The C-S-R model of primary plant strategies — origins, implications and tests

  • J. Philip Grime

Abstract

In both evolutionary biology and in ecology much effort has been devoted to the search for generalizing principles. One approach has been to seek to develop a universal functional classification of organisms. On first inspection this may seem an impossible task because there are obvious differences between autotrophs, herbivores, carnivores and decomposers, and each of these groups is itself represented by an immense variety of taxa, life-forms and physiologies. However, there is now a considerable amount of evidence suggesting that beneath this diversity there is a common pattern of evolutionary and ecological specialization which is highly relevant to our understanding of the structure and dynamics of communities and ecosystems.

Keywords

Stress Tolerator Mineral Nutrient Herbaceous Vegetation Serpentine Soil Resource Capture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Mufti, M. M., Sydes, C. L., Furness, S. B., Grime, J. P. and Band, S. R. (1977) A quantitative analysis of shoot phenology and dominance in herbaceous vegetation. J. Ecol., 65, 759 - 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, C. J. and Farrar, J. F. (1983) Allocation of photosynthetically-fixed carbon in Festuca ovina L. and Nardus stricta L. New Phytol., 95, 519 - 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. (1985) Life cycle ecology of annual plant species of cedar glades of Southeastern United States. in The Population Structure of Vegetation (ed. J. White ), Junk, Dordrecht, pp. 371 - 98.Google Scholar
  4. Bhat, K. K. and Nye, P. H. (1973) Diffusion of phosphate to plant roots in soil. I. Quantitative autoradiography of the depletion zone. Plant Soil, 38, 161 - 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bocher, T. W. (1949) Racial divergences in Prunella vulgaris in relation to habitat and climate. New Phytol., 48, 285 - 314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bocher, T. W. (1961) Experimental and cytological studies in plant species: VI. Dactylis glomerata and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Bot. Tidskr., 56, 314 - 55.Google Scholar
  7. Boot, R., Raynal, D. J. and Grime, J. P. (1986) A comparative study of the influence of moisture stress on flowering in Urtica dioica and Urtica urens. J. Ecol., 74, 485 - 95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryant, J. P. and Kuropat, P. J. (1980) Selection of winter forage by subarctic browsing vertebrates: the role of plant chemistry. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 11, 261 - 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chapin, F. S. (1980) The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 11, 233 - 60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clutton-Brock, T. H. and Harvey, P. H. (1979) Comparison and adaptation. Proc. R. Soc. London B, 205, 547 - 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coley, P. D. (1983) Herbivory and defensive characteristics of tree species in a lowland tropical forest. Ecol. Monogr., 53, 209 - 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coley, P. D., Bryant, J. P. and Chapin, F. S. (1985) Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defence. Science, 230, 895 - 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Connell, J. H. (1979) Tropical rain forests and coral reefs as open non-equilibrium systems, in Population Dynamics (eds R. M. Anderson, B. D. Turner and L. R. Taylor ), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 141 - 63.Google Scholar
  14. Connell, J. H. and Slatyer, R. O. (1977) Mechanisms in natural communities and their role in community stability and organisation. Am. Natur., 111, 1119 - 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooke, R. C. and Rayner, A. D. M. (1984) The Ecology of Saprotrophic Fungi: Towards a Predictive Approach. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  16. Cooper-Driver, G. (1985) Anti-predation strategies in pteridophytes — a biochemical approach. Proc. R. Soc. Edin., 86B, 397 - 402.Google Scholar
  17. Crick, J. C. (1985) The role of plasticity in resource acquisition by higher plants. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.Google Scholar
  18. Donald, C. M. (1958) The interaction of competition for light and for nutrients. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 9, 421 - 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Downes, J. A. (1964) Arctic insects and their environment. Can. Entomol., 96, 279 - 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dring, M. J. (1982) The Biology of Marine Plants. Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  21. Edwards, P. J. and Wratten, S. D. (1985) Induced plant defences against insect grazing: fact or artefact? Oikos, 44, 70 - 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fitter, A. H. and Hay, R. K. M. (1981) Environmental Physiology of Plants. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  23. Furness, S. B. and Hall, R. H. (1981) An explanation of the intermittent occurrence of Physcomitrium sphaericum (Hedw.) Brid. J. Bryol., 11, 733 - 42.Google Scholar
  24. Gill, D. E. (1978) On selection at high population density. Ecology, 59, 1289 - 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Godwin, H. (1985) Cambridge and Clare. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  26. Greenslade, P. J. M. (1983) Adversity selection and the habitat templet. Am. Natur., 122, 352 - 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grime, J. P. (1965) Comparative experiments as a key to the ecology of flowering plants. Ecology, 45, 513 - 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grime, J. P. (1966) Shade avoidance and shade tolerance in flowering plants, in Light as an Ecological Factor (eds R. Bainbridge, G. C. Evans and O. Rackham ), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 281 - 301.Google Scholar
  29. Grime, J. P. (1973a) Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nature, 242, 344 - 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grime, J. P. (1973b) Competition and diversity in herbaceous vegetation — a reply. Nature, 244, 310 - 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grime, J. P. (1974) Vegetation classification by reference to strategies. Nature, 250, 26 - 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grime, J. P. (1977) Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am. Natur., 111, 116–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grime, J. P. (1979) Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  34. Grime, J. P. (1981) An ecological approach to management, in Amenity Grassland: an Ecological Perspective (eds I. H. Rorison and R. Hunt). Wiley, London, pp. 13 - 55.Google Scholar
  35. Grime, J. P. (1984) The ecology of species, families and communities of the contemporary British Flora. New Phytol., 98, 15 - 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grime, J. P. (1985) Factors limiting the contribution of pteridophytes to a local flora. Proc. R. Soc. Edin., 86B, 403 - 21.Google Scholar
  37. Grime, J. P. (1986) Manipulation of plant species and communities, in Ecology and Design in Landscape (eds A. D. Bradshaw, E. Thorpe and D. A. Goode ), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 175 - 94.Google Scholar
  38. Grime, J. P. (1987) Dominant and subordinate components of plant communities — implications for succession, stability and diversity, in Colonisation, Succession and Stability (eds A. Gray, P. Edwards and M. Crawley ), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 413 - 28.Google Scholar
  39. Grime, J. P., Crick, J. C. and Rincon, E. (1986) The ecological significance of plasticity, in Plasticity in Plants (eds D. H. Jennings and A. J. Trewavas ), Company of Biologists, Cambridge, pp. 5 - 29.Google Scholar
  40. Grime, J. P. and Hodgson, J. G. (1969) An investigation of the ecological significance of lime-chlorosis by means of large-scale comparative experiments. in Ecological Aspects of the Mineral Nutrition of Plants (ed. I. H. Rorison ), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 67 - 99.Google Scholar
  41. Grime, J. P., Hodgson, J. G. and Hunt, R. (1988) Comparative Plant Ecology: a Functional Approach to Common British Species,London.Google Scholar
  42. Grime, J. P. and Hunt, R. (1975) Relative growth-rate: its range and adaptive significance in a local flora. J. Ecol., 63, 393 - 422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grime, J. P., Hunt, R. and Krzanowski, W. J. (1987) Evolutionary physiological ecology of plants. in Evolutionary Physiological Ecology (ed. P. Calow ), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 105 - 25.Google Scholar
  44. Grime, J. P., Mason, G., Curtis, A. V., Rodman, J., Band, S. R., Mowforth, M. A. G., Neal, A. M. and Shaw, S. (1981) A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. J. Ecol., 69, 1017 - 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grubb, P. J. (1977) The maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biol. Rev., 52, 107 - 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grubb, P. J. (1985) Plant populations and vegetation in relation to habitat, disturbance and competition: problems of generalization. in The Population Structure of Vegetation (ed. J. White ), Junk, Dordrecht, pp. 595 - 621.Google Scholar
  47. Harper, J. L. (1982) After description. in The Plant Community as a Working Mechanism (ed. E. I. Newman), Special Publication No. 1 BES, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 11 - 25.Google Scholar
  48. Hodgson, J. G. (1986) Commonness and rarity in plants with special reference to the flora of the Sheffield region. III. Taxonomic and evolutionary aspects. Biol. Conserv., 36, 275 - 96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huston, M. (1979) A general hypothesis of species diversity. Amer. Natur., 113, 81 - 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hutchinson, G. E. (1959) Homage to Santa Rosalia or why are there so many kinds of animals? Am. Natur., 93, 145 - 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Inghe, O. and Tamm, C. O. (1985) Survival and flowering of perennial herbs IV. Oikos, 45, 400 - 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jarvinen, A. (1986) Clutch size of passerines in harsh environments. Oikos, 46, 365 - 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kruckeberg, A. R. (1954) The ecology of serpentine soils: III. Plant species in relation to serpentine soils. Ecology, 35, 267 - 74.Google Scholar
  54. Law, R. (1979) The cost of reproduction in annual meadow-grass. Am. Natur., 113, 3 - 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Law, R., Bradshaw, A. D. and Putwain, P. D. (1977) Life history variation in Poa annua. Evolution, 31, 233 - 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee, K. E. (1985) Ecological strategies. in Earthworms, Their Ecology and Relation-ships with Soils and Land Use. Academic Press, Sydney, pp. 102 - 31.Google Scholar
  57. Leps, J. M., Osbornova-Kosinova, J. and Rejmanek, K. (1982) Community stability, complexity and species life-history strategies. Vegetatio, 50, 53 - 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nye, P. H. (1966) The effect of nutrient intensity and buffering power of a soil, and the absorbing power, size and soot hairs of a root, on nutrient absorption by diffusion. Plant Soil, 25, 81 - 105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nye, P. H. (1969) The soil model and its application to plant nutrition. in Ecological Aspects of the Mineral Nutrition of Plants (ed. I. H. Rorison ), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 105 - 14.Google Scholar
  60. MacArthur, R. H. and Wilson, E. D. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ.Google Scholar
  61. Macleod, J. (1894) Over de bevruchting der bloemen in het Kempisch gedeelte van Vlaanderen. Deel II. Bot. Jaarboek, 6, 119 - 511.Google Scholar
  62. Mahmoud, A. and Grime, J. P. (1976) An analysis of competitive ability in three perennial grasses. New Phytol., 77, 431 - 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. May, R. M. and Seger, J. (1986) Ideas in ecology. Am. Sci., 74, 256 - 67.Google Scholar
  64. Maynard Smith, J. (1982) Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  65. Newman, E. I. (1973) Competition and diversity in herbaceous vegetation. Nature, 244, 310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Odum, E. P. (1969) The strategy of ecosystem development. Science, 164, 262 - 70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Parry, G. D. (1981) The meanings of r-and K-selection. Oecologia, 48, 260 - 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pianka, E. R. (1970) On r-and K-selection. Am. Natur., 104, 592 - 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pickett, S. T. A. (1980) Non-equilibrium co-existence of plants. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 107, 238 - 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pugh, G. J. F. (1980) Strategies in fungal ecology. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 75, 1 - 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ramenskii, L. G. (1938) Introduction to the Geobotanical Study of Complex Vegetations. Selkhozgiz, Moscow, 620 pp.Google Scholar
  72. Raven, J. A. (1981) Nutritional strategies of submerged benthic plants: the acquisi-tion of C, N and P by rhizophytes and haptophytes. New Phytol., 88, 1 - 30.Google Scholar
  73. Salisbury, E. J. (1942) The Reproductive Capacity of Plants. Bell, London.Google Scholar
  74. Salisbury, E. J. (1967) The reproduction and germination of Limosella aquatica. Ann. Bot., 31, 147 - 62.Google Scholar
  75. Shepherd, S. A. (1981) Ecological strategies in a deep water red algal community. Bot. Mar., XXIV, 457 - 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sibly, R. M. and Grime, J. P. (1986) Strategies of resource capture by plants — evidence for adversity selection. J. Theor. Biol., 118, 247 - 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Southwood, T. R. E. (1977) Habitat, the templet for ecological strategies? J. Anim. Ecol., 46, 337 - 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stearns, S. C. (1977) The evolution of life-history traits: a critique of the theory and a review of the data. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 8, 145 - 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stebbins, G. L. (1951) Natural selection and the differentiation of angiosperm families. Evolution, 5, 299 - 324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stebbins, G. L. (1971) Adaptive radiation of reproductive characters of angiosperms II. Seeds and seedlings. Ann. Rev. Ecol. ; Syst., 2, 237 - 60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stebbins, G. L. (1974) Flowering Plants: Evolution Above the Species Level. Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  82. Tamm, C. O. (1956) Further observations on the survival and flowering of some perennial herbs. I. Oikos, 7, 274 - 92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thompson, K. and Grime, J. P. (1979) Seasonal variation in the seed banks of herbaceous species in ten contrasting habitats. J. Ecol., 67, 893 - 922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vaartaja, O. (1952) Forest humus quality and light conditions as factors influencing damping off. Phytopathology, 42, 501 - 6.Google Scholar
  85. Went, F. W. (1949) Ecology of desert plants. II. The effect of rain and temperature on germination and growth. Ecology, 30, 1 - 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Whittaker, R. H. and Levin, S. A. (1977) The role of mosaic phenomena in natural communities. Theor. Pop. Biol., 12, 117 - 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Whittaker, R. H. and Goodman, D. (1979) Classifying species according to their demographic strategy. I. Population fluctuations and environmental heterogeneity. Am. Natur., 113, 185 - 200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wilbur, H. M., Tinkle, D. W. and Collins, J. P. (1974) Environmental certainty, trophic level and resource availability in life history evolution. Am. Natur., 108, 805 - 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Philip Grime

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations