Tolerance to Aluminium in Spring Triticales
The results from many experiments conducted over 4 years to determine the tolerance of 169 entries of Polish spring triticale and 63 entries of spring triticale from CIMMYT to aluminium are summarized. All experiments were conducted in nutrient solutions at varying aluminium concentrations (5, 15 and 25 ppm). The LD50 concentration of Al ions (ppm) was determined for each entry. All cultivars, strains and lines were classifed as very sensitive (LD50 <5ppm), moderately sensitive (LD50 5–15ppm), moderately tolerant (LD50 15–25ppm) or tolerant (LD50 >25ppm).
Most of Polish and CIMMYT’s spring triticales was ranked in the moderately sensitive and moderately tolerant categories. A greater number of Al-tolerant lines was found among CIMMYT’s lines (18 genotypes) than Polish strains (14). The pedigrees of the most Al-tolerant Polish strains could be traced to closely related lines; however, a wide range of tolerance levels to aluminium was found among strains of similar origin. Advanced lines with 6D/6A substitution from CIMMYT often exhibitied a higher percentage of seedlings with root regrowth than lines with the unmodified (AABBRR) chromosome constitution at different concentrations of Al ions in nutrient solutions.
Among 26 lines from 1990 twelve had 6D/6A substitution and the remaining 14 lines had an unmodified AABBRR chromosome constitution. A comparison between the average level of Al tolerance of lines with 6D/6A substitution and average level of Al tolerance of the unmodified ones showed that the occurance of tolerant seedlings was much more frequent among the former than among the latter. Such differences were especially evident at the aluminium concentration of 25 ppm [Table 6]. This phenomenon, probably in part, explains the expansion of genotypes with 6D/6A substitution among advaned lines at CIMMYT (A.J. Lukaszewski, personal communication). However, a wide range of categories of Al tolerance was found both among lines with 6D/6A and among unmodified ones [Table 7]. Neverthless, the presence of a new chromosomal constitution suggests that the optimal karyotype has not been determined and, probably, a single optimal chromosomal configuration for all conditions is unlikely [9, 10].
The germplasm from CIMMYT has been used as a source of a new variability by breeders from many triticale breeding centries. The results given in the Tables indicate that incorporation of the CIMMYT’s germplasm into Polish triticale remais a suitable way to improve Al tolerance.
KeywordsChromosome Constitution Moderately Tolerant Hexaploid Triticale Polish Strain Spring Cereal
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