Photonic Crystal Fibers: Effective-Index and Band-Gap Guidance
Conventional telecommunication optical waveguide glass fiber is the backbone of the internet revolution. This highly optimized and highly transparent waveguide consists of a higher refractive index core glass inside a lower index clad glass. Light is localized in the core by total internal reflection (TIR) at the core/clad boundary. The transmission distance between amplifiers of today’s fibers, about 80–120 km, is limited in part by the small but nonzero absorption and scattering of the fiber. Longer transmission lengths could be possible by increasing the power at each amplifier, but this is limited by optical nonlinearity of the glass in the fiber.
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