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Management of Virus and Viroid Diseases of Crops in the Tropics

  • K. Subramanya SastryEmail author
  • Thomas A. Zitter

Abstract

Virus and viroid diseases are serious constraints to the production and profitability of a wide range of tropical crops. Many plant virus outbreaks have been recorded in the last two decades around the world and the ultimate aim of the applied plant virologist is to devise measures for combating the virus and viroid diseases. Unlike mycologists and bacteriologists, virologists do not have an array of chemicals with which to attack and manage viral and viroid diseases. In the present book an attempt is made to discuss the various techniques of plant virus/viroid management that will enable the operator to break the disease cycle, and allow for normal production practices to proceed. We will examine the classical methods that include: (1) Selection of virus-free vegetative propagules and seed; (2) Role of cultural practices like plant density, barrier cropping, and time of planting; (3) Eliminating the infected source material like weeds, wild hosts and susceptible host plants; (4) Reducing the vector population by insecticides, oils and mulches; and (5) Developing the virus resistant/tolerant/transgenic plants. Resistant cultivars are one of the most efficient and effective methods of virus disease control and host resistance greatly eliminates or minimizes losses due to virus diseases. In certain crops like rice, potato, papaya, tomato, cassava, and some other crops, transgenic crops were developed and were tested under field conditions. Even in crops like cassava, tomato and rice where resistant cultivars were developed, they have failed with time because of new viral strain development due to mutations and recombination. Partial success is achieved by using the cross protection technique in certain crops like citrus, papaya and tomato. In recent years, quarantines are playing a major role in restricting disease spread through infected seed or infected planting material by identifying the virus/viroid diseases through molecular tests performed at the importing stations. Finally, as no single measure will give higher disease control, an integrated approach comprised of the selection of healthy seed/vegetative plant material, vector control through the use of insecticides/oil/aluminum or plastic mulches or barrier crops along with resistant/tolerant cultivars are providing maximum disease control in crops like rice, cassava, banana, and tomato against major virus and viroid diseases. In the present chapter the subject matter covered includes: the production of the virus free seed/planting material; vector control by non-chemical and chemical measures, developing resistant/transgenic plants; and the role of quarantines in implementing bio-safety measures. As no single measure can be expected to provide the required virus management, an integrated approach is being attempted in different parts of the world. The success stories of plant virus disease management by using integrated methods of control are discussed.

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