Advertisement

Timber Frame Historic Structures and the Local Seismic Culture—An Argumentation

  • Maria Bostenaru Dan
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Hazards book series (ENHA)

Abstract

In this argumentation we will present different viewpoints on the matter that timber skeleton structures are constructive types that are characteristic for zones with high seismicity. Within this scope, we have done research on structures with timber skeleton through the published literature and in the field. Some of these constructive types are vernacular, other resulted from following seismic codes elaborated by the political authorities in periods as far back as the Baroque. Although these structures sustain the hypothesis of local seismic culture, the type is also spread in coastal cities, especially in zones with adequate wood as a resource, which is the “winning” argument.

Keywords

Local seismic culture Architecture resource Construction materials Diagonals Spatial distribution Traditional architecture Vernacular Timber 

References

  1. Antonucci R, Balducci F, Castellano MG, Ahmadi H, Goodchild I, Fuller K (2001) Viscoelastic dampers for seismic protection of buildings: an application to existing buildings. In: Proceedings of the 5th world congress on joints, bearings and seismic systems for concrete structures, RomeGoogle Scholar
  2. Borgogno W (2001) Erdbebenertüchtigung eines Hochhauses, CFK-Lamellen und – Schubwinkel zur Verstärkung von Mauerwerk [Seismic retrofit of a high rise building, Carbon Reinforced Polymer laminates and angles to strengthen masonry], SIA: tec21, 36 (“Erdbebensicheres Bauen” [Earthquake safe building]): 13–16 (in German)Google Scholar
  3. Bostenaru Dan M (2004a) Half-timbered house in the “border triangle” (Fachwerkhaus in Dreiländereck). In: Brzev S, Greene M (eds) World housing encyclopedia—summary publication 2004, EERI, Oakland, report # 108/SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  4. Bostenaru Dan M (2004b) Reinforced concrete frame structure with brick infill walls and diagonal bracings. In: Brzev S, Greene M (eds) World housing encyclopedia—summary publication 2004, EERI, Oakland, Report # 71/RomaniaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bostenaru Dan M (2005) Reassessment of lessons learned from multi-storey shells for space structures. In: Mihailescu M, Mircea C (eds) Proceedings of the International Symposium on shell and spatial structures, Mediamira, Cluj Napoca, vol II, p 503–510Google Scholar
  6. Bostenaru Dan M (2006) Wirtschaftlichkeit und Umsetzbarkeit von Gebäudeverstärkungsmaßnahmen zur Erdbebenertüchtigung. Grundlagen und Lösungsansatz unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Situation in Bukarest, Rumänien. [Applicability and economic efficiency of building strengthening measures for seismic retrofit. Basics and solution approach under special consideration for the situation of Bucharest, Romania]. Shaker Verlag, Aachen (in German)Google Scholar
  7. Bostenaru Dan M (2007) Építési kőanyagok kÓ§anyagok használata és a történelmi vázszerkezetű kőépületek előnyös viselkedése földrengés alatt [Using materials of the building stone and advantageous behavior of the historical stone buildings skeleton structures during earthquake], Anyagvizsgálok lapja. J Mat Testers Mag 17(1):36–42. http://www.anyagvizsgaloklapja.hu/en/old.php?cid=1069 (in Hungarian)
  8. Bostenaru Dan M (2008) “Gaiola pombalina” buildings in Portugal and Fachwerk buildings in Germany. In: Proceedings of the Historic Structures International Conference: Historic Timber Structures, 16–18 october 2008, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  9. Bostenaru Dan M (2010a) Vernacular and modernist housing in Germany and Romania. An analysis of vulnerability to Earthquakes, CuvillierGoogle Scholar
  10. Bostenaru Dan M (2010b) Historical use of concrete and innovation in architecture, in: Paulo J. S. Cruz (ed.): Structures and Architecture, CRC Press, Leiden, p 433–434. Full paper on attached CD ROMGoogle Scholar
  11. Carbajal F, Ruiz G, Schexnayder CJ (2005) Quincha Construction in Perú. Pract Period Struct Des Constr 10(1):56–62. http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0680(2005)10:1(56) Google Scholar
  12. Cardoso R, Lopes M, Bento R (2004) Earthquake resistant structures of Portuguese old ‘pombalino’ buildings. In: Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, IAEE, Vancouver, BC, Paper # 918Google Scholar
  13. Ceccotti A, Faccio P, NART M; Sandhaas C, Simeone P (2006) Seismic behaviour of historic timber-frame buildings in the Italian dolomites. Proceedings of the ICOMOS International Wood Committee 15th International Symposium, Istanbul and Rize (Turkey), September 18–23. http://www.icomos.org/iiwc/15/ceccotti.pdf
  14. Ceradini V, Bianco (2008) A the Casa Baraccata after the earthquake of 1908 in Reggio Calabria: methods of investigation for knowledge techniques and assessment of the conservative conditions. In: Binda L, di Prisco M, Felicetti R (eds) Proceedings of the International RILEM Conference on Site Assessment of Concrete, Masonry and Timber Structures SACoMaTiS 2008, 1–2 September 2008, Varenna, Como Lake, Italy, p 1209–1218. http://www.rilem.net/gene/main.php?base=500218amp;id_publication=63amp;id_papier=2410
  15. Charleson A, Preston J, Taylor M (2001) Architectural Expression of Seismic Strengthening. Earthquake Spectra 17:417–426. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1193/1.1586182
  16. Copani P (2007) Timber-frame buildings in Scandinavia: high deformation prevent the system from collapse, from material to structure—mechanical behaviour and failures of the timber structures. In: Proceedings of the ICOMOS IWC—XVI international symposium—Florence, Venice and Vicenza 11–16 November 2007. http://www.icomos.org/iiwc/16/copani.pdf
  17. Del Valle Calderon E, Foutch DA, Hjelmstad KD, Figueroa-Gutierrez E, Tena-Clunga A (1988) Seismic retrofit of a RC building: a case study, Proceedings of the Ninth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, August 2–9, 1988, Tokyo-Kyoto, Japan, Vol. VII, pp 451–456Google Scholar
  18. Del Valle, E. (1980) Some lessons from the March 14, 1979 earthquake in Mexico city, Proceedings of 7th world conference on earthquake engineering, vol 4, pp 545–552Google Scholar
  19. Dritsos S (2004) Retrofit of reinforced concrete buildings. The University of Patras, Greece (in Greek)Google Scholar
  20. Duţu A (2011) Contribuţii privind analiza comportării la seism a structurilor cu schelet din lemn şi umplutură din zidărie [Contributions to the analysis of the seismic behaviour of structures with timber skeleton and masonry infill], PhD thesis, UTCB Bucharest (in Romanian).Google Scholar
  21. European University Centre for Cultural Heritage (EUCCH: Ferrigni F, Helly B, Rideaud A.) (1993) Atlas of Local Seismic Cultures, Supplement to Stop Disasters. The United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Newsletter, 12 (March–April).Google Scholar
  22. Fardis MN (1988) Seismic assessment and retrofit of RC structures. Proceedings of the eleventh European conference on earthquake engineering—Invited lectures, Paris, France, pp 53–64Google Scholar
  23. Ferrigni F (ed) (1990) San Lorenzello A qui recherche des Anomalies protegent. CUEBC, RavelloGoogle Scholar
  24. Ferrigni F, Helly B, Rideaud A, Valiante M (1993) Atlas of Local Seismic Cultures, European University Centre for Cultural HeritageGoogle Scholar
  25. Georgescu ES (1994) Characteristics of local seismic culture in Romania. The 4th Intensive Course on seismic vulnerability of old buildings and local cultures. European University Centre for Cultural Heritage, CUEBC, RavelloGoogle Scholar
  26. Georgescu ES (1995) Local seismic culture in Romania—Transylvania Investigation of medieval buildings. The 5th Intensive Course on seismic vulnerability of old buildings and local cultures. CUEBC, RavelloGoogle Scholar
  27. Georgescu ES (1997) Aspects of local seismic culture in Romania compared to other Mediterranean countries. The 7th Intensive course on reducing vulnerability of century existing buildings fund by rediscovering local seismic culture. CUEBC, RavelloGoogle Scholar
  28. Gonzalez Ridondo E, Aroca Hernández-Ros R (2003) Wooden framed structures in Madrid domestic architecture of the 17th to 18th centuries. In: Proceedings of the first international congress on construction history. Instituto Juan de Herrera, MadridGoogle Scholar
  29. Grant DN, Bommer JJ, Pinho R, Calvi GM, Goretti A, Meroni F (2007) A prioritization scheme for seismic intervention in school buildings in Italy. Earthquake Spectra 23:291–314. doi:10.1193/1.2722784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gülkan P, Langenbach R (2004) The earthquake resistance of masonry and timber buildings in Turkey. In: Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Vancouver, BC, Paper # 2297Google Scholar
  31. Helly B (1995) Local seismic cultures: a European research program for the protection of traditional housing stock. Annali di Geofisica, vol XXXVIII, (5–6):791–794Google Scholar
  32. Higashi Y, Endo T, Shimizu Y (1984) Experimental studies on retrofitting of reinforced concrete buildings. Proceedings of Eighth World Conferencce on Earthquake Engineering. San Francisco, United States, vol. 4, pp 477–484Google Scholar
  33. Institutul Central de Cercetare, Proiectare şi Directivare în Construcţii [Central Institute of Research, Design and Guidelines in Construction] (ICCPDC) (1989) Locuinţa sătească din România. Studii de arhitectură tradiţională în vederea conservării şi valorificării prin tipizare [Village housing in Romania. Studies of traditional architecture for the conservation and valorisation through typisation] (in Romanian)Google Scholar
  34. Karababa F (2007) Local practices construction seismic vulnerability reduction as a means to sustainable development and, PhD Thesis. University of Cambridge. http://www.islandvulnerability.org/europeanunion.html and http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Faye_Karababa/publication/
  35. Lachner C (1887) Geschickte der Holzbaukunst in Deutschland [History of the art of construction in timber in Germany], EA Seemann, Leipzig, 1887. (Reprinted in “Libri rari”, Hannover, Germany, 1983), 1–132 and 1–130 (first part the South-German subtype, the second part the North-German subtype) (in German)Google Scholar
  36. Lang D, Merlos R, Holliday L, Lopez Menjivar MA (2007) Vivienda de Bahareque, World Housing Encyclopedia Report, available online at http://www.world-housing.net/whereport1view.php?id=100159. Accessed 6 Oct 2011
  37. Langenbach R (2007) From “Opus Craticium” to the “Chicago Frame”: earthquake-resistant traditional construction. Int J Archit Heritage 1(1):29–59. doi:10.1080/15583050601125998, free access at the online version of the journal as indicated in the articleGoogle Scholar
  38. Langenbach R (2009) Do not tear it down! Preserving the earthquake resistant vernacular architecture of Kashmir. UNESCO, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  39. Langenbach R, Kelley S, Sparks P, Rowell K, Hammer M, Olsen JJ, Ed. Avrami E (2010) Preserving Haiti’s Gingerbread houses: 2010 earthquake mission report, World Monuments Fund. http://www.wmf.org/dig-deeper/publication/preserving-haiti%E2%80%99s-gingerbread-houses-2010-earthquake-mission-report
  40. Makarios T, Demosthenous M (2006) Seismic response of traditional buildings of Lefkas Island, Greece. Eng Struct 28:264–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Miranda E, Bertero VV (1990) Post-tensioning techniques for seismic upgrading of existing low-rise buildings. Proceedings of the fourth US national conference on earthquake engineering, Palm Springs, California, Vol. 3, pp 393–402Google Scholar
  42. Niglio O, Ulivieri D (2005) Vernacular architecture and “historical seismography” yearly research experience. In Modena C, Lourenço and Roca P (eds) Structural analysis of historical constructions, Taylor & Francis, London, p 203–212Google Scholar
  43. Öztürk G, Bostenaru Dan M (2007) Comparative study of FRP seismic retrofit of existing URM infilled RC structures from a construction management point of view. In: Triantafillou TC (ed) Proceedings of the 8th international symposium on fiber-reinforced polymer reinforcement for concrete structures, 16–18 July, 2007. University of Patras, p 434–435Google Scholar
  44. Penelis G, Kappos AJ (1997) Earthquake resistant concrete structures. E & FN Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Phillips AA (1984) Gingerbread houses: Haiti’s endangered species. H. Deschamps, Port-au-Prince (first edition 1975)Google Scholar
  46. Ponzo FC, Di Cesare A, Arleo G, Totaro P (2010) Protezione sismica di edifici esistenti con controventi dissipativi di tipo isteretico: aspetti progettuali ed esecutivi. Progettazione Sismica 4:50–75Google Scholar
  47. Schacher T (2008) Timber reinforced stone masonry in northern Pakistan in the context of the post-earthquake reconstruction efforts. In: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Seismic Risk and Rehabilitation. Faial, AzoresGoogle Scholar
  48. Tobriner S (1983) La Casa Baracca: Earthquake-Resistant Construction in 18th-Century Calabria. J Soc Archit Hist 42(2):131–138Google Scholar
  49. Tobriner S (2006) Bracing for disaster: earthquake-resistant architecture and engineering in San Francisco, 1838–1933. Heyday Books, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  50. Uhde C (1903) Die Konstruktionen und die Kunstformen der Architektur [The Constructions and the Art Forms of Architecture. Their Genesis and Historical Development at Different Nations] Vol II Der Holzbau: seine künstlerische und geschichtliche geographische Entwickelung, sowie sein Einfluss auf die Steinarchitektur, [The Timber Construction: its artistic and historical geographical development, as well as its influence on the stone architecture]. Ernst Wasmuth: Berlin (in German)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for Urban and Landscape Design“Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and UrbanismBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations