Environmental pollution monitoring in oil exploration and exploitation
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Oil & Natural Gas Commission has been exploring and exploiting for hydrocarbons in most diverse geographical locations on onshore & offshore in India As a result of these activities, ONGC is interacting with the environment in various ways In exploration and exploitation of oil & gas, the major environmental pollutants are i) effluent water contaminated with oily effluents eg oil & grease, chemicals and solids from drilling fluid, ii) formation water produced along with crude oil and iii) gaseous emissions having CO, S02, NOx, hydrocarbons, particulate from gasflare.
During drilling operations, the seepage/leakage of effluent water to the surrounding areas is a major source of pollution To check the leakage/seepage of effluent water, a number of control measures are being taken viz.,
construction of ring bund on the periphery of drill site
construction of peripheral trench along with boundary wall
compartmentalisation of drill site
construction of cutting pit, waste pit, oil pit etc.
The water produced along the oil is either evaporated in evaporation pit or treated in effluent treatment plant The flaring of associated gas can cause air pollution and heat & glare produced can adversely effect the nearby fauna & flora To check the air pollution, box flares are being used and to minimise the effect of heat and glare, multipoint flares of low height covered from all around with asbestose/cement sheet along with brick wall are being used.
The left over drill sites are being developed and trees all around the boundary of drill site area being planted to improve the ecological balance, which has been greatly disturbed.
At the offshore drilling rigs & production platforms, facilities exist to treat the sewage, burn the drill waste, treat the effluent water and collection of spilled oil from the unit etc.
KeywordsDrilling Fluid Production Platform Effluent Water Brick Wall Drill Site
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