Storage and Release of Major Ionic Contaminants from the Snowpack in the Turkey Lakes Watershed
The chemistry of the snowpack and snowmelt was investigated at the Turkey Lakes Watershed during the spring melt period in 1985. Ions in the snowmelt were 2 to 10 times more concentrated than those in the pre-melt snowpack and approximately 50% of the H+, SO4 and NO3 were lost from the snowpack with the first 30% of the melt. Rainfall flowed directly through the snow cover even during the early stages of the melt. Four rain events, which accounted for only 18% of the flowthrough collected, were responsible for about 50% of the H+ and SO4 and 37% of the NO3 ions exported from the snowpack. Sulphate to nitrate equivalent ratios in the pre-melt snowpack were generally about 0.6 but an enrichment of SO4 relative to NO3 in atmospheric deposition during the spring (SO4:NO3 > 1) resulted in snowmelt with an increasing SO4 content relative to NO3.
KeywordsSnow Cover Atmospheric Deposition Rain Event Equivalent Ratio Bulk Deposition
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