Translation in plants — rules and exceptions

  • Johannes Fütterer
  • Thomas Hohn


Translation processes in plants are very similar to those in other eukaryotic organisms and can in general be explained with the scanning model. Particularly among plant viruses, unconventional mRNAs are frequent, which use modulated translation processes for their expression: leaky scanning, translational stop codon readthrough or frameshifting, and transactivation by virus-encoded proteins are used to translate polycistronic mRNAs; leader and trailer sequences confer (cap-independent) efficient ribosome binding, usually in an end-dependent mechanism, but true internal ribosome entry may occur as well; in a ribosome shunt, sequences within an RNA can be bypassed by scanning ribosomes. Translation in plant cells is regulated under conditions of stress and during development, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been determined. Only a small number of plant mRNAs, whose structure suggests that they might require some unusual translation mechanisms, have been described.

Key words

Plant virus leader caulimovirus luteovirus frameshift readthrough internal initiation 


  1. 1.
    Abastado JP, Miller PF, Jackson BM, Hinnebusch AG: Suppression of ribosomal reinitiation at upstream open reading frames in amino-acid-starved cells forms the basis for GCN4 translational control. Mol Cell Biol 11: 486–496 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acland P, Dixon M, Peters G, Dickson C: Subcellular fate of the Int-2 oncoprotein is determined by choice of initiation codon. Nature 343: 662–665 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agol VI: The 5′-untranslated region of picornaviral genomes. Adv Virus Res 40: 103–180 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Agranovsky AA, Koonin EV, Boyko VP, Maiss E, Frötschl R, Lunina NA, Atabekov JG: Beet yellows closterovirus: complete genome structure and identification of a leader papain-like thiol protease. Virology 198: 311–324 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahlquist P, Dasgupta R, Shih DS, Zimmern D, Kaesberg P: Two-step binding of eukaryotic ribosomes to brome mosaic virus RNA 3. Nature 281: 277–282 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ainley WM, Key JL: Development of a heat shock inducible expression cassette for plants: characterization of parameters for its use in transient expression assays. Plant Mol Biol 14: 949–967(1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Altmann M, Blum S, Wilson TMA, Trachsel H: The 5′-leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA mediates initiation-factor-4E-independent, but still initiation-factor-4A-dependent translation in yeast extracts. Gene 91: 127–129 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Angenon G, Uotila J, Kurkela SA, Teeri TH, Botterman J, Van Montague M, Depicker A: Expression of dicistronic transcription units in transgenic tobacco. Mol Cell Biol 9: 5676–5684 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Angenon G, Van Montague M, Depicker A: Analysis of the stop codon context in plant nuclear genes. FEBS Lett 271: 144–149 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Apuya NR, Zimmermann JL: Heat shock gene expression is controlled primarily at the translational level in carrot cells and somatic embryos. Plant Cell 4: 657–665 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Atkins JF, Weiss RB, Thompson S, Gesteland RF: Towards a genetic dissection of the basis of triplet decoding, and its natural subversion: Programmed reading frame shifts and hops. Annu Rev Genet 25: 201–228 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bahner I, Lamb J, Mayo MA, Hay RT: Expression of the genome of potato leafroll virus: readthrough of the coat protein termination condon in vivo. J Gen Virol 71: 2251–2256 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bailey-Serres J, Freeling M: Hypoxic stress-induced changes in ribosomes of maize seedling roots. Plant Physiol 94: 1237–1243 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bairn SB, Sherman F: mRNA structures influencing translation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 8: 1591–1601 (1988).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barciszewski J, Barciszewska M, Suter B, Kubli E: Plant tRNA suppressors: in vivo readthrough properties and nucleotide sequence of yellow lupin seeds tRNATyr. Plant Sci 40: 193–196(1985).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Basso J, Dallaire P, Charest PJ, Devantier Y, Laliberte J-F: Evidence for an internal ribosome entry site within the 5′-untranslated region of turnip mosaic potyvirus RNA. J Gen Virol 75: 3157–3165 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baughman GA, Howell SH: Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA leader region inhibits translation of downstream genes. Virology 167: 125–135 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baughman GA, Jacobs JD, Howell SH: Cauliflower mosaic virus gene VI produces a symptomatic phenotype in transgenic tobacco plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 733–737 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beccera SP, Rose JA, Hardy M, Baroudy BM, Anderson CW: Direct mapping of adeno-associated virus capsid protein B and C: a possible AUC initiation codon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 7919–7923 (1985).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beier H, Barciszewska M, Krupp G, Mitnacht R, Gross HJ: UAG readthrough during TMV RNA translation: Isolation and sequence of two tRNAsTyr with suppressor activity from tobacco plants. EMBO J 3: 351–356 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Beier H, Barciszewska M, Sickinger H-D: The molecular basis for the differential translation of TMV RNA in tobacco protoplasts and wheat germ extracts. EMBO J 3: 1091–1096 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beicourt MF, Farabaugh PJ: Ribosomal frameshifting in the yeast retrotransposon Ty: tRNA slippage on a 7 nucleotide minimal site. Cell 62: 339–352 (1990).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Belsham GJ, Lomonossoff GP: The mechanism of translation of cowpea mosaic virus middle component RNA: no evidence for internal initiation from experiments in an animal cell transient expression assay. J Gen Virol 72: 3109–3113 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Beltrán-Peña E, Ortiz-López A, Sánchez de Jiménez E: Synthesis of ribosomal proteins from stored mRNAs early in seed germination. Plant Mol Biol 28: 327–336 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Benhar I, Engelberg-Kulka H: Frameshifting of the E. coli trpR gene occurs by the bypassing of a segment of its coding sequence. Cell 72: 121–130 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Benkowski LA, Ravel JM, Browning KS: mRNA binding properties of wheat germ protein synthesis initiation factor 2. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 214: 1033–1039 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Berlioz C, Darlix J-L: An internal ribosome entry mechanism promotes translation of murine leukemia virus gag polyprotein precursors. J Virol 69: 2214–2222 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Berry JO, Carr JP, Klessig DF: mRNAs encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase remain bound to polysomes but are not translated in amaranth seedlings transferred to darkness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 4190–4194 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Berry JO, Breiding DE, Klessig DF: Light-mediated control of translation initiation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in amaranth cotyledons. Plant Cell 2: 795–803 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Berry MJ, Banu L, Chen YY, Mandel SJ, Kieffer JD, Harney JW, Larsen PR: Recognition of UGA as a selenocysteine codon in type I deiodinase requires sequences in the 3′ untranslated region. Nature 353: 273–276 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bevan M: Binary Agrobacterium vectors for plant transformation. Nucl Acids Res 12: 8711–8720 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boeck R, Kolakofski D: Positions +5 and +6 can be major determinants of the efficiency of non-AUG initiation codons for protein synthesis. EMBO J 13: 3608–3617 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bonetti B, Fu L, Moon J, Bedwell DM: The efficiency of translation termination is determined by a synergistic interplay between upstream and downstream sequences in Sac-charomyces cerevisiae. J Mol Biol 251: 334–345 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bonneville J-M, Sanfaçon H, Fütterer J, Hohn T: Posttran-scriptional transactivation in cauliflower mosaic virus. Cell 59: 1135–1143(1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bouzoubaa S, Ziegler V, Beck D, Guilley H, Richards K, Jonard G: Nucleotide sequence of beet necrotic yellow vein virus RNA-2. J Gen Virol 67: 1689–1700 (1986).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Boyd L, Thummel CS: Selection of CUG and AUG initiator codons for Drosophila E74A translation depends on downstream sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 9164–9167 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Boyer SK, Shotwell MA, Larkins BA: Evidence for the translational control of storage protein gene expression in oat seeds. J Biol Chem 267: 17449–17457 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bransom KL, Weiland JJ, Tsai C-H, Dreher TW: coding density of the turnip yellow mosaic virus genome: roles of the overlapping coat protein and p206-readthrough coding regions. Virology 206: 403–412 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brault V, Miller WA: Translational frameshifting mediated by a viral sequence in plant cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 2262–2266(1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brierley I, Rolley NJ, Jenner AJ, Inglis SC: Mutational analysis of the RNA pseudoknot component of a Coronavirus ribosomal frameshifting signal. J Mol Biol 220: 889–902 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brown TA, Shrift A: Identification of selenocysteine in the proteins of selenate-grown Vigna radiata. Plant Physiol 66: 758–761 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brown CM, Stockwell PA, Trotman CNA, Tate WP: Sequence analysis suggests that tetra-nucleotides signal the termination of protein synthesis in eukaryotes. Nucl Acids Res 18: 6339–6345 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brown CM, Dalphin ME, Stockwell PA, Tate WP: The translational termination signal database. Nucl Acids Res 21: 3119–3123 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Browning KS, Fletcher L, Ravel JM: Evidence that the requirements for ATP and wheat germ initiation factors 4A and 4F are affected by a region of satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA that is 3′ to the ribosomal binding site. J Biol Chem 263: 9630–9634 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Buckingham RH: Codon context and protein synthesis-enhancements of the genetic code. Biochimie 76: 351–354 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bugler B, Amalric F, Prats H: Alternative initiation of translation determines cytoplasmic or nuclear localization of basic fibroblast growth factor. Mol Cell Biol 11: 573–577 (1992).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bulmer M: Coevolution of codon usage and transfer RNA abundance. Nature 325: 728–730 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Callis J, Fromm M, Walbot V: Expression of mRNA electroporated in plant and animal cells. Nucl Acids Res 15: 5823–5831 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Campbell WH, Gowri G: Codon usage in higher plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria. Plant Physiol 92: 1–11 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cao JH, Geballe AP: Translational inhibition by a human cytomegalovirus upstream open reading frame despite inefficient utilization of its AUG codon. J Virol 69: 1030–1036 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Carneiro VTC, Pelletier G, Small I: Transfer RNA-mediated suppression of stop codons in protoplasts and transgenic plants. Plant Mol Biol 22: 681–690 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Carrington JC, Morris TJ: Characterization of cell-free translation products of carnation mottle virus genomic and subge-nomic RNAs. Virology 144: 1–10(1985).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Carrington JC, Freed DD: Cap-independent enhancement of translation by a plant potyvirus 5′-untranslated region. J Virol 64: 1590–1597 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Carroll R, Derse D: Translation of equine infectious anemia virus bicistronic tat-rev mRNA requires leaky ribosome scanning of the tat CTG initiation codon. J Virol 67: 1433–1440 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cavener DR, Ray SC: Eukaryotic start and stop translation sites. Nucl Acids Res 19: 3185–3192 (1991).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chamorro M, Parkin N, Varmus HE: An RNA pseudoknot and an optimal heptameric shift site are required for highly efficient ribosomal frameshifting on a retroviral messenger RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 713–717 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chen CY, Sarnow P: Initiation of protein synthesis by the eukaryotic translational apparatus on circular RNAs. Science 268: 415–417 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chen G, Müller M, Potrykus I, Hohn T, Fütterer J: Rice tungro bacilliform virus: transcription and translation in protoplasts. Virology 204: 91–100 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chen GFT, Inouye M: Role of the AGA/AGG codons, the rarest codons in global gene expression in Escherichia coli. Genes Devel 8: 2641–2652 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chen X, Chamorro M, Lee SI, Shen LX, Hines JV, Tinoco Jr I, Varmus HE: Structural and functional studies of retroviral RNA pseudoknots involved in ribosomal frameshifting: nucleotides at the junction of the two stems are important for efficient ribosomal frameshifting. EMBO J 14: 842–852 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chin L-S, Foster JL, Falk BW: The beet western yellows virus ST9-associated RNA shares structural and nucleotide sequence homology with carmo-like viruses. Virology 192: 473–482 (1993).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chiorini JA, Boal TR, Miyamoto S, Safer B: A difference in the rate of ribosomal elongation balances the synthesis of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)-2 and eIF-2β. J Biol Chem 268: 13748–13755 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cho HJ, Morikawa H, Murooka Y: Expression pattern of bacterial polycistronic genes in tobacco cells. J Ferment Bioeng 80: 111–117(1995).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Christensen AK, Kahn LE, Bourne CM: Circular polysomes predominate on the rough endoplasmic reticulum of somatropes and mammotropes in the rat anterior pituitary. Am J Anat 178: 1–10(1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Clements JM, Laz TM, Sherman F: Efficiency of translation initiation by non-AUG codons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 8: 4533–4536 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Collins RF, Roberts M, Phoenix DA: Codon usage in Escherichia coli may modulate translation initiation. Biochem Soc Transact 23: 76 (1995).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Condeelis J: Elongation factor 1-alpha, translation and the cytoskeleton. Trends Biochem Sci 20: 169–170 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Coutts RHA, Rigden JE, Slabas AR, Lomonossoff GP: The complete nucleotide sequence of tobacco necrosis virus strain D. J Gen Virol 72: 1521–1529 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Craigen WJ, Lee CC, Caskey CT: Recent advances in peptide chain termination. Mol Microbiol 4: 861–865 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Crosby JS, Vayda ME: Stress-induced translational control in potato tubers may be mediated by polysome associated proteins. Plant Cell 3: 1013–1023 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Crowley KS, Reinhart GD, Johnson AE: The signal sequence moves through a ribosomal tunnel into a noncytoplasmic aqueous environment at the ER membrane early in translocation. Cell 73: 1101–1115 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Curran J, Kolakofsky D: Scanning independent ribosomal initiation of the sendai virus X protein. EMBO J 7: 2869–2874 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Damiani RD, Wessler SR: An upstream open reading frame represses expression of Lc, a member of the R/B family of maize transcriptional activators. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 8244–8248 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Danthinne X, Seurinck J, Meulewaeter F, Van Montagu M, Cornelissen M: The 3′ untranslated region of satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA stimulates translation in vitro. Mol Cell Biol 13: 3340–3349 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dasgupta R, Ahlquist P, Kaesberg P: Sequence of the 3′ untranslated region of brome mosaic virus coat protein messenger RNA. Virology 104: 339–346 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dasso MC, Milburn SC, Hershey JWB, Jackson RJ: Selection of the 5′-proximal translation initiation site is influenced by mRNA and eIF-2 concentrations. Eur J Biochem 187: 361–371 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Datla RSS, Bekkaoui F, Hammerlindl JK, Pilate G, Dun-stan DI, Crosby WL: Improved high-level constitutive foreign gene expression in plants using an AMV RNA4 untranslated leader sequence. Plant Sci 94: 139–149 (1993).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    De Boer HA, Kastelein RA: Biased codon usage. In: Reznikoff W, Gold L (eds) Maximizing Gene Expression, pp. 225–285. Butterworths, Boston (1986).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Decker CJ, Parker P: Diversity of cytoplasmic functions for the 3′ untranslated region of eukaryotic transcripts. Curr Opin Cell Biol 7: 386–392 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Degnin CR, Schleiss MR, Cao J, Geballe AP: Translational inhibition mediated by a short upstream open reading frame in the human cytomegalovirus gpUL4 (gp48) transcript. J Virol 67: 5514–5521 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    De Melo Neto OP, Standart N, Desa CM: Autoregulation of poly(A)-binding protein synthesis in vitro. Nucl Acids Res 23: 2198–2205 (1995).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Demler SA, De Zoeten GA: The nucleotide sequence and luteovirus-like nature of RNA 1 of an aphid non-transmissable strain of pea enation mosaic virus. J Gen Virol 72: 1819–1834 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    De Tapia M, Himmelbach A, Hohn T: Molecular dissection of the cauliflower mosaic virus translation transactivator. EMBO J 12: 3305–3314 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dewey RE, Wilson RF, Novitzky WP, Goode JH: The AAPT1 gene of soybean complements a cholinephosphotransferase-deficient mutant of yeast. Plant Cell 6: 1495–1507 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Di R, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Miller WA: Translational frameshifting by barley yellow dwarf virus RNA (PAV serotype) in Escherichia coli and in eukaryotic cell-free extracts. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 6: 444–452 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dinesh-Kumar SP, Brault V, Miller WA: Precise mapping and in vitro translation of a trifunctional subgenomic RNA of barley yellow dwarf virus. Virology 187: 711–722 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Dinesh-Kumar SP, Miller WA: Control of start codon choice on a plant viral RNA encoding overlapping genes. Plant Cell 5: 679–692 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dixon L K, Hohn T: Initiation of translation of the cauliflower mosaic virus genome from a polycistronic mRNA: evidence from deletion mutagenesis. EMBO J 3: 2731–2736 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Donahue TF, Cigan AM, Pabich EK, Castilho Valavicius B: Mutations at a Zn(II) finger motif in the yeast eIF-2β gene alter ribosomal start-site selection during the scanning process. Cell 54: 621–632 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dorris DR, Erickson FL, Hannig EM: Mutations in GCD11, the structural gene for eIF2-gamma in yeast, alter translational regulation of GCN4 and the selection of the start site for protein synthesis. EMBO J 14: 2239–2249 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dowson Day MJ, Ashurst JL, Mathias SF, Watts JW: Plant viral leaders influence expression of a reporter gene in tobacco. Plant Mol Biol 23: 97–109 (1993).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dubochet J, Morel C, Lebleu B, Herzberg M: Structure of globin mRNA and mRNA-protein particles: use of dark-field electron microscopy. Eur J Biochem 36: 465–472 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Entwistle J, Knudson S, Müller M, Cameron-Mills V: Amber codon suppression: the in vivo and in vitro analysis of two C-hordein genes from barley. Plant Mol Biol 17: 1217–1231 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fajardo JE, Shatkin AJ: Translation of bicistronic viral mRNA in transfected cells: Regulation at the level of elongation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 328–332 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Farabaugh PJ: Alternative readings of the genetic code. Cell 74:591–596(1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Felsenstein KM, Goff SP: Mutational analysis of the gag-pol junction of Moloney murine leukemia virus: Requirements for expression of the gag-pol fusion protein. J Virol 66: 6601–6608 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Feng Y-X, Copeland TD, Oroszlan S, Rein A, Levin JG: Identification of amino acids inserted during suppression of UAA and UGA termination codons at the gag-pol junction of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 8860–8863 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Feng Y-X, Yuan H, Rein A, Levin JG: Bipartite signal for read-through suppression in murine leukemia virus mRNA: an eight-nucleotide purine-rich sequence immediately downstream of the gag termination codon followed by an RNA pseudoknot. J Virol 66: 5127–5132 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Fennoy SL, Bailey Serres J: Post-translational regulation of gene expression in oxygen-deprived roots of maize. Plant J 7: 287–295 (1995).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Filichkin SA, Lister RM, McGrath PF, Young MJ: In vivo expression and mutational analysis of the barley yellow dwarf virus readthrough gene. Virology 205: 290–299 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Filipowicz W, Haenni A-L: Binding of ribosomes to 5′-terminal leader sequences of eukaryotic messenger RNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 3111–3115 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fletcher L, Corbin SD, Browning KS, Ravel JM: The absence of a m7G cap on β-globin mRNA and alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 increases the amounts of initiation factor 4F required for translation. J Biol Chem 32: 19582–19587 (1990).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Florentz C, Brian JP, Giegé R: Possible functional role of viral tRNA-like structures. FEBS Lett 176: 295–300 (1984).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Franklin S, Lin TY, Folk WR: Construction and expression of nonsense suppressor tRNAs which function in plant cells. Plant J 2: 583–588 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    French R, Jancke M, Ahlquist P: Bacterial genes inserted in an engineered RNA virus. Efficient expression in monocoty-ledonous plant cells. Science 231: 1294–1297 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Frolova L, Legoff X, Rasmussen HH, Cheperegin S, Drugeon G, Kress M, Arman I, Haenni AL, Celis JE, Philippe M, Justesen J, Kirilev L: A highly conserved eukaryotic protein family possessing properties of polypeptide chain release factor. Nature 372: 701–703 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Fujimoto H, Itoh K, Yamamoto M, Kyozuka J, Shimamoto K: Insect resistant rice generated by introduction of a modified δ-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis. Bio/technology 11: 1151–1155(1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Fütterer J, Gordon K, Bonneville JM, Sanfaçon H, Pisan B, Penswick J, Hohn T: The leading sequence of caulimovirus large RNA can be folded into a large stem-lop structure. Nucl Acids Res 16: 8377–8390 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fütterer J, Gordon K, Pfeiffer P, Sanfaçon H, Pisan B, Bonneville JM, Hohn T: Differential inhibition of downstream gene expression by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA leader. Virus Genes 3: 45–55 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Fütterer J, Bonneville J-M, Gordon K, De Tapia M, Karls-son S, Hohn T: Expression from polycistronic cauliflower mosaic virus pregenomic RNA. In: Posttranscriptional Control of Gene Expression. NATO ASI Series H49, pp. 349–357 (1990).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Fütterer J, Gordon K, Sanfaçon H, Bonneville JM, Hohn T: Positive and negative control of translation by the leader sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus pregenomic 35S RNA. EMBO J 9: 1697–1707 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fütterer J, Hohn T: Translation of a polycistronic mRNA in the presence of the cauliflower mosaic virus transactivator protein. EMBO J 10: 3887–3896 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fütterer J, Hohn T: Role of an upstream open reading frame in the translation of polycistronic mRNAs in plant cells. Nucl Acids Res 20: 3851–3857 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Fütterer J, Kiss-László Z, Hohn T: Non-linear ribosome migration on cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA. Cell 73: 789–802(1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Fütterer J, Potrykus I, Valles Brau MP, Dasgupta I, Hull R, Hohn T: Splicing in a plant pararetrovirus. Virology 198: 663–670(1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fütterer J, Potrykus I, Bao Y, Li L, Burns TM, Hull R, Hohn T: Position dependent ATT initiation during plant pararetrovirus rice tungro bacilliform virus translation. J Virol 70: 2999–3010 (1996).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Galili G, Kawata EE, Smith LD, Larkins BA: Role of the 3′-poly(A) sequence in translational regulation of mRNAs in Xenopus laevis oocytes. J Biol Chem 263: 5764–5770 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gallie DR, Sleat DE, Watts JW, Turner P, Wilson TM: The 5′-leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA enhances the expression of foreign gene transcripts in vitro and in vivo. Nucl Acids Res 15: 3257–3273 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gallie DR, Sleat DE, Watts JW, Turner P, Wilson TM: A comparison of eukaryotic viral 5′-leader sequences as enhancers of mRNA expression in vivo. Nucl Acids Res 15: 8693–8711 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gallie DR, Lucas WJ, Walbot V: Visualizing mRNA expression in plant protoplasts: factors influencing efficient mRNA uptake and translation. Plant Cell 1: 301–311 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gallie DR, Kado CI: A translational enhancer derived from tobacco mosaic virus is functionally equivalent to a Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 129–132 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gallie DR, Walbot V: RNA pseudoknot domain of tobacco mosaic virus can functionally substitute for a poly(A) tail in plant and animal cells. Genes Devel 4: 1149–1157 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gallie DR: The cap and poly (A) tail function synergistically to regulate mRNA translational efficiency. Genes Devel 5: 2108–2116(1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Gallie DR, Feder JN, Schimke RT, and Walbot V: Posttranscriptional regulation in higher eukaryotes: The role the reporter gene in controlling expression. Mol Gen Genet 228: 258–264 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gallie DR, Feder JN, Schimke RT, Walbot V: Functional analysis of the tobacco mosaic virus tRNA-like structure in cytoplasmic gene regulation. Nucl Acids Res 19: 5031–5036 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Gallie DR, Walbot V: Identification of the motifs within the tobacco mosaic virus 5′-leader responsible for enhancing translation. Nucl Acids Res 20: 4631–4638 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Gallie DR: Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44: 77–105 (1993).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gallie DR, Kobayashi M: The role of the 3′-untranslated region of non-polyadenylated plant viral RNAs in regulating translational efficiency. Gene 142: 159–165 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Gallie DR, Young TE: The regulation of gene expression in transformed maize aleurone and endosperm protoplasts-analysis of promoter activity, intron enhancement, and mRNA untranslated regions on expression. Plant Physiol 106: 929–939 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gallie DR, Tanguay R: Poly(A) binds to initiation factors and increases cap-dependent translation in vitro. J Biol Chem 269: 17166–17173 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gallie DR, Caldwell C, Pitto L: Heat shock disrupts cap and poly(A) tail function during translation and increases mRNA stability of introduced reporter mRNA. Plant Physiol 108: 1703–1713 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Garcia A, Van Duin J, Pleij CWA: Differential response to frameshift signals in eukaryotic and prokaryotic translational systems. Nucl Acids Res 21: 401–406 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Geballe AP, Morris DR: Initiation codons within 5′-leaders of mRNAs as regulators of translation. Trend Biochem Sci 19: 159–164 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Godefroy-Colburn T, Ravelonandro M, Pinck L: Cap accessibility correlates with the initiation efficiency of alfalfa mosaic virus RNAs. Eur J Biochem 147: 549–552 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Goldman E, Rosenberg AH, Zubay G, Studier FW: Consecutive low-usage leucine codons block translation only when near the 5′ end of a message in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol 245: 467–473 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Goodall GJ, Filipowicz W: The AU-rich sequences in the nitrons of plant nuclear pre-mRNAs are required for splicing. Cell 58: 473–483 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gordon K, Pfeiffer P, Fütterer J, Hohn T: In vitro expression of cauliflower mosaic virus genes. EMBO J 7: 309–317 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gordon K, Fütterer J, Hohn T: Efficient initiation of translation at non-AUG triplets in plant cells. Plant J 2: 809–813 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Gowda S, Wu FC, Scholthof HB, Shepherd RJ: Gene VI of figwort mosaic virus (caulimovirus group) functions in posttranscriptional expression of genes on the full-length RNA transcript. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 9203–9207 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Gowda S, Scholthof HB, Wu FC, Shepherd RJ: Requirement of gene VII in cis for the expression of downstream genes on the major transcript of figwort mosaic virus. Virology 185: 867–871 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Gramstat A, Prüfer D, Rohde W: The nucleic acid-binding zinc finger protein of potato virus M is translated by internal initiation as well as by ribosomal frameshifting involving a shifty stop codon and a novel mechanism of P-site slippage. Nucl Acids Res 22: 3911–3917 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Grant CM, Hinnebusch AG: Effect of sequence context at the stop codons on efficiency of reinitiation in GCN4 translational control. Mol Cell Biol 14: 606–618 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Green PJ: Control of mRNA stability in higher plants. Plant Physiol 102: 1065–1070 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Griinert S, Jackson RJ: The immediate downstream codon strongly influences the efficiency of utilization of eukaryotic translation initiation codons. EMBO J 9: 3618–3630 (1994).Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gu Z, Harrod R, Rogers EJ, Lovett PS: Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 5612–5616(1994).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Guerineau F, Lucy A, Mullineaux P: Effect of two consensus sequences preceding the translation initiator codon on gene expression in plant protoplasts. Plant Mol Biol 18: 815–818 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Gultyaev AP, Van Batenburg FHD, Pleij CWA: The computer simulation of RNA folding pathways using a genetic algorithm. J Mol Biol 250: 37–51 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hamamoto H, Sugiyama Y, Nakagawa N, Hashida E, Matsunaga Y, Takemoto S, Watanabe Y, Okada Y: A new tobacco mosaic virus vector and its use for the systemic production of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitor in transgenic tobacco and tomato. Bio/technology 11: 930–932 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hamill D, Davies J, Drawbridge J, Suprenant KA: Polyribosome targeting to microtubules — enrichment of specific mRNAs in a reconstituted microtubule preparation from sea urchin embryos. J Cell Biol 127: 973–984 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hamilton WDO, Boccara M, Robinson DJ, Baulcombe DC: The complete nucleotide sequence of tobacco rattle virus RNA-1. J Gen Virol 68: 2563–2575 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hann SR, Sloan-Brown K, Spotts GD: Translational activation of the non-AUG-initiated c-myc 1 protein at high cell densities due to methionine deprivation. Genes Devel 6: 1229–1240(1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hann SR: Regulation and function of non-AUG-initiated protooncogenes. Biochimie 76: 880–886 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Hann LE, Gehrke L: mRNAs containing the unstructured 5′ leader sequence of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 translate inefficiently in lysates from poliovirus-infected Hela cells. J Virol 69: 4986–4993 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Harrod AU, Lovett PS: Peptide inhibitors of peptidyltrans-ferase alter the conformation of domains IV and V of large subunit rRNA: a model for nascent peptide control of translation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 8650–8654 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hatfield DL, Choi IS, Lee BJ, Jung J-E: Selenocysteyl-tRNAs recognize UGA in Beta vulgaris, a higher plant, and in Gliocladium virens, a filamentous fungus. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 184: 254–259 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Hatfield DL, Levin JG, Reim A, Oroszlan S: Translational suppression in retroviral gene expression. Adv Vir Res 41: 193–239 (1992).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hatfield DL, Diamond A: UGA: a split personality in the universal genetic code. Trends Genet 9: 69–70 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hay JM, Jones MC, Blackebrough ML, Dasgupta I, Davies JW, Hull R: An analysis of the sequence of an infectious clone of rice tungro bacilliform virus, a plant pararetrovirus. Nucl Acids Res 19: 2615–2621 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hearne PQ, Knorr DA, Hillman BI, Morris TJ: The complete genome structure and synthesis of infectious RNA from clones of tomato bushy stunt virus. Virology 177: 141–151 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Heider J, Baron C, Bock A: Coding from a distance: dissection of the mRNA determinants required for the incorporation of selenocysteine into protein. EMBO J 11: 3759–3766 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hensgens LAM, Fornerod MWJ, Rueb S, Winkler AA, Van der Veen S, Schilperoort RA: Translation controls the expression level of a chimaeric reporter gene. Plant Mol Biol 20: 921–938 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hershey JWB: Translational control in mammalian cells. Annu Rev Biochem 60: 717–755 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Herzog E, Guilley H, Manohar SK, Dollet M, Richards K, Fritsch C: Complete nucleotide sequence of peanut clump virus RNA 1 and relationships with other fungus-transmitted rod-shaped viruses. J Gen Virol 75: 3147–3155 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Herzog E, Guilley H, Fritsch C: Translation of the second gene of peanut clump virus RNA 2 occurs by leaky scanning in vitro. Virology 208: 215–225 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hinnebusch AG: Translational control of GCN4 — an in vivo barometer of initiation-factor activity. Trends Biochem Sci 19:409–414(1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hoekema A, Kastelein RA, Vasser M, De Boer HA: Codon replacement in the PGK1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Experimental approach to study the role of biased codon usage in gene expression. Mol Cell Biol 7: 2914–2924 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hohn T, Fütterer J: Pararetroviruses and retroviruses: a comparison of expression strategies. Semin Virol 2: 55–70 (1991).Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hohn T, Fütterer J: Transcriptional and translational control of gene expression in cauliflower mosaic virus. Curr Opin Genet Devel 2: 90–96 (1992).Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Honigman A, Falk H, Mador N, Rosental T, Panet A: Translation frequency of the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-2) gag gene modulates the frequency of ribosomal frameshifting. Virology 208: 312–318 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Horvath P, Suganuma A, Inaba M, Pan YB, Gupta KC: Multiple elements in the 5′-untranslated region downregulate c-sis messenger RNA translation. Cell Growth Diff 6: 1103–1110 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hsu MT, Coca-Prodos M: Electron microscopic evidence for the circular form of RNA in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Nature 280: 339–340 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Huang WM, Ao S-Z, Casjens S, Orlandi R, Zeikus R, Weiss R, Winge D, Fang M: A persistent untranslated sequence within bacteriophage T4 DNA topoisomerase gene 60. Science 239: 1005–1012(1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hunter TR, Hunt T, Knowland J, Zimmern D: Messenger RNA for the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus. Nature 260: 759–764 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Iida S, Mittelsten-Scheid O, Saul MW, Seipel K, Miyazaki C, Potrykus I: Expression of a downstream gene from a bicis-tronic transcription unit in transgenic tobacco plants. Gene 119: 199–205(1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Iizuka N, Najita L, Franzusoff A, Sarnow P: Cap-dependent and cap-independent translation by internal initiation of mRNAs in cell extracts prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 14: 7322–7330 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Ingelbrecht ILW, Herman LMF, Dekeyser RA, Van Montague MC, Depicker AG: Different 3′ end regions strongly influence the level of gene expression inplant cells. Plant Cell 1: 671–680(1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Ivanov IG, Alexandrova RA, Dragulev BP, Abouhaidar MG: A second putative mRNA binding site on the Escherichia coli ribosome. Gene 160: 75–79 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Jacks T, Madhani HD, Masiarz FR, Varmus HE: Signals for ribosomal frameshifting in the Rous sarcoma virus gag-pol region. Cell 55: 447–458 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Jacks T, Power MD, Masiarz FR, Luciw PA, Barr PJ, Varmus HE: Characterization of ribosomal frameshifting in HIV-1 gag-pol expression. Nature 331: 280–283 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Jackson RJ, Standart N: Do the poly(A) tail and 3′ untranslated region control mRNA translation? Cell 62: 15–24 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Jang SK, Pestova TV, Hellen CUT Witherell GW, Wimmer E: Cap-independent translation of Picornavirus RNAs: structure and function of the internal ribosome entry site. Enzyme 44: 292–309 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Jiang B, Monroe SS, Koonin EV, Stine SE, Glass RI: RNA sequence of astrovirus: distinctive genomic organization and putative retrovirus-like ribosomal frameshifting signal that directs viral replicase synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 10539–10543 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Jobling SA, Gehrke L: Enhanced translation of chimeric messenger RNAs containing a plant viral untranslated leader sequence. Nature 325: 622–625 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Jobling SA, Cuthbert CM, Rogers SG, Fraley RT, Gehrke L: In vitro transcription and translation efficiency of chimeric SP6 messenger RNAs devoid of 5′ vector nucleotides. Nucl Acids Res 16: 4483–4498 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Johansson HE, Belsham GJ, Sproat BS, Hentze MW: Target-specific arrest of mRNA translation by antisense 22032-O-alkyloligoribonucleotides. Nucl Acids Res 22: 4591–4598 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Joshi CP: An inspection of the domain between putative TATA box and translation start site in 79 plant genes. Nucl Acids Res 16: 6643–6653 (1987).Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Joshi CP, Nguyen HT: 5′ untranslated leader sequences of eukaryotic mRNAs encoding heat shock induced proteins. Nucl Acids Res 23: 541–549 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Kaempffer R, Van Emmelo J, Fiers W: Specific binding of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 to stallite tobacco necrosis virus RNA at a 5′-terminal sequence comprising the ribosome binding site. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 1542–1546 (1981).Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Kaminski A, Hunt SL, Gibbs CL, Jackson RJ: Internal initiation of mRNA translation in eukaryotes. Genet Engin 16: 115–155(1994).Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Karasev AV, Boyko VP, Gowda S, Nikolaeva OV, Hilf ME, Koonin EV, Niblett CL, Cline K, Gumpf DJ, Lee RF, Garnsey SM, Lewandowski, Dawson WO: Complete sequence of the citrus tristeza virus RNA genome. Virology 208: 511–520 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Karpova OV, Mavrodieva VA, Tomashevskaya OL, Rodionova NP, Atabekov JG: The 3′-untranslated region of brome mosaic virus RNA does not enhance translation of capped mRNAs in vitro. FEBS Lett 360: 281–285 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Kato T, Shirano Y, Kawazu T, Tada Y, Itoh E, Shibata D: A modified β-glucuronidase gene: Sensitive detection of plant promoter activities in suspension-cultured cells of tobacco and rice. Plant Mol Biol Rep 9: 333–339 (1991).Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kim J-K, Gamble Klein P, Mullet JE: Ribosomes pause at specific sites during synthesis of membrane-bound chloroplast reaction center protein D1. J Biol Chem 266: 14931–14938 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kim J-K, Hollingsworth MJ: Localization of in vivo ribosome pause sites. Anal Biochem 206: 183–188 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Kim KH, Lommel SA: Identification and analysis of the site of — 1 frameshifting in red clover necrotic mosaic virus. Virology 200: 574–582 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kiss-László Z, Blanc S, Hohn T: Splicing of cauliflower mosaic virus is essential for viral infectivity. EMBO J 14: 3552–3562 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Konarska M, Filipowicz W, Domdey H, Gross HJ: Binding of ribosomes to linear and circular forms of the 5′-terminal leader fragment of tobacco mosaic virus. RNA Eur J Biochem 114:221–227(1981).Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kozak M: Point mutations define a sequence flanking the AUG initiator codon that modulates translation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Cell 44: 283–292 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Kozak M: Influences of mRNA secondary structure on initiation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 2850–2854 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kozak M: Effects of intercistronic length on the efficiency of reinitiation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Mol Cell Biol 7: 3438–3445 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Kozak M: Leader length and secondary structure modulate mRNA function under conditions of stress. Mol Cell Biol 8: 2737–2744 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kozak M: The scanning model for translation: an update. J Cell Biol 108: 229–241 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kozak M: Context effects and inefficient initiation at non-AUG codons in eukaryotic cell free translation systems. Mol Cell Biol 9: 5073–5080 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kozak M: Circumstances and mechanisms of inhibition of translation by secondary structure in eukaryotic mRNAs. Mol Cell Biol 9: 5134–5142 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Kozak M: Downstream secondary structure facilitates recognition of initiator codons by eukaryotic ribosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 8301–8305 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kozak M: Effects of long 5′ leader sequences on initiation by eukaryotic ribosomes in vitro. Gene Exp 1: 117–125 (1991).Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Kozak M: Structural features in eukaryotic mRNAs that modulate the initiation of translation. J Biol Chem 266: 19867–19870(1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Kozak M: A consideration of alternative models for the initiation of translation in eukaryotes. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 21: 385–402 (1992).Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Kozak M: Regulation of translation in eukaryotic systems. Annu Rev Cell Biol 8: 197–225 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Kozak M: Determinants of translational fidelity and efficiency in vertebrate mRNAs. Biochimie 76: 815–821 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Kozak M: Adherence to the first-AUG rule when a second AUG codon follows closely upon the first. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 2662–2666 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Koziel MG, Beland GL, Bowman C, Carozzi NB, Crenshaw R, Crossland L, Dawson J, Desai N, Hill M, Kadwell S, Launis K, Lewis K, Maddox D, McPherson K, Meghji MR, Merlin E, Rhodes R, Warren GW, Wright M, Evola S: Field performance of elite transgenic maize plants expressing an insecticidal protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Bio/technology 11: 194–200(1993).Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kudlicki W, Kitaoka Y, Odom OW, Kramer G, Hardesty B: Elongation and folding of nascent ricin chains as peptidyl-tRNA on ribosomes — the effect of amino acid deletions on these processes. J Mol Biol 252: 203–212 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Kujawa AB, Drugeon G, Hulanicka D, Haenni A-L: Structural requirements for efficient translational frameshifting in the synthesis of the putative viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of potato leafroll virus. Nucl Acids Res 21:2165–2171 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Ladhoff AM, Uerlings I, Rosenthal S: Electron microscopic evidence of circular molecules of 9-S globin mRNA from rabbit reticulocytes. Mol Biol Rep 7: 101–106 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Lahser FC, Marsh LE, Hall TC: Contributions of the brome mosaic virus RNA-3 3′-nontranslated region to replication and translation. J Virol 67: 3295–3303 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Leathers V, Tanguay R, Kobayashi M, Gallie DR: A phylo-genetically conserved sequence within viral 3′ untranslated RNA pseudoknots regulates translation. Mol Cell Biol 13: 5331–5347 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Levis C, Astier-Manifacier S: The 5′ untranslated region of PVY RNA, even located in internal position, enables initiation of translation. Virus Genes 7: 367–379 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Li G, Rice CM: The signal for translational readthrough of a UGA codon in sindbis virus RNA involves a single cytidine residue immediately downstream of the termination codon. J Virol 67: 5062–5067 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Li YZ, Ma HM, Zhang JL, Wang ZY, Hong MM: Effects of the first intron of rice waxy gene on the expression of foreign genes in rice and tobacco protoplasts. Plant Sci 108: 181–190 (1995).Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Liebhaber SA, Cash F, Eshleman SS: Translation inhibition by an mRNA coding region secondary structure is determined by its proximity to the AUG initiation codon. J Mol Biol 226: 609–621 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Lim VI: Analysis of action of the wobble adenine on codon reading within the ribosome. J Mol Biol 252: 277–282 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Liu C-N, Rubinstein I: Transcriptional characterization of an α-zein gene cluster in maize. Plant Mol Biol 22: 323–336 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Lodish HF, Rose JK: Relative importance of 7-methylguanosine in ribosome binding and translation of VSV mRNA in wheat germ and reticulocyte cell-free systems. J Biol Chem 252: 1181–1188(1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Lohmer S, Maddaloni M, Motto M, Salamini F, Thompson RD: Translation of the mRNA of the maize transcriptional activator opaque-2 is inhibited by upstream open reading frames present in the leader sequence. Plant Cell 5: 65–73 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Lovett PS: Nascent peptide regulation of translation. J Bact 176:6415–6417(1994).Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Lütcke HA, Chow KC, Mickel FS, Moss KA, Kern HF, Scheele GA: Selection of AUG codons differs in plants and animals. EMBO J 6: 43–48 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Luukkonen BGM, Tan W, Schwartz S: Efficiency of reinitiation of translation on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNAs is determined by the length of the upstream open reading frame and by the intercistronic distance. J Virol 69: 4086–4094 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Mac Farlane SA, Taylor SC, King DI, Hughes G, Davies JW: Pea early browning virus RNA1 encodes four polypeptides including a putative zinc-finger protein. Nucl Acids Res 17: 2245–2260(1989).Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Makinen K, Naess V, Tamm T, Truve E, Aaspollu A, Saarma M: The putative replicase of the cocksfoot mottle sobemovir-us is translated as a part of the polyprotein by — 1 ribosomal frameshift. Virology 207: 566–571 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Malkin LI, Rich A: Partial resistance of nascent polypeptide chains to proteolytic digestion due to ribosomal shielding. J Mol Biol 26: 329–346 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Maquat LE: When cells stop making sense: Effects of nonsense codons on RNA metabolism in vertebrate cells. RNA 1:453–465(1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Mayfield SP, Yohn CB, Cohen A, Danon A: Regulation of chloroplast gene expression. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 46: 147–166 (1995).Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Mazier M, Levis C, Chaybani R, Astier-Manifacier S, Tourneur J, Robaglia C: Enhancement of translational activity mediated by poty viral 5′-untranslated sequence in vivo but not in vitro. C R Acad Sci Ser III 317: 1065–1072 (1994).Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    McCarthy JEG, Kollmus H: Cytoplasmic mRNA-protein interactions in eukaryotic gene expression. Trends Biochem Sci 20: 191–197 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    McCaughan KK, Brown CM, Dalphin ME, Berry MJ, Tate WP: Translational termination efficiency in mammals is influenced by the base following the stop codon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 5431–5435 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Mehdi H, Ono E, Gupta KC: Initiation of translation at CUG, GUG and ACG codons in mammalian cells. Gene 91: 173–178 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Merrick WC: Mechanism and regulation of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Microbiol Rev 56: 291–315 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Merrick WC: Eukaryotic protein synthesis — an in vitro analysis. Biochimie 76: 822–830 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Meulewater F, Cornelissen M, Van Emmelo J: Subgenomic RNAs mediate expression of cistrons located internally on the genomic RNA of tobacco necrosis virus strain A. J Virol 66: 6419–6428 (1992).Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Michelet B, Lukaszewicz M, Dupriez V, Boutry M: A plant plasma membrane proton-ATPase gene is regulated by development and environment and shows signs of a translational regulation. Plant Cell 6: 1375–1389 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Miller PF, Hinnebusch AG: Sequences that surround the stop codons of upstream open reading frames in GCN4 mRNA determine their distinct functions in translational control. Genes Devel 3: 1217–1225 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Miller WA, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Paul CP: Luteovirus gene expression. Crit Rev Plant Sci 14: 179–211 (1995).Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Mirkov TE, Mathews DM, Du Plessis DH, Dodds JA: Nucleotide sequence and translation of satellite tobacco mosaic virus RNA. Virology 170: 139–146 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Moffat JG, Tate WP, Lovett PS: The leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol resistance genes inhibit translation termination. J Bact 176: 7115–7117(1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Mohan BR, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Miller WA: Genes and exacting sequences involved in replication of barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV RNA. Virology 212: 186–195 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Morch MD, Boyer JC, Haenni AL: Overlapping open reading frames revealed by complete nucleotide sequencing of turnip yellow mosaic virus genomic RNA. Nucl Acids Res 16: 6157–6173(1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Morelli JK, Shewmaker CK, Vayda ME: Biphasic stimulation of translational activity correlates with induction of translation elongation factor 1 subunit alpha upon wounding in potato tubers. Plant Physiol 106: 897–903 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Mottagui-Tabar S, Bjornsson A, Issaksson LA: The second to last amino acid in the nascent peptide as a codon context determinant. EMBO J 13: 249–257 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Munroe D, Jacobson A: Tales of poly(A): a review. Gene 91: 151–158(1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Munroe D, Jacobson A: mRNA poly(A) tail, a 3′ enhancer of translation initiation. Mol Cell Biol 10: 3441–3455 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Murray EE, Lotzer J, Eberle M: Codon usage in plant genes. Nucl Acids Res 17: 477–493 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Murray EE, Rocheleau T, Eberle M, Stock C, Sekar V, Adang M: Analysis of unstable RNA transcripts of insecticidal crystal protein genes of Bacillus thuringiensis in transgenic plants and electroporated protoplasts. Plant Mol Biol 16: 1035–1050 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Nelson EM, Winkler MM: Regulation of mRNA entry into polysomes: parameters affect polysome size and the fraction of mRNA in polysomes. J Biol Chem 262: 11501–11506 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Nicolaisen M, Johansen E, Poulsen GB, Borkhardt B: The 5′ untranslated region of pea seedborne mosaic potyvirus RNA as a translational enhancer in pea and tobacco protoplasts. FEBS Lett 303: 169–172 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Nover L, Scharf K-D, Neumann D: Cytoplasmic heat shock granules are formed from precursor particles and are associated with a specific set of mRNAs. Mol Cell Biol 9: 1298–1308 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Oh S-K, Scott MP, Sarnow P: Homeotic gene antennapedia mRNA contains 5′-noncoding sequences that confer translation initiation by internal ribosome binding. Genes Devel 6: 1643–1653 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Ohlmann T, Rau M, Morley SJ, Pain VM: Proteolytic cleavage of initiation factor eIF-4-Gamma in the reticulocyte lysate inhibits translation of capped mRNAs but enhances that of uncapped mRNAs. Nucl Acids Res 23: 334–340 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Oliveira CC, McCarthy JEG: The relationship between euk-aryotic translation and mRNA stability — a short upstream open reading frame strongly inhibits translational initiation and greatly accelerates mRNA degradation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 270: 8936–8943 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Pain VM: Translational control during amino acid starvation. Biochimie 76: 718–728 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Pande S, Vimaladithan A, Zhao H, Farabaugh PJ: Pulling the ribosome out of frame by +1 at a programmed frameshift site by cognate binding of aminoacy-tRNA. Mol Cell Biol 15: 298–304(1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Peabody DD: Translation initiation at non-AUG triplets in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 264: 5031–5035 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Pease RJ, Leiper RJ, Harrison GB, Scott J: Studies on the translocation of the amino terminus of apolipoprotein B into the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem 270: 7261–7271 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Pelham HRB: Leaky UAG termination codon in tobacco virus RNA. Nature 272: 469–471 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Pelham HRB: Translation of tobacco rattle virus RNAs in vitro: four proteins from three RNAs. Virology 97: 256–265 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Pelletier J, Sonenberg N: Internal initiation of translation of eukaryotic mRNA directed by a sequence derived from poliovirus RNA. Nature 334: 320–325 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Perlak FJ, Fuchs RL, Dean DA, McPherson SL, Fischhoff DA: Modification of the coding sequence enhances plant expression of insect control protein genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:3324–3328(1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Pinck M, Fritsch C, Ravelonandro M, Thivent C, Pinck L: Binding of ribosomes to the 5′ leader sequence (N = 258) of RNA 3 from alfalfa mosaic virus. Nucl Acids Res 9: 1087–1100(1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Pitto L, Gallie DR, Walbot V: The role of the leader sequence during thermal repression of translation in maize, tobacco and carrot protoplasts Plant Physiol 100: 1827–1833 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Pooggin MM, Skryabin KG: The 5′-untranslated leader sequence of potato virus X RNA enhances the expression of a heterologous gene in vivo. Mol Gen Genet 234: 329–331 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Poole ES, Brown CM, Tate WR: The identity of the base following the stop codon determines the efficiency of in vivo translational termination in Escherichia coli. EMBO J 14: 151–158.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Potapov AP, Trianaalonso FJ, Nierhaus KH: Ribosomal decoding processes at codons in the A or P sites depend differently on 22032-OH groups. J Biol Chem 270: 17680–17684 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Prats H, Kaghad M, Prats AC, Klagsbrun M, Lelias JM, Liauzin P, Chalon P, Tauber JP, Amalric F, Smith JA, Caput D: High molecular mass forms of basic fibroblast growth factor are initiated by alternative CUG codons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 1836–1840(1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Prüfer D, Tacke E, Schmitz J, Kull B, Kaufmann A, Rohde W: Ribosomal frameshifting in plants: A novel signal directs the — 1 frameshift in the synthesis of the putative replicase of potato leafroll luteovirus. EMBO J 11: 1111–1117 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Putterill JJ, Gardner RC: Initiation of translation of the β-glucuronidase reporter gene at internal AUG codons in plant cells. Plant Sci 62: 199–205 (1989).Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Quaedvlieg N, Dockx J, Rook F, Weisbeek P, Smeekens S: The homeobox gene ATH1 of Arabidopsis is derepressed in the photomorphogenic mutants cop1 and det1. Plant Cell 7: 117–129(1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Reinbothe S, Reinbothe C, Parthier B: Methyl jasmonate represses translation initiation of a specific set of mRNAs in barley. Plant J 4: 459–467 (1993).Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Rhoads RE: Cap recognition and the entry of mRNA into the protein synthesis cycle. Trends Biochem Sci 13: 52–56 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Rhoads RE: Regulation of eukaryotic protein synthesis by initiation factors. J Biol Chem 268: 3017–3020 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Riechmann JL, Lain S, Garcia JA: Identification of the initiation codon of plum pox potyvirus genomic RNA. Virology 185:544–552(1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Riis B, Rattan SIS, Clark BFC, Merrick WC: Eukaryotic protein elongation factors. Trends Biochem Sci 15: 420–424 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Rochaix J-D: Post-transcriptional steps in the expression of chloroplast genes. Annu Rev Cell Biol 8: 1–28 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Rochon DM, Johnston JC: Infectious transcripts from cloned cucumber necrosis virus cDNA: evidence for a bifunctional subgenomic RNA. Virology 181: 656–665 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Rogers SG, Fraley RT, Horsch RB, Levine AD, Flick JS, Brand LA, Fink CL, Mozer T, O’Connel K, Sanders PR: Evidence for ribosome scanning during translation initiation of mRNAs in transformed plant cells. Plan Mol Biol Rep 3: 111–116(1985).Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Rohde W, Gramstat A, Schmitz J, Tacke E, Prüfer D: Plant viruses as model systems for the study of non-canonical translation mechanisms in higher plants. J Gen Virol 75: 2141–2149 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Rothnie HM, Chapdelaine Y, Hohn T: Pararetroviruses and retroviruses: a comparative review of viral structure and gene expression strategies. Adv Virus Res 44: 1–67 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Ryabov EV, Generozov EV, Kendall TL, Lommel SA, Zavriev SK: Nucleotide sequence of carnation ringspot dianthovirus RNA-1. J Gen Virol 75: 243–247 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Ryabova LA, Torgashov AF, Kurnasosv OV, Bubunenko MG, Spirin AS: The 3′-terminal untranslated region of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 facilitates the RNA entry into translation in a cell-free system. FEBS Lett 326: 264–266 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Ryazanov AG, Rudkin BB, Spirin AS: Regulation of protein synthesis at the elongation stage. FEBS Lett 285: 170–175 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Sachs AB, Davies RW: The poly (A) binding protein is required for poly(A) shortening and 60S ribosomal subunit-dependent translation initiation. Celol 58: 857–867 (1989).Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Saier MH: Differential codon usage — A safeguard against inappropriate expression of specialized genes. FEBS Lett 362: 1–4 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Scheper GC, Voorma HO, Thomas AAM: Basepairing with 18S ribosomal RNA in internal initiation of translation. FEBS Lett 352: 271–275 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Schöffl F, Rieping M, Baumann G, Bevan M, Angermüller S: The function of plant heat shock promoter elements in the regulated expression of chimaeric genes in transgenic tobacco. Mol Gen Genet 217: 246–253 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Scholthof HB, Gowda S, Wu FC, Shepherd RJ: The full-length transcript of caulimovirus is a polycistronic mRNA whose genes are transactivated by the product of gene VI. J Virol 66: 3131–3139 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Scholthof HB, Wu FC, Gowda S, Shepherd RJ: Regulation of caulimovirus gene expression and the involvement of cis-acting elements on both viral transcripts. Virology 190: 403–412 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Scholthof KGB, Scholthof HB, Jackson AO: The tomato bushy stunt virus replicase proteins are coordinately expressed and membrane associated. Virology 208: 365–369 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Schultze M, Hohn T, Jiricny J: The reverse transcriptase gene of cauliflower mosaic virus is translated separately form the capsid gene. EMBO J 9: 1177–1185 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Sedman SA, Gelembiuk GW, Mertz JE: Translation initiation at a downstream AUG occurs with increased efficiency when the upstream AUG is located very close to the 5′ cap. J Virol 64: 453–457 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Sha YS, Broglio EP, Cannon JF, Schoelz JE: Expression of a plant viral polycistronic mRNA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediated by a plant virus translational transactiv-ator. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 8911–8915 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Shakin SH, Liebhaber SA: Destabilization of messenger RNA/complementary DNA duplexes by the elongating 80S ribosome. J Biol Chem 261: 16018–16025 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Shen LX, Tinoco I: The structure of an RNA pseudoknot that causes efficient frameshifting in mouse mammary tumor virus. J Mol Biol 247: 963–978 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Shen Q, Leonard JL, Newburger PE: Structure and function of the selenium translation element in the 3′-untranslated region of human cellular glutathione peroxidase mRNA. RNA 1: 519–525(1995).Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Shirako Y, Wilson TMA: Complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the bipartite RNA genome of soil-borne wheat mosaic virus. Virology 195: 16–32 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Sieliwanowicz B: The influence of poly(A)-binding proteins on translation of poly(A)+ RNA in a cell-free system from embryo axes of dry pea seeds. Biochim Biophys Acta 908: 54–59 (1987).Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Skadsen RW, Scandalios JG: Translational control of photo-induced expression of the Cat2 catalase gene during leaf development in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 2785–2789 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Skuzeski JM, Nichols LM, Gesteland RF: Analysis of leaky viral translation termination codons in vivo by transient expression of improved β-glucuronidase vectors. Plant Mol Biol 15:65–79(1990).Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Skuzeski JM, Nichols LM, Gesteland RF, Atkins JF: The signal for a leaky UAG stop codon in several plant viruses includes the two downstream codons. J Mol Biol 218: 365–373 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Sleat DE, Gallie DR, Jefferson RA, Bevan MW, Turner, PC Wilson TMA: Characterization of the 5′-leader of tobacco mosaic virus RNA as a general enhancer of translation in vitro. Gene 60: 217–225 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Sleat DE, Hull R, Turner PC, Wilson TMA: Studies on the mechanism of translational enhancement by the 5′-leader sequences of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. Eur J Biochem 175: 75–86(1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Slovin JP, Tobin EM: Synthesis and turnover of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein in Lemna gibba grown with intermittent red light: possible translational control. Planta 154: 465–474 (1982).Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Smirnyagina EV, Morozov S Y, Radionova NP, Miroschnichenko NA, Solovyev AG, Fedorkin ON, Atabekov JG: Translational efficiency and competitive ability of mRNAs with 5′-untranslated αβ-leader of potato virus X RNA. Biochimie 73: 587–598 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Smith D, Yarus M: tRNA-tRNA interactions within cellular ribosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 4397–4401 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Somogyi P, Jenner AJ, Brierley, I, Inglis SC: Ribosomal pausing during translation of an RNA pseudoknot. Mol Cell Biol 13:6931–6940(1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Sonenberg N: Picornavirus RNA translation continues to surprise. Trends Genet 7: 105–106 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Springer BA, Sligar SG: High-level expression of sperm whale myoglobin in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 8961–8965(1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Standart N, Jackson RJ: Regulation of translation by specific protein mRNA interactions. Biochimie 76: 867–879 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Stansfield I, Jones KM, Kushnirov VV, Dagkesamanskaya AR, Poznyakowski AI, Paushkin SV, Nierras CR, Cox BS, Ter-Avanesyan MD, Tuite MF: The products of the SUP45 (eRF1) and SUP35 genes interact to mediate translation termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J 14: 4365–4373 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Stansfield I, Jones KM, Tuite MF: The end in sight: terminating translation in eukaryotes. Trend Biochem Sci 20: 489–491 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Strazielle C, Benoit H, Hirth L: Particularités structurales de l’acide ribonucléique extrait du virus de la mosaïque jaune du navet. II. J Mol Biol 13: 735–748 (1965).Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Sullivan ML, Green PJ: Post-transcriptional regulation of nuclear-encoded genes in higher plants: the roles of mRNA stability and translation. Plant Mol Biol 23: 1091–1104 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Suzuki N, Sugawara M, Kusano T: Rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment S12 transcript is tricistronic in vitro. Virology 191: 992–995 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Tacke E, Prüfer D, Salamini F, Rohde W: Characterization of a potato leafroll luteovirus subgenomic RNA: differential expression by internal translation initiation and UAG suppression. J Gen Virol 71: 2265–2272 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Tacke E, Kull B, Prüfer D, Reinold S, Schmitz J, Salamini F, Rohde W: PLRV expression in potato. In: Bills DD, Kung S-D (eds) Viral Pathogenesis and Disease Resistance. World Scientific Publishing, River Edge (1994).Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Tahara SM, Dietlin TA, Dever TE, Merrick WC, Worrilow LM: Effect of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F on AUG selection in a bicistronic mRNA. J Biol Chem 266: 3594–3601 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Takahashi H, Shimamoto K, Ehara Y: Cauliflower mosaic virus gene VI causes growth suppression, development of necrotic spots and expression of defence-related genes in transgenic tobacco plants. Mol Gen Genet 216: 188–194 (1989).Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    Tamada T, Kusume T: Evidence that the 75K readthrough protein of beet necrotic yellow vein virus RNA-2 is essential for transmission by the fungus Polymyxa betae. J Gen Virol 72: 1497–1504(1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Tanaka T, Nishihara M, Seki M, Sakamoto A, Tanaka K, Irifune K, Morikawa H: Successful expression in pollen of various plant species of in vitro synthesized mRNA introduced by particle bombardment. Plant Mol Biol 28: 337–341 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Taylor JL, Jones JDG, Sandler S, Mueller GM, Bedbrook J, Dunsmuir P: Optimizing the expression of chimeric genes in plant cells. Mol Gen Genet 210: 572–577 (1987).Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Ten Dam EB, Pleij CWA, Bosch L: RNA pseudoknots: trans-lational frameshifting and readthrough on viral RNAs. Virus Genes 4: 121–136(1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Ten Dam EB, Verlaan PWG, Pleij CWA: Analysis of the role of the pseudoknot component in the SRV-1 gag-pro ribosomal frameshift signal — Loop lengths and stability of the stem regions. RNA 1: 146–154 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Thach RE: Cap recap: the involvement of eIF-4F in regulating gene expression. Cell 68: 177–180 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Thomas AAM, Scheper GC, Voorma HO: Hypothesis: is euk-aryotic initiation factor 2 the scanning factor? New Biol 4: 404–407 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Thomas AAM, Ter Haar E, Wellink J, Voorma HO: Cowpea mosaic virus middle component RNA contains a sequence that allows internal binding of ribosomes and that requires eukaryotic initiation factor 4F for optimal translation. J Virol 65:2953–2959(1991).Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Timmer RT, Benkowski LA, Schodin D, Lax SR, Metz AM, Ravel JM, Browning KS: The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA affect translational efficiency and dependence on a 5′ cap structure. J Biol Chem 268:9504–9510(1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Tomashevskaya OL, Solovyev AG, Karpova OV, Fedor-kin ON, Rodionova P, Morozov, SY, Atabekov JG: Effects of sequence elements in the potato virus X RNA 5′-non-translated αβ-leader on its translation enhancing activity. J Gen Virol 74: 2717–2724 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Tu C, Tzeng TW, Bruenn JA: Ribosomal movement impeded at a pseudoknot required for frameshifting. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 8636–8640 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Tulin EE, Tsutsumi K, Eijiri S: Continuously coupled transcription-translation system for the production of rice cytoplasmic aldolase. Biotech Bioeng 45: 511–516 (1995).Google Scholar
  338. 338.
    Tuite MF, Stansfield I: Translation — Knowing when to stop. Nature 372: 614–615 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Turner R, Bate N, Twell D, Foster GD: Analysis of a translational enhancer upstream from the coat protein open reading frame of potato virus S. Arch Virol 134: 321–333 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Tyc K, Konarska M, Gross HJ, Filipowicz W: Multiple ribo-some binding to the 5′-terminal leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. Assembly of an 80S ribosome-mRNA complex at an AUU codon. Eur J Biochem 140: 503–511 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Tzeng T-H, Tu C-L, Bruenn JA: Ribosomal frameshifting requires a pseudoknot in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae double-stranded RNA virus. J Virol 66: 999–1006 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Vagner S, Gensac M-C, Maret A, Bayard F, Amalric F, Prats H, Prats A-C: Alternative translation of human fibroblast growth factor 2 mRNA occurs by internal entry of ribosomes Mol Cell Biol 15: 35–44 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Vagner S, Waysbort A, Marenda M, Gensac MC, Amalric F, Prats AC: Alternative translation initiation of the Moloney murine leukemia virus mRNA controlled by internal ribosome entry involving the p57/PTB splicing factor. J Biol Chem 270: 20376–20383 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Valle RPC, Morch M-D: Stop making sense. Regulation at the level of termination in eukaryotic protein synthesis. FEBS Lett 235: 1–15(1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Valle RPC, Haenni A-L: Peptide chain termination. In: Trach-sel H (ed) Translation in Eukaryotes, pp. 177–189. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1991).Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    Valle RPC, Drugeon G, Devignes-Morch MD, Legocki AB, Haenni A-L: Codon context effects in virus translational read-through. A study in vitro of the determinants of TMV and Mo-MuLV amber suppression. FEBS Lett 306: 133–139 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Vancanneyt G, Rosahl S, Willmitzer L: Translatability of plant mRNAs strongly influences its accumulation in transgenic plants. Nucl Acids Res 18: 2917–2921 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Vayda ME, Shewmaker CK, Morelli JK: Translational arrest in hypoxic potato tubers is correlated with the aberrant association of elongation factor EF-1-alpha with polysomes. Plant Mol Biol 28: 751–757 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Veidt I, Bouzoubaa SE, Leiser R-M, Ziegler-Graf V, Guilley H, Richards K, Jonard G: Synthesis of full-length transcripts of beet western yellows virus RNA: messenger properties and biological activity in protoplasts. Virology 186: 192–200 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Verver J, Le Gall O, Van Kammen A, Wellink J: The sequence between nucleotides 161 and 512 of cowpea mosaic virus M RNA is able to support internal initiation of translation in vitro. J Gen Virol 72: 2339–2345 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Vimaladithan A, Farabaugh PJ: Special peptidyl-tRNA molecules can promote translational frameshift without slippage. Mol Cell Biol 14: 8107–8116 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Wandelt C, Feix G: Sequence of a maize 21 kd zein gene from maize containing an in-frame stop codon. Nucl Acids Res 17: 2354(1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Wang S, Miller WA: A sequence located 4.5 to 5 kilobases from the 5′ end of the barley yellow dwarf virus (PAV) genome strongly stimulates translation of uncapped RNA. J Biol Chem 270: 13446–13452 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Webster C, Kim C-Y, Roberts JKM: Elongation and termination reactions of protein synthesis on maize root tip polysomes studied in a homologous cell-free system. Plant Physiol 96: 418–425(1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Weiland J, Dreher TW: Infectious TYMV RNA from cloned cDNA: Effects in vitro and in vivo of point substitutions in the initiation codons of two extensively overlapping ORFs. Nucl Acids Res 17: 4675–4687 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Weiss R, Dunn DM, Shuh M, Atkins JF, Gesteland RF: E. coli ribosomes re-phase on retroviral frameshift signals at rates ranging from 2–50 percent. New Biol 1: 159–169 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Weiss RB, Huang WM, Dunn DM: A nascent peptide is required for ribosomal bypass of the coding gap in bacteriophage T4 gene 60. Cell 62: 117–126 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Werner M, Feller A, Messenguy F, Piérard A: The leader peptide of yeast gene CPA1 is essential for the translational repression of its expression. Cell 49: 805–813 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Wiedmann B, Sakai H, Davies TA, Wiedmann M: A protein complex required for signal-sequence-specific sorting and translocation. Nature 370: 434–440 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Wills NM, Gesteland RF, Atkins JF: Evidence that a downstream pseudoknot is required for translational readthrough of the Moloney murine leukemia virus gag stop codon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 6991–6995 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Wills NM, Gesteland RF, Atkins JF: Pseudoknot-dependent read-through of retroviral gag termination codons: importance of sequences in the spacer of loop 2. EMBO J 13: 4137–4144 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Wolin SL, Walter P: Ribosome pausing and stacking during translation of a eukaryotic mRNA. EMBO J 7: 3559–3569 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Xiong Z, Kim KH, Kendall TL, Lommel SA: Synthesis of the putative red clover necrotic mosaic virus RNA polymerase by ribosomal frameshifting in vitro. Virology 193: 213–221 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Yonath A, Leonard KR, Wittmann HG: A tunnel in the large ribosomal subunit revealed by three-dimensional image reconstruction. Science 236: 813–816 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Yoshinaka Y, Katoh I, Copeland TD, Oroszlan S: Translational readthrough of an amber termination codon during synthesis of feline leukemia virus protease. J Virol 55: 870–873 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Zaccomer B, Haenni A-L, Macaya G: The remarkable variety of plant virus genomes. J Gen Virol 76: 231–247 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Zelenina DA, Kulaeva OI, Smirnyagina EV, Solovyev AG, Miroshnichenko NA, Fedorkin ON, Rodionova NP, Morozov SY, Atabekov JG: Translation enhancing properties of the 5′-leader of potato virus X genomic RNA. FEBS Lett 296: 267–270(1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Zerfass K, Beier H: Pseudouridine in the anticodon GΨA of plant cytoplasmic tRNATyr is required for UAG and UAA suppression in the TMV specific context. Nucl Acids Res 20: 5911–5918 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Zerfass K, Beier H: The leaky UGA termination codon of tobacco rattle virus RNA is suppressed by tobacco chloroplast and cytoplasmic tRNAsTrp with CmCA anticodon. EMBO J 11:4167–4173(1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Zeyenko VV, Ryabova LA, Gallie DR, Spirin AS: Enhancing effect of the 3′-untranslated region of tobacco mosaic virus RNA on protein synthesis in vitro. FEBS Lett 354: 271–273 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Zhang SP, Goldman E, Zubay G: Clustering of low usage codons and ribosomal movement. J Theor Biol 170: 339–3554 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Zhouraleva G, Frolova L, Le Goff X, Le Guellec R, Inge-Vechtomov S, Kisselev L, Philippe M: Termination of translation in eukaryotes is governed by two interacting polypeptide chain release factors, eRF1 and eRF3. EMBO J 14: 4065–4072(1995).Google Scholar
  373. 373.
    Ziegler V, Richards K, Guilley H, Jonard G, Putz C: Cell-free translation of beet-necrotic yellow vein virus: read-through of the coat protein cistron. J Gen Virol 66: 2079–2087 (1985).Google Scholar
  374. 374.
    Zijlstra C, Hohn T: Cauliflower mosaic virus gene VI controls translation from dicistronic expression units in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell 4: 1471–1484 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Zimmer A, Zimmer AM, Reynolds K: Tissue specific expression of the retinoic acid receptor-beta-2: Regulation by short open reading frames in the 5′-noncoding region. J Cell Biol 127: 1111–1119(1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes Fütterer
    • 1
  • Thomas Hohn
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Plant SciencesETHZZürichGermany
  2. 2.Friedrich Miescher InstituteBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations