Advertisement

Horizon-Glow and the Motion of Lunar Dust

  • David R. Criswell
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 37)

Abstract

Surveyor-7 photographed a bright glow along the western lunar horizon one hour after local sunset. This horizon-glow (HG) must result from the forward scattering of sunlight by electrically charged dust grains [a (grain radius) = 5 × 10−4 cm] which are electrostatically levitated 3 to 30 cm above rocks or surface irregularities located in the lunar terminator zone. The levitation condition is E(V cm−1) ≥ 270 × [a(µ)]1/2.Column densities the order of 50 grains cm−2 are produced. The electrostatic field is generated in the following manner. High energy (500–1500 eV) photoelectrons are ejected from directly illuminated surfaces in the terminator zone. A positive monopole charge is produced which forces the return of subsequently ejected photoelectrons to the vicinity of the illuminated surface. Computer modeling indicates that 1% to 5% of the returned flux will accrete on adjacent completely dark areas. A stable, multipole charge distribution is generated between the light and dark areas. The associated intense multipole electric field (E ≳ 103 V cm−1) can levitate micron size soil grains located in the charged regions. Approximately 10−2 gr cm−2 yr−1 of surface material are ‘churned’ by this process. The photoelectron work function of the lunar material, flux level of solar X-rays (λ ~ 25 Å), and the attenuation of solar ultraviolet photons by multiple scattering (as controlled by local surface geometry and reflectivity) are the physically significant factors.

Keywords

Solar Wind Solar Disk Lunar Surface Bistatic Radar Lunar Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, L. Harold: 1968, Surveyor Project Final Report Part 2. Science Resulte, JPL Tech. Rep. 32–1265, p. 459.Google Scholar
  2. Criswell, David R.: 1972, Proc. 3 Lunar Sci. Conf., Suppl. 3, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 3, 2671.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Drake, Jerry F., Sr., Gibson, O. S. B. Jean, and VanAllen, J. A.: 1969, Solar Phys. 10, 433.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Feuerbacher, B., Anderegg, M., Fitton, B., Laude, L. D., Willis, R. F., and Grard, R. J. L.: 1972, Revised Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 3 Lunar Sci. Conf,,p. 254.Google Scholar
  5. Gault, D. E., Adams, J. B.,Collins, R. J., Kuiper, G. P., O’Keefe, J. A., Phinney, R. A., and Shoemaker, E. M.: 1968a, Surveyor Project Final Report Part 2. Science Resulte, JPL Tech. Rep. 32–1265, p. 401.Google Scholar
  6. Gault, D. E., Adams, J. B.,Collins, R. J., Kuiper, G. P., O’Keefe, J. A., Phinney, R. A., and Shoemaker, E. M.: 1968b, E. Surveyor 7 Mission Report, Part 2. Science Results, JPL Tech. Rep. 32–1264, p. 308.Google Scholar
  7. Gold, T.: 1955, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 115, 585.ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Gold, T.: 1973, this volume, p. 517.Google Scholar
  9. Heffner, H.: 1965, N66–16171, Minn. Univ. Report of August 1965, ‘TYCHO’ meeting.Google Scholar
  10. Lebedinsky, A. I., Krasnopolsky, V. A., and Aganina, M. V.: 1968, in A. Dollfus (ed.), Moon and Planets II, North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, p. 47.Google Scholar
  11. Norton, R. H., Gunn, J. E., Livinston, W. C., Newkirk, G. A. and Zirin, H.: 1966, Surveyor 1 Mission Report, Part 2: Scientific Data and Results,JPL Tech. Rep. 32–1023, p. 87.Google Scholar
  12. Norton, R. H., Gunn, J. E., Livingston, W. C., Newkirk, G. A., and Zirin, H.: 1967, Surveyor V Mission Report, Part 2: Sceince Results,JPL Tech. Rep. 32–1246, p. 115.Google Scholar
  13. Olhoeft, G. R., Frisillo, A. L., and Strangway, D. W.: 1972, The Apollo 15 Lunar Samples,Lunar Science Institute, p. 575.Google Scholar
  14. Parkhomenko, E. I.: 1967, Electrical Properties of Rocks,Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Rennilson, J. J.: 1968, Surveyor Project Final Report, Results,JPL Tech. Rep. 32–1265, p. 119.Google Scholar
  16. Remilson, J. J. and Criswell, D. R.: 1973, ‘Surveyor Observations of Lunar Horizon-Glow’, submitted to The Moon.Google Scholar
  17. Shoemaker, E. M., Batson, R. M., Holt, H. E., Morris, E. C., Remmilson, J. J., and Whitaker, E. A.: 1968, Surveyor 7 Mission Report, Part 2: Science Results, JPL Tech. Rep. 32–1264, p. 66.Google Scholar
  18. Shoemaker, E. M., Hait, M. H., Swann, G. A., Schleicher, D. L., Schaber, G. G., Sutton, R. L., Pahlem, D. H., Goddard, E. N., and Waters, A. C.: 1970, Proc. ofApolloll Lunar Sci. Conf. 3. 2399.ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Shorthill, Richard W.: 1973, The Moon 7, 22.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Singer, S. F. and Walker, E. H.: 1962, Icarus 1, 112.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Teske, Richard G.: 1970, NASA Report N70–41817.Google Scholar
  22. Vaiana, G. S., Reidy, W. P., Zehnpfennig, T., Van Speybroeck, L., and Giaconi, R.: 1968, Science 161, 564.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Van de Hulst, H. C.: 1957, Light Scattering by Small Particles,John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  24. Walker, E. H.: 1962, J. Geophys, Res.67(6), 2586.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wende, Charles D.: 1972, Solar Phys. 22, 492.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Criswell
    • 1
  1. 1.Lunar Science InstituteHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations