Improving the Mechanical Properties of Cold Rolled Asphalt Containing Cement Utilising by Product Material

  • A. Al-Hdabi
  • H. Al Nageim
  • F. Ruddock
  • L. Seton
Conference paper


Reduction of hot asphalt mixtures for the usage and development of sustainable supplementary Cold Asphalt Mixtures (CAM) for the construction of road and highway surface layers is a hot subject for researchers around the world. This will cover many advantages in terms of: environment impact, cost effectiveness and energy saving.

The aim of this study is to enhance the properties of a gap graded Cold Rolled Asphalt (CRA) containing cement as filler by addition of a by-product material as an activator. Ordinary Portland cement was added to the cold rolled asphalt as a replacement for the conventional mineral filler (0100 %), while a by-product material represents Liverpool John Moores University Additive (LJMUA) was added to the whole mix in the range from 0 to 3 % by total mass of aggregate. Laboratory tests included stiffness modulus and uniaxial creep test as indicators to the mechanical properties.

The study concluded that there is a considerable improvement in the mechanical properties from the addition of LJMUA to the CRA containing cement especially for the early life stiffness modulus that is the main disadvantage of the cold mixtures.


Creep stiffness Stiffness modulus By product material Cold asphalt mixture 


  1. 1.
    Nichollas, J. C. (2004) Asphalt Surfacings. Taylor and Francis e-Library.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thanaya, I. N. A. (2003). Improving the Performance of Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEMs) Incorporating waste Materials. UK: University of Leeds.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leech, D. (1994). Cold Bituminous Materials for Use in the Structural layers of Roads, in Traspotation Research laboratory, Project Report 75, Uk.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Head, R. W. (1974). An informal report of cold mix research using emulsified asphalt as a binder. In Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists Proceeding (AAPT).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, G., Zhao, Y., Pang, S., & Huang, W. (1998). Experimental study of Cement-Asphalt Emulsion Composite. Cement Concrete Research, 28(5).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang, Z. S., & Sha, A. (2010). Micro hardness of interface between cement asphalt emulsion mastics and aggregates. Journal of Materials and Structures, 43, 453–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    British, Standard Institution (1997). BS EN 933-Part 1: Determination of partical size distribution-sieving method-Test for Geometrical Properties of Aggregate. London, UK.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    British, Standard Institution (2006). BS EN 13108: Part 4. Bituminous Mixtures Materials specification-Hot Rolled Asphalt. London, UK.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Asphalt Institute. (1989). Asphalt Cold Mix Manual, manual series No.14 (MS-14), Maryland, USA.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    British, Standard Institution (2010). BS 594987: Asphalt for Roads and Other Paved Areas-Spacefication for Transport, Laying, Compaction and Type Testing Protocols. London, UK.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jerkins, K. (2000). Mix design consedration s for cold and half-warm bitumious mixes with emphasis on foamed asphalt. University of Stellenbosch.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    British, Standard Institution (2004). BS EN 12697: Part 26. Bitumenous Mixtures-Test Methods for Hot Mix Asphalt- Stiffness. London, UK.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    British, Standard Institution (2005). Bituminous mixtures Test methods for hot mix asphalt -Part 25: Cyclic compression test. London, UK.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Al-Hdabi
    • 1
  • H. Al Nageim
    • 1
  • F. Ruddock
    • 1
  • L. Seton
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Built EnvironmentLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.School of Pharmacy and Bimolecular ScienceLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations