In 1897 Rose Bradford ligated dogs’ ureters and studied the resultant changes. Hinman (1926) further studied the problem in dogs by performing 4 experiments. First, he unilaterally ligated a normal ureter for 2 weeks and then released the ligature and performed a contralateral nephrectomy. The ligated system, by hypertrophy compensation, recovered normal bodily function within 1 month. Secondly, he repeated the experiment but did not remove the ligature for 3 weeks. The ligated system was now able to recover only 50% of its normal function. Thirdly, he repeated the experiment but did not remove the ligature for 4 weeks. The ligated system was now unable to recover from this period of obstruction and the dogs died. Finally, he repeated the first experiment but delayed the contralateral nephrectomy for 3 months. While the contralateral kidney was in situ the now unobstructed system failed to undergo compensatory hypertrophy but when the contralateral kidney was removed such hypertrophy resulted in a size increase similar to that observed in the first group.
KeywordsRetroperitoneal Fibrosis Ureteric Calculus Urinary Tract Obstruction Main Renal Artery Intravenous Pyelogram
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