.J. (1987) Structure and replication of caulimovirus genomes. J. Cell. Sci. (Suppl. 7 ), 213–229.Google Scholar
  14. Hull, R., Sadler, J. and Longstaff, M. (1986) Sequence of carnation etched rign virus DNA: comparison with cauliflower mosaic virus and retroviruses. EMBO J. 5, 3083–3090.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ishikawa, M., Meshi, T., Motoyoshi, f., Takamatsu, N. and Okada, Y. (1986) In vitro mutagenesis of the putative replicase genes of tobacco mosaic virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 8291–8305.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Kozak, M. (1983) Comparison of initiation of protein synthesis in prokaryotes, eukaryotes and organelles. Microbiol. Rev. 47, 1–45.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Lazarowitz, S.G. (1987) The molecular characterization of geminiviruses. Plant. Mol. Biol. Reporter 4, 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lomonossoff, G.P. and Shanks, M. (1983) The nucleotide sequence of cowpea mosaic virus B RNA. EMBO J. 2, 2253–2258.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marsh, L.E., Dreher, T.W. and Hall, T.C. (1988) Mutational analysis of the core and modulator sequences of the BMV RNA 3 subgenomic promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 981–995.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Matthews, R.E.F. (1982) Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Intervirology 17, nos. 1–3.Google Scholar
  21. Richins, R.D., Scholthof, H.B. and Shepherd, R.J. (1987) Sequence of figwort mosaic virus DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 8457–8466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Robertson, H.D., Howell, S.H., Zaitlin, M. and Malmberg, R.L. (1983) (eds.) Plant Infectious Agents: Viruses, Viroids, Virusoids and Satellites. Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Sänger, H.L. (1982) Biology, structure, function and possible origin of viroids. In Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol. 14B, eds. B. Parthier and D. Boulier, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 368–454.Google Scholar
  23. Stanley, J. and Gay, M.R. (1983) Nucleotide sequence of cassava latent virus DNA. Nature (London) 301, 260–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stanley, J. and Townsend, R. (1986) Infectious mutants of cassava latent virus generated in vivo from intact recombinant DNA clones containing single copies of the genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5981–5998.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Turner, D.R. and Butler, P.J.G. (1986) Essential features of the assembly origin of tobacco mosaic_virus RNA as studied by directed mutagenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 9229–9242.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Van Wezenbeek, P., Verver, J., Harmsen, J., Vos, P. and Van Kammen, A. (1983) Primary structure and gene organization of the middle component of cowpea mosaic virus. EMBO J. 2, 941–946.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Watanabe, Y., Morita, N., Nishiguchi, M. and Okada, Y. (1987) Attenuated strains of tobacco mosaic virus. Reduced synthesis of a viral protein with a cell-to-cell movement function. J. Mol. Biol. 194, 699–704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Wilson, T.M.A. (1985) Nucleocapsid disassembly and early gene expression by positive-strand RNA viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 66, 1201–1207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Virus Replication and Genome Interactions, eds. J.W. Davies, R. Hull, K.F. Chater, T.H.N. Ellis, G.P. Lomonossoff, and H.W. Woolhouse, J. Cell Sci., Suppl. 7 (1987).Google Scholar
  30. Plant Resistance to Viruses, eds. D. Evered and S. Harnett, John Wiley, Chichester (1987).Google Scholar
  31. Plant DNA Infectious Agents, eds. Th. Hohn and J. Schell, Springer Verlag, Wien, New York (1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald Grierson
    • 1
  • Simon N. Covey
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Environmental ScienceUniversity of NottinghamUK
  2. 2.John Innes Institute, AFRC Institute of Plant Science ResearchNorwichUK

Personalised recommendations