Observational and Experimental Methods for the Estimation of Natality, Mortality and Dispersal

  • T. R. E. Southwood

Abstract

Values for the ‘pathways’ through which population size changes may also be obtained by the subtraction or integration of census figures in a budget: methods of calculation and of analysis of budgets are discussed in the next chapter, but there is no hard and fast distinction between the contents of the two chapters. As is indicated below, in the appropriate sections, the terms ‘natality’ and ‘dispersal’ are used in their widest sense.

Keywords

Home Range Natural Enemy Prey Density Carabid Beetle Emergence Trap 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ABDEL RAHMAN, I., 1974. The effect of extreme temperatures on Californian red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and its natural enemies. Aust. J. Zool. 22, 203–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ADAMSTONE, F. B. AND HARKNESS, W. J. K., 1923. The bottom organisms of Lake Nipigon. Univ. Toronto Stud. Biol. 22, 121–70.Google Scholar
  3. AGASSIZ, D., 1977. A trap for wingless female moths. Proc. Brit. ent. nat. hist. Soc. 10, 69–70.Google Scholar
  4. AIKMAN, D. AND HEWITT, G., 1972. An experimental investigation of the rate and form of dispersal in grasshoppers. appl. Ecol. 9, 807–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ALEXANDER, R. D., 1961. Aggressiveness, territoriality and sexual behaviour in field crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Behaviour 17, 130–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ANDERSON, N. H. AND WOLD, J. I., 1972. Emergence trap collections of Trichoptera from an Oregon stream. Can. Ent. 104, 189–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. ASHBY, J. W., 1974. A study of arthropod prédation of Pieris fapae L. using serological and exclusion techniques. J. appl. Ecol. 11, 419–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. BALDWIN, W. F., HAMES, H. G. AND WELCH, H. E., 1955. A study of predators of mosquito larvae and pupae with a radio-active tracer. Can. Ent. 87, 350–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. BATES, J. K., 1962. Field studies on the behaviour of bird fleas. 1. Behaviour of the adults of three species of bird flea in the field. Parasitology 52, 113–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BEAN, J. L., 1958. The use of larvaevorid maggot drop in measuring trends in sprucebudworm populations. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 51, 400–3.Google Scholar
  11. BEDDINGTON, J. R., 1975. Mutual interference between parasites or predators and its effect on searching efficiency. J. Anim. Ecol. 44, 331–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. BEDDINGTON, J. R., HASSELL, M P. AND LAWTON, J. H., 1976. The components of arthropod predation II. The predator rate of increase. J. Anim. Ecol. 45, 165–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. BESS, H. A., 1961. Population ecology of the gipsy moth, Porthetria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae). Bull. Conn, agric. Exp. Sta. 646, 43 pp.Google Scholar
  14. BETTS, M M., 1954. Experiments with an artificial nestling. Brit. Birds 47, 229–31.Google Scholar
  15. BETTS, M M., 1955. The food of titmice in oak woodlands. J. Anim. Ecol. 24, 282–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. BETTS, M M., 1958. Further experiments with an artificial nestling gape. Brit. Birds 49, 213–5.Google Scholar
  17. BLAIS, J. R., 1953. The effects of the destruction of the current year’s foliage of balsam fir on the fecundity and habits of flight of the spruce budworm. Can. Ent. 85, 446–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. BOETHEL, D. J., MORRISON, R. D. AND EIKENBARY, R. D., 1976. Pecan weevil Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). 2. Estimation of adult populations. Can. Ent. 108, 19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. BOORMAN, J., MELLOR, P. S., BOREHAM, P. F. L. AND HEWETT, R. S., 1977. A latex agglutination test for the identification of blood-meals of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Bull. ent. Res. 67, 305–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. BOREHAM, P. F. L., 1975. Some applications of bloodmeal identifications in relation to the epidemiology of vector-borne tropical disease. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 78, 83–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. BOREHAM, P. F. L. AND GILL, G. S., 1973. Serological identification of reptile feeds of Glossina. Acta trop. 30, 356–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. BORROR, D. J., 1934. Ecological studies of Agria moesta Hogen (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) by means of marking, Ohio J. Sci. 34, 97–108.Google Scholar
  23. BORUTSKY, E. V., 1955. [A new trap for the quantitative estimation of emerging chironomids.] [In Russian.] Trudy vses. gidrohiol. Obshch. 6, 223–6.Google Scholar
  24. BRAVERMAN, Y., 1970. An improved emergence trap for Culicoides. J. econ. Ent. 63, 1674–5.Google Scholar
  25. BREYMEYER, A. AND PIECZYNSKI, E., 1963. Review of methods used in the Institute of Ecology, Polish Academy of Sciences, for investigating migration. [In Polish.] Ekol. Polska B 9, 129–4.Google Scholar
  26. BROOKE, M. M. AND PROSKE, H. O, 1946. Precipitin test for determining natural insectpredators of immature mosquitoes. J. nat. Malaria Soc. 5, 45–56.Google Scholar
  27. BROWN, J. L. AND ORIANS, G. H, 1970. Spacing patterns in mobile animals. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1, 239–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. BRUNDIN, L., 1949. Chironomiden und andere Bodentiere der Svidschwedischen Urgebirgsseen. Rep. Inst. Freshw. Res. Drottringholm 20, 915 pp.Google Scholar
  29. BRYANT, D. M, 1973. The factors influencing the selection of food by the House Martin(Delichon urbica (L.)). J. Anim. Ecol. 42, 539–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. BUCKNER, C. H., 1958. Mammalian predators of the larch sawfly in eastern Manitoba. Proc. X int. Congr. Ent. 4, 353–61.Google Scholar
  31. BUCKNER, C H., 1959. The assessment of larch sawfly cocoon predation by smallmammals. Can. Ent. 91, 275–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. BUCKNER, C. H., 1966. The role of vertebrate predators in the biological control of forestinsects. Ann. Rev. Ent. 11, 449–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. CAMPBELL, J A. AND PELHAM-CLINTON, E. C., 1960. A taxonomic review of the British species of’Culicoides’ Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Proc. R. Soc. Edin. B 67 (3), 181–302.Google Scholar
  34. CARLSON, D., 1971. A method for sampling larval and emerging insects using an aquatic black light trap. Can. Ent. 103, 1365–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. CARTER, C. L., 1972. Winter temperature and survival of the green spruce aphid Elatobium abietinum. Forestry Commission. Forest Record no. 84, 10 pp.Google Scholar
  36. CHAPMAN, J. A., ROMER, J. I. AND STARK, J., 1955. Ladybird beetles and army cut-wormadults as food for grizzly bears in Montana. Ecology 36, 156–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. CHAUVIN, R, 1966. Un Procédé pour recolter automatiquement les proies que lesFormica polyctena rapportent au rid. Ins. Soc. 13, 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. CLARK, D. P., 1962. An analysis of dispersal and movement in Phaulacridium vittatum(Sjôst.) (Acrididae). Aust. J. Zool. 10, 382–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. CLARK, E. W AND OSGOOD, E. A., 1964. An emergence container for recovering southernpine beetles from infested bolts. J. econ. Ent. 57, 783–4.Google Scholar
  40. CLARK, L P., 1963. The influence of population density on the number of eggs laid byfemales of Cardiaspina albitextura (Psyllidae). Aust. J. Zool. 11, 190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. CLARKE, R. D. AND GRANT, P. R., 1968. An experimental study of the role of spiders aspredators in a forest litter community. Part 1. Ecology 49, (6), 1152–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. COAKER, T. H., 1965. Further experiments on the effect of beetle predators on the numbers of the cabbage root fly, Erioischia brassicae (Bouché), attacking brassica crops. Ann. appl. Biol. 56, 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. COCK, M. J. W., 1978. The assessment of preference. J. Anim. Ecol. (in press).Google Scholar
  44. COLLESS, D. H. AND CHELLAPAH, W. T., 1960. Effects of body weight and size of blood-meal upon egg production in Aëdes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Culicidae). Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 54, 475–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. COOK, L. M. AND KETTLE WELL, H. B. D., 1960. Radioactive labelling of lepidopterous larvae: a method of estimating late larval and pupal mortality in the wild. Nature 187, 301–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. COOK, P. P. AND HORN, H. S., 1968. A sturdy trap for sampling emergent Odonata. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 61 (6), 1506–7.Google Scholar
  47. CORBET, P. S., 1966. Diel periodicities of emergence and oviposition in riverineTrichoptera. Can. Ent. 98, 1025–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. CROSSLEY, D. A., 1963. Consumption of vegetation by insects. In Schultz, V. & Klement, A. W. (eds.), Radioecology, 431–40. Rheinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  49. CRUMPACKER, D. W. AND WILLIAMS, J. S., 1973. Density, dispersion and populationstructure in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Ecol. Monogr. 43 (4), 499–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. CULLIS, N. A. AND HARGROVE, J. W., 1972. An automatic device for the study of tetheredflight in insects. Bull. ent. Res. 61, 533–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. CUSTER, T. W. AND PITELKA, F. A., 1974. Correction factors for digestion rates for preytaken by snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis). Condor 77, 210–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. DARBY, R. E, 1962. Midges associated with California rice fields, with special referenceto their ecology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Hilgardia 32, 1–206.Google Scholar
  53. DAVIDSON, A., 1956. A method of counting Ephemeropteran eggs. Ent. mon. Mag. 92, 109.Google Scholar
  54. DAVIES, J. B., 1966. An evaluation of the emergence or box trap for estimating sandfly(Culicoides spp. Heleidae) populations. Mosquito News 26, 170–2.Google Scholar
  55. DAVIES, R. W., 1969. The production of antisera for detecting specific triclad antigens in the gut contents of predators. Oikos 20, 248–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. DEAN, G. T., 1973. Aphid colonization of spring cereals. Ann. appl. Biol. 75, 183–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. DEBACH, P., 1946. An insecticidal check method for measuring the efficacy ofentomophagous parasites. J. econ. Ent. 39, 695–7.Google Scholar
  58. DEBACH, P., 1949. Population studies of the long-tailed mealy bug and its naturalenemies on citrus trees in Southern California, 1946. Ecology 30, 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. DEBACH, P., 1955. Validity of the insecticidal check method as a measure of the effectiveness of natural enemies of Diaspine scale insects. J. econ. Ent. 48, 584–8.Google Scholar
  60. DEBACH, P., AND HUFFAKER, C. B., 1971. Experimental techniques for evaluation of theeffectiveness of natural enemies, in Huffaker, C. B. (ed.) Biological Control 113–40. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  61. DEMPSTER, J. P., 1957. The population dynamics of the Moroccan locust (Dociostaurusmaroccanus Thunberg) in Cyprus. Anti-Locust Bull. 27, 1–60.Google Scholar
  62. DEMPSTER, J. P., 1960. A quantitative study of the predators on the eggs and larvae of the broom beetle, Phytodecta olivacea Forster, using the precipitin test. J. Anim. Ecol. 29, 149–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. DEMPSTER, J. P., 1964. The feeding habits of the Miridae (Heteroptera) living on broom(Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Wimm.). Entomologia. exp. appl. 7, 149–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. DEMPSTER, J. P., RICHARDS, O. W AND WALOFF, N., 1959. Carabidae as predators on the pupal stage of the Chrysomelid beetle, Phytodecta olivacea (Forster). Oikos 10, 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. DINGLE, H., 1966. Some factors affecting flight activity in individual milkweed bugs. (Oncopeltus). J. exp. Biol. 44, 335–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. DINGLE, H. AND ARORA, G., 1973. Experimental studies of migration in bugs of the genusDysdercus. Oecologia 12, 119–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. DINTHER, J. B. M. VAN, 1953. Details about some flytraps and their application tobiological research. Ent. Ber. 14, 201–4.Google Scholar
  68. DINTHER, J. B. M. VAN AND MENSINK, F. T, 1971. Use of radioactive phosphorus in studying egg predation by carabids in cauliflower fields. Meded. Fak. Landb. We tense happen, Gent. 36, 283–93.Google Scholar
  69. DOANE, J. F., 1963. Dispersion on the soil surface of marked adult Ctenicera destructor and Hypolithus bicolor (Coleoptera: Elateridae), with notes on fight. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 56, 340–5.Google Scholar
  70. DOBSON, R. M., STEPHENSON, J. W AND LOFTY, J R, 1958. A quantitative study of a population of wheat bulb fly, Leptohylemyia coarctata (Fall.), in the field. Bull, ent. Res 49, 95–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. DOBZHANSKY, T. AND WRIGHT, S, 1943. Genetics of natural populations: X. Dispersionrates in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics 28, 304–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. DOBZHANSKY, T. AND WRIGHT, S., 1947. Genetics of natural populations. XV. Rate of diffusion of a mutant gene through a population of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics 32, 303–24.Google Scholar
  73. DOWDEN, P. B., JAYNES, H. A. AND CAROLIN, V. M, 1953. The role of birds in a sprucebudworm outbreak in Maine. J. econ. Ent. 46, 307–12.Google Scholar
  74. EGUAGIE, W. E., 1974. Cold hardiness of Tingis ampliata (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Entomologia exp. appl. 17, 204–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. EICKWORT, K. R., 1977. Population dynamics of a relatively rare species of milkweedbeetle, (Labidomera). Ecology 58, 527–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. ELLIOTT, J. M., 1970. Diel changes in invertebrate drift and the food of trout (Salmotrutta L.) J. Fish. Biol. 2, 161–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. ELLIOTT, J. M., 1973. The food of Brown and Rainbow Trout (Salmo trutta and S. gairdneri) in relation to the abundance of drifting invertebrates in a Mountain Stream. Oecologia 12, 329–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. ELTON, C., 1932. Territory among wood ants (Formica rufa L.) at Picket Hill. J. Anim. Ecol. 1, 69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. EMDEN, H. F. VAN, 1962. A preliminary study of insect numbers in field and hedgerow. Ent. mon. Mag. 98, 255–9.Google Scholar
  80. EMDEN, H. F. VAN, 1963. A field technique for comparing the intensity of mortality factors acting on the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L) (Hem., Aphididae) in different areas of a crop. Entomologia exp. appl. 6, 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. ENTWISTLE, P. F., 1977. The development of an epizootic of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus disease in European spruce sawfly, Gilpinia hercyaniae. Proc. int. Colloq. Invert. Path., Kingston, Canada, 1976.Google Scholar
  82. ERRINGTON, P., 1932. Technique of raptor food habits study. Condor 34, 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. EVANS, H. E. AND YOSHIMOTO, C. M., 1962. The ecology and nesting behaviour of the Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) of the Northeastern United States. Misc. Pub. ent. Soc. Am. 3(3), 65–119.Google Scholar
  84. EVANS, H. F., 1976. The role of predator-prey size ratio in determining the efficiency of capture by Anthrocoris nemorum and the escape reactions of its prey, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Ecol. Ent. 1, 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. EVENHUIS, H. H., 1962. Methods to investigate the population dynamics of aphids andaphid parasites in orchards. Entomophaga 7, 213–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. FEWKES, D. W., 1964. The fecundity and fertility of the Trinidad sugar-cane froghopper, Aeneolamia varia saccharina (Homoptera, Cercopidae). Trop. Agriculture, Trin. 41, 165–8.Google Scholar
  87. FINNEGAN, R. J., 1969. Assessing predation by ants on insects. Insectes Sociaux 16, 61–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. FLESCHNER, C. A., 1950. Studies on searching capacity of the larvae of three predators ofthe citrus red mite. Hilgardia 20 (13), 233–65.Google Scholar
  89. FLETCHER, B. S., 1974. The ecology of a natural population of the Queensland Fruit Fly, Dacus tryoni V. The dispersal of adults. Aust. J. Zool. 22, 189–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. FLETCHER, B. S. AND ECONOMOPOULOS, A. P., 1976. Dispersal of normal and irradiated laboratory strains and wild strains of the olive fly Dacus oleae in an olive grove. Entomologia. exp. appl. 20, 183–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. FRANK, J. H., 1967. The insect predators of the pupal stage of the winter moth, Operophtera boumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Hydriomenidae). J. Anim. Ecol. 36, 375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. FRANK, P. W., 1964. On home range of limpets. Am. Nat. 98, 99–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. FREDEEN, F. J. H., SPINKS, J. W. T., ANDERSON, J. R., ARNASON, A. P. AND REMPEL, J. G., 1953. Mass tagging of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) with radio-phosphorus. Can. J. Zool. 31, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. FREEMAN, G. H., 1977. A model relating numbers of dispersing insects to distance andtime. J. appl. Ecol. 14, 477–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. FRIEDMAN, M., 1940. A comparison of alternative tests of significance for the problemof m rankings. Ann. math. Stat. 11, 86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. FUSEINI, B. A. AND KUMAR, R., 1975. Ecology of cotton stainers (Heteroptera: Pyr-rhocoridae) in southern Ghana. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 7, 113–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. GARY, N. E., 1960. A trap to quantitatively recover dead and abnormal honey bees fromthe hive. J. econ. Ent. 53, 782–5.Google Scholar
  98. GIBB, J. A., 1958. Predation by tits and squirrels on the Eucosmid Ernarmonia conicolana(Heyl.). J. Anim. Ecol. 27, 375–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. GILMOUR, D., WATERHOUSE, D. F. AND MCINTYRE, G. A., 1946. An account of experiments undertaken to determine the natural population density of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina Wied. Bull, Coun. sci. indust. Res. Aust. 195, 1–39.Google Scholar
  100. GLEN, D. M., 1975. Searching behaviour and prey-density requirements of Blephandopterus angulatus (Fall.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) as a predator of the Lime Aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae (L.) and Leafhopper, Alnetoidea alneti (Dahlbom). J. Anim. Ecol. 44, 116–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. GLEN, D. M., 1976. An emergence trap for barkdwelling insects, its efficiency and effectson temperature. Ecol. Ent. 1, 91–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. GOODHART, C. B., 1958. Thrush predation on the snail Cepaea hortensis. J. Anim. Ecol. 27, 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. GRAHAM, S. A., 1928. The influence of small mammals and other factors upon larchsawfly survival. J. econ. Ent. 21, 301–10.Google Scholar
  104. GRANDILEWSKAJA-DECKSBACH, M. L., 1935. Materialien zur Chironomidenbiologieverschiedener Becken. Zur Frage iiber die Schwankungen der Anzahl und der Biomasse der Chironomidenlarven. Trudy limnol. Sta. Kosine 19, 145–82.Google Scholar
  105. GREEN, G. W., 1962. Low winter temperatures and the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) in Ontario. Cân. Eni. 94, 314–36.Google Scholar
  106. GREEN, G. W., AND POINTING, P. J., 1962. Flight and dispersal of the european pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) II. Natural dispersal of egg-laden females. Can. Ent. 94, 299–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. GREENBERG, B. AND BORNSTEIN, A. A, 1964. Fly dispersion from a rural mexicanslaughter house. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 13 (6), 881–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. GREENSLADE, P. J. M., 1964. The distribution, dispersal and size of a population of Nebria brevicollis (F.) with comparative studies on three other carabidae. J. Anim. Ecol. 33, 311–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. GREENSTONE, M. H., 1977. A passive haemagglutination inhibition assay for the identification of stomach contents of invertebrate predators. J. appl. Ecol. 14, 457–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. GREGOR, F., 1960. Zur Eiproduktion des Eichenwicklers (Tortrix viridana L.). Zool. Listy. 9, 11–18.Google Scholar
  111. GREGORY, P. H., AND READ, D. R., 1949. The spatial distribution of insect-borne plantvirus diseases Ann. appl. Biol. 36, 475–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. GRUBER, F. AND PRIETO, C. A., 1976. A collecting chamber suitable for recovery of insectsfrom large quantities of host plant material. Environ. Ent. 5, 343–4.Google Scholar
  113. GUENNELON, G. AND AUDEMARD, M. H., 1963. Enseignements écologiques donnés par la méthode de captures par cuisses-éclosion de la cécidomyie des lavandes (Thomasmiana lavandulae Barnes). Critique de la méthode. Conclusions pratiques. Ann. Epiphyt. C 14, 35–48.Google Scholar
  114. HAFEZ, M., 1961. Seasonal fluctuations of population density of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) in the Netherlands, and the role of its parasite, Aphidius (Diaeretiella) rapae (Curtis). Tijdschr. PIZiekt. 67, 445–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. HALL, R. R., DOWNE, A. E. R., MACLELLAN, C R. AND WEST, A S, 1953. Evaluation of insect predator-prey relationships by precipitin test studies. Mosquito News 13, 199–204.Google Scholar
  116. HARD, J. S., 1976. Estimation of Hemlock sawfly (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) fecundity. Can. Ent. 108, 961–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. HARTLEY, P. H. T., 1948. The assessment of the food of birds. Ibis 90, 361–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. HASSELL, M. P., 1916a. Arthropod predator-prey systems. In May, R. M. (ed.) Theoretical Ecology, Principles and Applications, pp. 71–93.Google Scholar
  119. HASSELL, M. P., 1916b. The Dynamics of Competition and Prédation. Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  120. HASSELL, M. P., 1978. The dynamics of arthropod predator-prey relationships. PrincetonMonograph on Population Biology 13, 245pp., Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  121. HASSELL, M. P., LAWTON, J. H. AND BEDDINGTON, J. R., 1976. The components ofarthropod prédation. I. The prey death rate. J. Anim. Ecol. 45, 135–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. HASSELL, M. P. AND MAY, R M, 1974. Aggregation of predators and insect parasites andits effect on stability. J. Anim. Ecol. 43, 567–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. HASSELL, M. P., AND VARLEY G. C, 1969. A new inductive population model for insectparasites and its bearing on biological control. Nature 223, 1133–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. HAWKES, C., 1972. The estimation of the dispersal rate of the adult cabbage root fly (Erioischia brassicae (Bouché) in the presence of a brassica crop. J. appl. Ecol. 9, 617–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. HAWKES, R. B., 1972. A fluorescent dye technique for marking insect eggs in prédationstudies. J. econ. Ent. 65, 1477–8.Google Scholar
  126. HEALEY, J. A. AND CROSS, T F, 1975. Immunoelectroosmophoresis for serologicalidentification of predators of the sheep-tick Ixodes rieinus. Oikos 26, 97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. HEN SON, W. R., 1959. Some effects of secondary dispersive processes on distribution. Am. Nat. 93, 315–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. HESPENHEIDE, H. A., 1975. Prey characteristics and predator niche width. In Cody, M. L. & Diamond, J. M. (eds). Ecology and Evolution of Communities 158–80.Google Scholar
  129. HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. HOLLING, C. S., 1958. A radiographic technique to identify healthy, parasitised anddiseased sawfly prepupae within cocoons. Can. Ent. 90, 59–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. HOLLING, C. S., 1959a. The components of predation as revealed by a study of smallmammal predation of the european pine sawfly. Can. Ent. 91, 293–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. HOLLING, C. S., 1959b. Some characteristics of simple types of predation and parasitism. Can. Ent. 91, 385–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. HOLLING, C. S., 1961. Principles of insect predation. Ann. Rev. Ent. 6, 163–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. HOLLING, C. S., 1965. The functional response of predators to prey density and its role inmimicry and population regulation. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. No. 45, 60pp.Google Scholar
  134. HOLLING, C. S., 1966. The functional response of invertebrate predators to prey density. Mem. ent. Soc. Can., No. 48, 86pp.Google Scholar
  135. HUDSON, L AND HAY, S. C., 1976. Practical Immunology, 298 pp., Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  136. HUFFAKER, C. B. AND SPITZER, C. H., 1950. Some factors affecting red mite populationson pears in California. J. econ. Ent. 43, 819–31.Google Scholar
  137. IDE, F. P., 1940. Quantitative determination of the insect fauna of rapid water. Univ. Toronto Stud. Biol. Ser. 47 (Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 59), 20 pp.Google Scholar
  138. ILLIES, J., 1971. Emergenz 1969 im Breitenbach. Arch. Hydrobiol. 69, 14–59.Google Scholar
  139. INOUE, T., KAMIMMURA, K. AND WATANABE, M., 1973. A quantitative analysis of dispersal in a horse-fly Tabanus iyoensis Shiraki and its application to estimate the population size. Res. Popul. Ecol. 14, 209–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. ITO, Y., YAMANAKA, H., NAKASUJI, F. AND KIRITANI, K., 1972. Determination of predatorprey relationship with an activable tracer, Europium-151. Kontyu 40, 278–83.Google Scholar
  141. IVES, W. G. H. AND PRENTICE, R. M., 1959. Estimation of parasitism of larch sawfly cocoons by Bessa harveyi Tnsd. in survey collections. Can. Ent. 91, 496–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. IVES, W. G. H., TURNOCK, W. J., BUCKNER, J. H., HERON, R. J. AND MULDREW, J. A., 1968. Larch sawfly population dynamics: techniques. Manitoba Entomologist 2, 5–36.Google Scholar
  143. IWAO, S., 1956. On the number of eggs per egg-mass of the paddy rice borer, Schoenobius incertellus Walker and the percentage of their parasitization. [In Japanese.] Gensei (Kochi Konchu Dokokai) 5, 45–9.Google Scholar
  144. IWAO, S., 1963. On a method for estimating the rate of population interchange betweentwo areas. Res. Popul. Ecol. 5, 44–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. JACOBS, J., 1974. ‘Quantitative measurement of food selection: a modification of theforage ratio and Ivlev’s selectivity index. Oecologia 14, 413–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. JAMES, H. G., 1961. Some predators of Aedes stimulans (Walk) and Aedes trichurus(Dyar) (Diptera: Culicidae) in woodland pools. Can. J. Zool. 39, 533–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. JAMES, H G, 1966. Location of univoltine Aedes eggs in woodland pool areas andexperimental exposure to predators. Can. Ent. 98, 550–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. JENKINS, D. W., 1963. Use of radionuclides in ecological studies of insects. In Schultz, V. AND Klement, A. W. (eds.), Radioecology 431–40. Rheinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  149. JENKINS, D. W AND HASSETT, C. C., 1950. Radioisotopes in entomology. Nucleonics 6 (3), 5–14.Google Scholar
  150. JENNRICH, R. I. AND TURNER, F. B., 1969. Measurement of non-circular home range. J. Theor. Biol. 22, 227–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. JOHNSON, C. G., 1969. Migration and Dispersal of Insects by Flight. 763pp., Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  152. JOLICOEUR, P. AND BRUNEL, D., 1966. Application du diagramme hexagonal a l’étude dela sélection de ses proies par la morue. Vie et Milieu 17, 419–33.Google Scholar
  153. JÔN ASSON, P. M., 1954. An improved funnel trap for capturing emerging aquatic insects, with some preliminary results. Oikos 5, 179–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. JORGENSEN, C. D. AND TANNER, W W., 1963. The application of the density probability function to determine the home ranges of Uta stansburiana stansburiana and Cnemidophorus tigris tigris. Herpetologica 19, 105–15.Google Scholar
  155. JUDGE, W. W., 1957. A study of the population of emerging and littoral insects trapped as adults from tributary waters of the Thames River at London, Ontario. Am. midl. Nat. 58, 394–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. KENDALL, D. G., 1974. Pole seeking, Brownian motion and bird navigation. J. R. Stat. Soc. (B) 3 6, 365–417.Google Scholar
  157. KENNEDY, C. H., 1950. The relation of American dragonfly-eating birds to their prey. Ecol. Monogr. 20, 103–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. KENNEDY, J. S. AND BOOTH, C. O., 1963. Free flight of aphids in the laboratory. J. exp. Biol. 40, 67–85.Google Scholar
  159. KENNEDY, J. S. AND LUDLOW, A. R., 1974. Co-ordination of two kinds of flight activity inan aphid. J. exp. Biol. 61, 173–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. KENSLER, C. B., 1967. Desiccation resistance of intertidal crevice species as a factor intheir zonation. J. Anim. Ecol. 36, 391–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. KIMERLE, R. A. AND ANDERSON, N. H., 1967. Evaluation of aquatic insect emergencetraps. J. Econ. Ent. 60, 1255–9.Google Scholar
  162. KIRITANI, K. AND DEMPSTER, J. P., 1973. Different approaches to the quantitativeevaluation of natural enemies. J. appl. Ecol. 10, 323–30.Google Scholar
  163. KIRITANI, K., KAWAHARA, S., SASABA, T AND NAKASUJI, F, 1972. Quantitative evaluation of prédation by spiders on the green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler, by a sight-count method. Res. Popul. Ecol. 13, 187–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. KRING, J. B., 1966. An aphid flight chamber: construction and operation. J. econ. Ent. 59, 1518–20.Google Scholar
  165. KRUUK, H., 1972. Surplus killing by carnivores. J. Zool. 166, 233–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. LACK, D. AND OWEN, D. F, 1955. The food of the swift. J. Anim. Ecol. 24, 120–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. LANGFORD, T. E. AND DAFFERN, J R, 1975. The emergence of insects from a British riverwarmed by power station cooling-water. Part. I. Hydrobiologia 46, 71–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. LAWSON, F. R., 1959. The natural enemies of the hornworms on tobacco (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 52, 741–55.Google Scholar
  169. LAWTON, J. H., BEDDINGTON, J R AND BONSER, R, 1974. Switching in invertebrate predators. In Usher, M. B. & Williamson, M. H. (ed.) Ecological Stability, pp. 141–158.Google Scholar
  170. LEJEUNE, R. R., FELL, W H. AND BURBIDGE, D P., 1955. The effect of flooding on development and survival of the larch sawfly Pristiphora erichsonii (Tenthredinidae). Ecology 36, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. LINDEBERG, B., 1958. A new trap for collecting emerging insects from small rockpools, with some examples of the results obtained. Suom. hyônt. Aikak. (Ann. ent. fenn. 24 186–91.Google Scholar
  172. LOAN, C. AND HOLDAWAY, F. G., 1961. Microctonus aethiops (Nees) auctt. AND Perilitus rutilus (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). European parasites of Sitona weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Can. Ent. 93, 1057–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. LOUGHTON, B. G., DERRY, C AND WEST, A S 1963. Spiders and the spruce budworm. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 31, 249–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. LOZINSKY, V. A, 1961. On the correlation existing between the weight of pupae and the number and weight of eggs of Lymantria dispar L. [In Russian.] Zool. Zh. 40, 1571–3.Google Scholar
  175. MACAN, T. T., 1949. Survey of a moorland fishpond. J. Anim. Ecol. 18, 160–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. MCAULEY, V. J. E., 1976. Efficiency of a trap for catching and retaining insects emergingfrom standing water. Oikos 27, 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. MCKNIGHT, M. E., 1969. Distribution of hibernating larvae of the Western Budworm, Choristoneura oecidentalis on Douglas Fir in Colarado. J. eeon. Ent. 62, 139–42.Google Scholar
  178. MACLELLAN, C. R., 1962. Mortality of codling moth eggs and young larvae in anintegrated control orchard. Can. Ent. 94, 655–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. MACLEOD, J. AND DONNELLY, J., 1956. Methods for the study of blowfly populations. II. The use of laboratory-bred material. Ann. appl. Biol. 44, 643–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. MACLEOD, J. AND DON NELLY, J., 1963. Dispersal and interspersal of blowfly populations. J. Anim. Ecol. 32, 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. MCMULLEN, L. H. AND ATKINS, M. D., 1959. A portable tent-cage for entomological fieldstudies. Proe. ent. Soc. B. C. 56, 67–8.Google Scholar
  182. MACPHEE, A. W., 1961. Mortality of winter eggs of the european red mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch), at low temperatures, and its ecological significance. Can. J. Zool. 39, 229–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. MACPHEE, A. W., 1964. Cold-hardiness, habitat and winter survival of some orchardArthropods in Nova Scotia. Can. Ent. 96, 617–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. MARTIN, F. J., 1969. Searching success of predators in artificial leaf litter. Am. Midi. Nat. 81, 218–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. MASON, W. H. AND MCGRAW, K. A., 1973. Relationship of 65Zn excretion and eggproduction in Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). Ecology 54, 214–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. MATTHEWS, G. V. T., 1974. On bird navigation with some statistical undertones. J. R. Stat. Soc. (B) 36, 349–64.Google Scholar
  187. MAY, R. M., 1973. Qualitative stability in model ecosystems. Ecology 54, 638–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. MAY, R. M. 1976. Models for two interacting populations. In May, R. M. (ed.) Theoretical Ecology, Principles and Applications pp. 49–70.Google Scholar
  189. MEIJDEN, E. VAN DER., 1973. Experiments on dispersal, late-larval predation, and pupation in the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae L.) with a radioactive label (192% Ir.). Netherlands J. Zool. 23, 430–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. MILES, P. M., 1952. Entomology of Bird Pellets. Amat. Ent. Soc. Leaflet 24, 8 pp.Google Scholar
  191. MILLER, C. A., 1955. A technique for assessing larval mortality caused by parasites. Can. J. Zool. 33, 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. MILLER, C. A., 1957. A technique for estimating the fecundity of natural populations ofthe spruce budworm. Can. J. Zool. 35, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. MILLER, C. A., 1958. The measurement of spruce budworm populations and mortalityduring the first and second larval instars. Can. J. Zool. 36, 409–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. MILLER, R. S. AND THOMAS, J. L., 1958. The effects of larval crowding and body sizeon the longevity of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Ecology 39, 118–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. MOHR, C. O., 1947. Table of equivalent populations of North American small mammals. Am. midl. Nat. 37, 223–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. MOHR, C. O. AND STUMPF, W. A., 1964a. Relation of tick and chigger infestations to homeareas of California meadow mice. J. med. Ent. 1 (1), 73–7.Google Scholar
  197. MOHR, C. O. AND STUMPF, W. A., 19646. Louse and chigger infestations as related to host size and home range of small mammals. Trans. 29th N. Am. Wildl. nat. Res. Confr. 181–95.Google Scholar
  198. MOOK, L. J., Birds and the spruce budworm. Mem. ent. Soc. Canada. 3 1, 268–71.Google Scholar
  199. MOORE, N. W., 1952. On the so-called ‘territories’ of dragonflies (Odonata-Anisoptera). Behaviour 4, 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. MOORE, N. W., 1957. Territory in dragonflies and birds. Bird study 4, 125–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. MORGAN, C. V. G. AND ANDERSON, N. H., 1958. Techniques for biological studies of Tetranychid mites, especially Bryobia arborea M. AND A. AND B. praetiosa Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Can. Ent. 90, 212–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. MORGAN, N. C. AND WADDELL, A. B, 1961. Insect emergence from a small trout loch, and its bearing on the food supply of fish. Sci. Invest. Freshw. Fish. Scot. 25, 1–39.Google Scholar
  203. MORGAN, N. C., WADDELL, A. B. AND HALL, W B., 1963. A comparison of the catches of emerging aquatic insects in floating box and submerged funnel traps. J. Anim. Ecoi. 32, 203–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. MORRIS, R. F., 1949. Differentiation by small mammals between sound and emptycocoons of the European spruce sawfly. Can. Ent. 81, 114–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. MOULDER, B. C. AND REICHLE, D. E., 1972. Significance of spider predation in the energy dynamics of forest-floor arthropod communities. Ecol. Monogr. 42 (4), 473–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. MULLA, M. S., NORLAND, R., IKESHOJI, T AND KRAMER, W. L., 1974. Insect growthregulators for the control of aquatic midges. J. econ. Ent. 67 (2), 165–70.Google Scholar
  207. MUNDIE, J. H. 1956. Emergence traps for aquatic insects. Mitt. int. Verein. theor. angew. Limnol. 7, 1–13.Google Scholar
  208. MURDIE, G., 1969. The biological consequences of decreased size caused by crowding or rearing temperatures in apterae of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 121, 443–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. MURDIE, G. AND HASSELL, M. P., 1973. Food distribution, searching success and predator-prey models. In Hiorns, R. W. (ed.) The Mathematical Theory of the Dynamics of Biological Populations, pp. 87–101, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  210. MURDOCH, W. W., 1969. Switching in general predators: experiments on predatorsspecificity and stability of prey populations. Ecol. Monogr. 39, 335–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. MURDOCH, W. W., 1971. The developmental response of predators to changes in preydensity. Ecology 52, 132–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. MURDOCH, W. W AND MARKS, J P., 1973. Predation by coccinellid beetles: experimentson switching. Ecology 54, 160–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. MURDOCH, W. W AND OATEN, A, 1975. Predation and population stability. Adv. ecol. Res. 9, 1–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. MURTON, R. K., 1971. The significance of a specific search image in the feeding behaviour of the wood pigeon. Behaviour 40, 10–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. MUSTAFA, S., 1976. Selective feeding behaviour of the common carp, Esomus danricus (Ham.) in its natural habitat. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 8, 279–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. NAKASUJI, R., YAMANAKA, H. AND KIRITANI, K, 1973. The disturbing effect of microphantid spiders on the larval aggregation of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Kontyu 41, 220–227.Google Scholar
  217. NEILSON, M. M., 1963. Disease and the spruce budworm. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 31, 272–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. NEILSON, M. M. AND MORRIS, R. F, 1964. The regulation of European spruce sawfly numbers in the Maritime Provinces of Canada from 1937–1963. Can. Ent. 96, 773–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. NELMES, A. J., 1974. Evaluation of the feeding behaviour of Prionchulus punctatus(Corb.) a nematode predator. J. Anim. Ecol. 43, 553–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. NEUENSCHWANDER, P., 1975. Influence of temperature and humidity on the immaturestages of Hemerobius pacificus. Environ. Ent. 4 (2), 215–20.Google Scholar
  221. NEWMAN, G. G. AND CARNER, G R, 1975. Disease incidence in soy bean loopers collectedby two sampling methods. Environ. Ent. 4, 231–2.Google Scholar
  222. NICHOLLS, C. F., 1963. Some entomological equipment. Res. Inst. Can. Dept. Agric. Belleville, Inf. Bull. 2, 85 pp.Google Scholar
  223. NIJVELDT, W., 1959. Overhet gebruik van vangekegels bij het galmugonderzoek. Tijdschr. PlZiekt. 65, 56–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. NORD, J. C. AND LEWIS, W. C. 1970. Two emergence traps for wood-boring insects. J. Ga. ent. Soc. 5, 155–7.Google Scholar
  225. ODUM, E. P. AND KUENZLER, E. J., 1955. Measurement of territory and home range size inbirds. Auk. 72, 128–37.Google Scholar
  226. OHIAGU, C. E. AND BOREHAM, P. F. L., 1978. A simple field test for evaluating insect prey-predator relationships. Entemologia exp. appl. 23, 40–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. OHNESORGE, B., 1957. Untersuchungen über die Populationsdynamik der kleinen Fichtenblattwespe, Pristiphora abietina (Christ) (Hym. Tenthr.). I. Teil. Fertilität und Mortalität. Z. angew. Ent. 40, 443–93.Google Scholar
  228. OTVOS, I. S., 1974. A collecting method for pupae of Lambderia fiscellaria fiscellaria(Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Can. Ent. 106, 329–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. OUCHTERLONY, O., 1948. In vitro method for testing the toxin producing capacity ofdiphtheria bacteria. Acta path, microbiol. Scand. 25, 186–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. PALMEN, E., 1955. Diel periodicity of pupal emergence in natural populations of somechironomids (Diptera). Ann. zool. Soc. Vanamo 17 (3), 1–30.Google Scholar
  231. PALMEN, E., 1962. Studies on the ecology and phenology of the Chironomids (Dipt.) ofthe Northern Baltic. Ann. ent. fenn. 28 (4) 137–68.Google Scholar
  232. PARIS, O. H., 1965. The vagility of P32-labelled Isopods in grassland. Ecology 46, 635–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. PAVLOV, I F., 1961. Ecology of the stem moth Ochsenheimeria vaculella F.-R. (Lepidoptera Tineoidea). [In Russian.] Ent. Obozr. 40, 818–27 (transl. Ent. Rev. 40, 461–6).Google Scholar
  234. PENDLETON, R. C. AND GRUNDMANN, A. W., 1954. Use of P32 in tracing some insect-plantrelationships of the thistle, Cirsium undulatum. Ecology 35, 187–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. PETERSON, A., 1934. A manual of entomological equipment and methods. Pt 1. EdwardsBros. Inc. Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  236. PICKA VANCE, J. R., 1970. A new approach to the immunological analysis of invertebratediets. J. Anim. Ecol. 39, 715–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. PICKAVANCE, J. R., 1971. The diet of the immigrant planarian Dugesia tigrina (Girard). II. Food in the wild and comparison with some British species. J. Anim. Ecol. 40, 637–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. PILON, J. G., TRIPP, H. A., MCLEOD, J. M. AND ILNITZKEY, S. L., 1964. Influence of temperature on prespinning eonymphs of the Swaine jack-pine sawfly, Neodiprion swainei Midd. (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). Can. Ent. 96, 1450–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. POLLES, S. G. AND PAYNE, J. A., 1972. An improved emergence trap for adult Pecanweevils. J. econ. Ent. 65, 1529.Google Scholar
  240. PREBBLE, M. L., 1941. The diapause and related phenomena in Gilpinia polytoma (Hartig). IV. Influence of food and diapause on reproductive capacity. Can. J. Res. D 19, 417–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. PROMPTOW, A. N. AND LUKINA, E. W., 1938. Die Experimente beim biologischen Studium und die Ernährung der Kohlmeise (Parus major L.) in der Brutperiode. [In Polish.] Zool. Zh. 17, 777–82.Google Scholar
  242. RADKE, W. J. AND FRYDENDALL, M. J., 1974. A survey of emetics for use in stomachcontents recovery in the house sparrow. Am. Midi. Nat. 92, 164–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. RAU, P. AND RAU, N., 1916. The biology of the mud-daubing wasps as revealed by thecontents of their nests. J. Anim. Behavior 6, 27–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. REID, R. W., 1963. Biology of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus monticolae Hopkins, in the East Kootenay Region of British Columbia. III. Interaction between the beetle and its host, with emphasis on brood mortality and survival. Can. Ent. 95, 225–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. REIFF, M., 1955. Untersuchungen zum Lebenszyklus der Frostspanner Cheimatobia (Operophthera) brumata L. und Hibernia defoliaria Ch. Mitt. Schweiz, ent. Ges. 26, 129–44.Google Scholar
  246. RICE, R. E. AND REYNOLDS, H. T., 1971. Seasonal emergence and population development of the Pink Bollworm in Southern California. J. econ. Ent. 64, 1429–32.Google Scholar
  247. RICH, E. R., 1956. Egg cannibalism and fecundity in Tribolium. Ecology 37, 109–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. RICHARDS, O. W., 1940. The biology of the small white butterfly (Pieris rapae), with special reference to the factors controlling its abundance. J. Anim. Ecol. 9, 243–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. RICHARDS, O. W. AND HAMM, A H., 1939. The biology of the British Pompilidae(Hymenoptera). Trans. Soc. Brit. Ent. 6, 51–114.Google Scholar
  250. RICHARDS, O. W. AND WALOFF, N., 1954. Studies on the biology and population dynamicsof British grasshoppers. Anti-Locust Bull. 17, 184 pp.Google Scholar
  251. RICHARDS, O. W. AND WALOFF, N, 1961. A study of a natural population of Phytodectaolivacea (Forster) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Phil. Trans. B 244, 205–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. ROGERS, D. J., 1972. Random search and insect population models. J. Anim. Ecol. 41, 369–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. ROGERS, D. J. AND HASSEL, M. P, 1974. General models for insect parasite and predatorsearching behaviour: interference. J. Anim. Ecol. 43, 239–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. ROTHSCHILD, G. H. L., 1966. A study of a natural population of Conomelus anceps (Germar) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) including observations on predation using the precipitin test. J. Anim. Ecol. 35, 413–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. ROTHSCHILD, G. H. L., 1970. Observations on the ecology of the rice ear bug, Leptocoris oratorius (F.) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo). J. appl. Ecol. 7, 147–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. ROTHSCHILD, G. H. L., 1971. The biology and ecology of rice-stem borers in Sarawak(Malaysian Borneo). J. appl. Ecol. 8, 287–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. ROYAM A, T. 1970. Factors governing the hunting behaviour and selection of food by thegreat tit (Parus major L.). J. Anim. Ecol. 39, 619–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. ROY AM A, T, 1971. A comparative study of models for predation and parasitism. Res. Pop. Ecol. Supp. 1 90 pp.Google Scholar
  259. SANDERSON, G. C., 1966. The study of mammal movements-a review. J. Wildl. Manag. 30, 215–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. SANTOS, M. A., 1976. Prey selectivity and switching response of Zetzellia maki. Ecology 57, 390–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. SASABA, T. AND KIRITANI, K, 1972. Evaluation of mortality factors with special reference to parasitism of the Green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cinticeps Uhler (Hemiptera: Deltocephalidae). Appl. Ent. Zool. 7, 83–93.Google Scholar
  262. SCOTTER, D. R., LAMB, K. P. AND HASSAN, E. 1971. An insect dispersal parameter. Ecology 52, 174–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. SERVICE, M. W., 1973. Study of the natural predators of Aedes cantaris (Meigen) usingthe precipitin test. J. med. Ent. 10, 503–10.Google Scholar
  264. SERVICE, M., 1976. Mosquito Ecology: field sampling techniques, Applied Science Publishers, London.Google Scholar
  265. SHAPIRO, A M, 1974. Beak-mark frequency as an index of seasonal predation intensityon common butterflies. Am. Nat. 108, 229–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. SHAW, M. J P., 1970. Effects of population density on alienicolae of Aphis fabae Scop. Ann. appl. Biol. 65, 191–4, 197–203, 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. SKELLAM, J G, 1951. Random dispersal in theoretical population. Biometrika 38, 196–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. SMIRNOFF, W A., 1967. A method for detecting viral infection in populations of Neodiprion swainei by examination of pupae and adults. Can. Ent. 99, 214–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. SMITH, H. S AND DEBACH, P. 1942. The measurement of the effect of entomophagousinsects on population densities of the host. J. econ. Ent. 35, 845–9.Google Scholar
  270. SOLOMON, M. E., 1949. The natural control of animal population J. Anim. Ecol. 18, 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. SOMMERMAN, K. M., SAILER, R. I. AND ESSELBAUGH, C O., 1955. Biology of Alaskan black flies (Simuliidae, Diptera). Ecol. Monogr. 25, 345–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. SOUTHERN, H. N., 1954. Tawny owls and their prey. Ibis 96, 384–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E., 1962. Migration of terrestrial arthropods in relation to habitat. Biol. Rev. 37, 171–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E., 1971. The role and measurement of migration in the populationsystem of an insect pest. Trop. Sci. 13, 275–8.Google Scholar
  275. SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E., JEPSON, W. F. AND EMDEN, H. F. VAN, 1961. Studies on the behaviour of Oscinella frit L. (Diptera) adults of the panicle generation. Entomologia exp. appl. 4, 196–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E. AND SIDDORN, J. W., 1965. The temperature beneath insectemergence traps of various types. Anim. Eeol. 34, 581–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. SPEIR, J. A. AND ANDERSON, N. H., 1974. Use of emergence data for estimating annualproduction of aquatic insects. Limnol. Oeeanogr. 79 (1), 154–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. SPEYER, W, AND WAEDE, M., 1956. Eine Methode zur Vorhersage des Weizengallmückenfluges. Nachr hl. dt. Pfl Sch Dienst. Stuttg. 8, 113–21.Google Scholar
  279. SPILLER, D., 1964. Numbers of eggs laid by Anobium punctatum (Degeer). Bull. ent. Res. 55, 305–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. STEINBUCH, M. AND AUDRAN, R., 1969. The isolation of Ig Cr from mammalian sera withthe aid of caprylic acid. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 134, 279–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. STEINHAUS, E. A., 1963. Background for the diagnosis of insect diseases. In Steinhaus, E. A. (ed.), Insect pathology, an advanced treatise 2, 549–89, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  282. STRAUB, R. W., FAIRCHILD, L. M. AND KEASTER, A. J., 1973. Corn earworm: use of larval traps on corn ears as a method of evaluating corn lines of resistance. J. econ. Ent. 66 (4), 989–90.Google Scholar
  283. STUMPF, W. A. AND MOHR, C. O., 1962. Linearity of home ranges of California mice andother animals. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 26, 149–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. SULLIVAN, C. R. AND GREEN, G. W., 1964. Freezing point determination in immaturestages of insects. Can. Ent. 96, 158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. SUTTON, S. L., 1970. Predation on woodlice: an investigation using the precipitin test. Entomologia exp. Appl. 13, 279–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. SYLVEN, E., 1970 Field movement of radioactively labelled adults of Dasyneurabrassicae Winn. (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae). Ent. Scan. 1, 161–87.Google Scholar
  287. TANADA, Y., 1961. The epizootiology of virus disease in field populations of thearmyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Hamorth). J. Insect Path. 3, 310–23.Google Scholar
  288. TAYLOR, L. R., 1975. Longevity, fecundity and size: control of reproductive potential ina polymorphic migrant, Aphis fabae Scop. Anim. Ecol. 44, 135–63.Google Scholar
  289. TAYLOR, L. R AND TAYLOR, R. A. J., 1976. Aggregation, migration and populationmechanics. Nature 265, 415–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. TAYLOR, L. R. AND TAYLOR, R. A. J., 1978. Dynamics of spatial behaviour. In Populationcontrol by social behaviour, (Inst. Biol. Symp.). 181–212.Google Scholar
  291. TAYLOR, R. A. J. 1978. The relation between density and distance of dispersing insects. Ecol. Ent. 3, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. TERRELL, T. T., 1959. Sampling populations of overwintering spruce budworm in the Northern Rocky Mountain region. Res. note Intermountain Forest Range Exp. Sta., Ogden, Utah 61, 8 pp.Google Scholar
  293. THOMAS, G. M., 1974. Diagnostic techniques. In Cantwell, G. E. (ed.) Insect Diseases 1. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  294. THOMPSON, D. J., 1975. Towards a predator-prey model incorporating age structure, J. Anim. Ecol. 44, 907–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. TINBERGEN, L., 1960. The natural control of insects in pinewoods. 1. Factors influencing the intensity of predation by songbirds. Arch. Neerland. Zool. 13, 266–343.Google Scholar
  296. TOD, M. E., 1973. Notes on beetle predators of molluscs. Entomologist 106, 196–201.Google Scholar
  297. TOTH, R. S. AND CHEW, R. M., 1972. Development and energetics of Notonecta undulataduring prédation on Culex tar salis. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 5, 1270–9.Google Scholar
  298. TURNBULL, A. L., 1960. The prey of the spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck) (Araneae: Linyphiidae). Can. J. Zool. 38, 859–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. TURNBULL, A. L., 1962. Quantitative studies of the food of Linyphia triangularis Clerck(Araneae: Linyphiidae). Can. Ent. 94, 1233–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. TURNOCK, W. J., 1957. A trap for insects emerging from the soil. Can. Ent. 89, 455–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. TURNOCK, W. J. AND IVES, W. G. H., 1962. Evaluation of mortality during cocoon stage ofthe larch sawfly, Pristiphora erichsonii (Htg.). Can. Ent. 94, 897–902.Google Scholar
  302. VALLENTYNE, J. R., 1952. Insect removal of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds fromlakes. Ecology 33, 573–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. VARLEY, G. C. AND GRADWELL, G. R., 1963. The interpretation of insect populationchange. Proc. Ceylon Assn Adv. Sci. (D) (1962), 18, 142–56.Google Scholar
  304. VICKERMAN, G. P. AND SUNDERLAND, K. D., 1975. Arthropods in cereal crops: Nocturnalactivity, vertical distribution and aphid prédation. J. appl. Ecol 12, 755–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. VLIJM, L., VAN DUCK, T. S. AND WIJMANS, S. Y., 1968. Ecological studies on Carabid beetles. III. Winter mortality in adult Calathus melanocephalus (Linn.) egg production and locomotory activity of the population which has hibernated. Oecologia 1, 304–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. WALOFF, N. AND RICHARDS, O. W., 1958. The biology of the Chrysomelid beetle, Phytodecta olivacea (Forster) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 110, 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. WAY, M. J. AND BANKS, C. J., 1964. Natural mortality of eggs of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae (Scop.), on the spindle tree, Euonymus europaeus. Ann. Appl. Biol. 54, 255–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. WEIR, DM., 1973. Handbood of Experimental Immunology 2nd Ed., Blackwells, Oxford.Google Scholar
  309. WEISER, J., 1969. An Atlas of Insect Diseases. 292 pp. Irish Univ. Press, Shannon and Academia, Prague.Google Scholar
  310. WEISER, J. AND BRIGGS, J. D., 1971. Identification of pathogens. In Burges, H. D. & Hussey, N. W. (eds.) Microbial Control of Insects and Mites, pp. 13–66, Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  311. WEITZ, B., 1952. The antigenicity of sera of man and animals in relation to thepreparation of specific precipitating antisera. J. Hyg. Camb. 50, 275–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. WEITZ, B., 1956. Identification of blood-meals of blood-sucking arthropods. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 15, 473–90.Google Scholar
  313. WELLINGTON, W. G., 1964. Qualitative changes in populations in unstable environments. Can. Ent. 96, 436–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. WILBUR, D. A. AND FRITZ, R., 1939. Use of shoebox emergence cages in the collection ofinsects inhabiting grasses. econ. Ent. 32, 571–3.Google Scholar
  315. WINKLE, W. VAN., MARTIN, D. C. AND SEBETICH, M J., 1973. A home-range model foranimals inhabiting an ecotone. Ecology 54, 205–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. WITTIG, G., 1963. Techniques in insect pathology. In Steinhaus, E. A. (ed.), Insect pathology, an advanced treatise 2, 591–636. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  317. WOLFENBARGER, D. O., 1946. Dispersion of small organisms. Am. midl. Nat. 35, 1–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. WRATTEN, S. D., 1976. Searching by Adatea bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and escape behaviour of its aphid and cicadellid prey on lime (Tilia x vulgaris Hayne). Ecol. Ent. 1, 139–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. WRIGHT, D. W., HUGHES, R. D. AND WORRALL, J., 1960. The effect of certain predators on the numbers of cabbage root fly (Erioischia brassicae (Bouché)) and on the subsequent damage caused by the pest. Ann. appl. Biol. 48, 756–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. YOUNG, E. C., 1974. The epizootiology of two pathogens of the coconut palm rhinoceros beetle. J. Invert. Path. 24, 82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© T. R. E. Southwood 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. R. E. Southwood
    • 1
  1. 1.University of OxfordUK

Personalised recommendations