The Organization of Complex Systems

  • Herbert A. Simon
Part of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science book series (BSPS, volume 54)


The Nobel Laureate Hideki Yukawa earned his prize by observing that the neutron and the proton required a strong, localized force field to hold them together in the atomic nucleus, and that this field should have the properties of a particle — the particle we now know as the pi-meson or pion. The organizers of this series of lectures, having described it as “an experiment in communication between physicists and biologists”, evidently concluded that those two kinds of particles — physicists and biologists — also required a binding force to hold them in stable communication. Borrowing Yukawa’s idea, they invited me — a behavioral scientist by training — to serve as the pion for the series.


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  1. Ando, A., Fisher, F. M., and Simon, H. A. Essays on the Structure of Social Science Models (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1963). (See also Chapter 4.2 in this volume.)Google Scholar
  2. Ramsey, Diane M., ed., Molecular Coding Problems, (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1967) pp. 120–121.Google Scholar
  3. Simon, H. A., The Sciences of the Artificial, (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1969).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herbert A. Simon
    • 1
  1. 1.Carnegie-Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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