BaP Air Quality Modelling Simulation Using CMAQ Air Quality Modelling System
Air Quality Modelling has become an essential tool to investigate the transport, transformation and deposition of toxic pollutants. BaP is one of the most toxic pollutants which are present in the atmosphere. Because of this reason, the Directive 2004/107/CE of the European Union establishes a target value of 1 ng/m3 of BaP in the atmosphere. In this paper, the main aim is to estimate the BaP concentrations in the atmosphere by using last generation of air quality dispersion models with the inclusion of the transport, scavenging and deposition processes for the BaP. To reach this aim, a detailed emission inventory has been developed. BaP is injected into the atmosphere as particle and the degradation of the particulate BaP by the ozone has been considered. The aerosol-gas partitioning phenomenon in the atmosphere is modeled taking into a count that the concentrations in the gas and the aerosol phases are in equilibrium. The model has been validated in the area of Zaragoza (Spain) during 10 weeks in 2010. A validation process of the BaP results obtained with the model at local scale in the atmosphere of the Zaragoza city has been conducted. The agreement is generally satisfactory with important influence of the meteorological conditions.
KeywordsIberian Peninsula Model Global Forecast System Lambert Conformal Conic Projection Lambert Conformal Conic Lower Assessment Threshold
Authors would like to thank Aula Dei-CSIC (R. Gracia), the Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICIIN) and the E plan for supporting the project CGL2009–14113-C02–01. J.M. López would also like to thank the MICIIN for his Ramón y Cajal contract. Also to thank Departamento de Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Aragón, Dirección General del Catastro del Gobierno de Aragón, Sistema de Información Territorial del Gobierno de Aragón and Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. Authors thankfully acknowledge the computer resources, technical expertise and assistance provided by the Centro de Supercomputación y Visualización de Madrid (CeSVIMa) and the Spanish Supercomputing Network (BSC).
- 1.Berdowski J et al (1997) The European emission inventory of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants for 1990. TNO-MEP and UmweltbundesamtGoogle Scholar
- 3.Byun D, Ching J (1999) Science algorithms of the EPA Models-3 Community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) ModelingSystem EPA/600/R-99/030. /http://www.epa.gov/asmdnerl/models3/doc/science/science.htmlS
- 8.Michalakes J, Chen S, Dudhia J, Hart L, Klemp J, Middlecoff J, Skamarock W (2001) Development of a next generation regional weather research and forecast model. In: Zwieflhofer W, Kreitz N (eds) Developments in teracomputing, proceedings of the ninth ECMWF workshop on the use of high performance computing in meteorology. World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Skamarock WC, Klemp JB, Dudhia J, Gill D, Barker D, Wang D, Powers JG (2005). A description of the advanced research WRF Version 2, NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-468+STRGoogle Scholar
- 13.Yarwood G, Rao S, Yocke M, Whitten G (2005) Updates to the carbon bond chemical mechanism: CB05 final report to the US EPA, RT–0400675Google Scholar