Advertisement

Carbon Materials for Fuel Cells

  • Mariano M. BrunoEmail author
  • Federico A. Viva
Chapter

Abstract

Carbon materials are fundamental for the manufacturing of fuel cells. Several fuel cell components are made entirely of carbon in a graphitic form. In the present chapter, an overview of the different fuel cell carbon components and the materials used in their preparation will be presented. Novel approaches in the synthetic method, in order to impart desired properties, and in the manufacturing of the components will be shown. Also, relevant results on the latest research conducted will be discussed.

Keywords

Fuel Cell Mesoporous Carbon Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly Carbon Paper 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Litster S, McLean G (2004) PEM fuel cell electrodes. J Power Sources 130:61–76Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mehta V, Cooper JS (2003) Review and analysis of PEM fuel cell design and manufacturing. J Power Sources 114:32–53Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang J (2008) PEM fuel cell electrocatalysts and catalyst layers: fundamentals and applications. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen E (2003) Thermodynamics and electrochemical kinetics. In: Hooger G (ed) Fuel cell technology handbook. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. 2009 Annual Progress Report (2009) No DOE/GO-102009-2950. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marcinkoski J, James BD, Kalinoski JA, Podolski W, Benjamin T, Kopasz J (2011) Manufacturing process assumptions used in fuel cell system cost analyses. J Power Sources 196:5282–5292Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baker AA (1975) Carbon fibre reinforced metals – a review of the current technology. Mater Sci Eng 17:177–208Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dhakate S, Mathur R, Kakati B, Dhami T (2007) Properties of graphite-composite bipolar plate prepared by compression molding technique for PEM fuel cell. Int J Hydrogen Energy 32:4537–4543Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kamarudin SK, Daud WRW, Som AM, Takriff MS, Mohammad AW (2006) Technical design and economic evaluation of a PEM fuel cell system. J Power Sources 157:641–649Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bar-On I, Kirchain R, Roth R (2002) Technical cost analysis for PEM fuel cells. J Power Sources 109:71–75Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guy R, Lancaster T, Thornton J, Hart A, Sun J, Wilde J (2012) Polymer fuel cells – cost reduction and market potential. Carbon Trust, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sharma S, Pollet BG (2012) Support materials for PEMFC and DMFC electrocatalysts – a review. J Power Sources 208:96–119Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Soboleva T, Zhao X, Malek K, Xie Z, Navessin T, Holdcroft S (2010) On the micro-, meso-, and macroporous structures of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell catalyst layers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2:375–384Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kinoshita K (1988) Carbon: electrochemical and physicochemical properties. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rodríguez-Reinoso F (1998) The role of carbon materials in heterogeneous catalysis. Carbon 36:159–175Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Antolini E (2009) Carbon supports for low-temperature fuel cell catalysts. Appl Catal, B 88:1–24Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Figueiredo JL, Pereira MFR, Freitas MMA, Órfão JJM (2006) Characterization of active sites on carbon catalysts. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:4110–4115Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Calvillo L, Gangeri M, Perathoner S, Centi G, Moliner R, Lázaro MJ (2011) Synthesis and performance of platinum supported on ordered mesoporous carbons as catalyst for PEM fuel cells: effect of the surface chemistry of the support. Int J Hydrogen Energy 36:9805–9814Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Uchida M, Aoyama Y, Tanabe M, Yanagihara N, Eda N, Ohta A (1995) Influences of both carbon supports and heat-treatment of supported catalyst on electrochemical oxidation of methanol. J Electrochem Soc 142:2572–2576Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu H, Song C, Zhang L, Zhang J, Wang H, Wilkinson DP (2006) A review of anode catalysis in the direct methanol fuel cell. J Power Sources 155:95–110Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takasu Y, Kawaguchi T, Sugimoto W, Murakami Y (2003) Effects of the surface area of carbon support on the characteristics of highly-dispersed PtRu particles as catalysts for methanol oxidation. Electrochim Acta 48:3861–3868Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Watanabe M, Sei H, Stonehart P (1989) The influence of platinum crystallite size on the electroreduction of oxygen. J Electroanal Chem Interf Electrochem 261:375–387Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rao V, Simonov PA, Savinova ER, Plaksin GV, Cherepanova SV, Kryukova GN, Stimming U (2005) The influence of carbon support porosity on the activity of PtRu/Sibunit anode catalysts for methanol oxidation. J Power Sources 145:178–187Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aricò AS, Srinivasan S, Antonucci V (2001) DMFCs: from fundamental aspects to technology development. Fuel Cells 1:133–161Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Uchida M, Fukuoka Y, Sugawara Y, Ohara H, Ohta A (1998) Improved preparation process of very-low-platinum-loading electrodes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. J Electrochem Soc 145:3708–3713Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Uchida M, Fukuoka Y, Sugawara Y, Eda N, Ohta A (1996) Effects of microstructure of carbon support in the catalyst layer on the performance of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells. J Electrochem Soc 143:2245–2252Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hughes TV, Chambers CR (1889) Manufacture of carbon filaments. US Patent 405,480, 18 June 1889Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Iijima S (1991) Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 354:56–58Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Serp P, Corrias M, Kalck P (2003) Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers in catalysis. Appl Catal A 253:337–358Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Drillet J-F, Bueb H, Dittmeyer R, Dettlaff-Weglikowska U, Roth S (2009) Efficient SWCNT-based anode for DMFC applications. J Electrochem Soc 156:F137–F144Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jeng K-T, Chien C-C, Hsu N-Y, Yen S-C, Chiou S-D, Lin S-H, Huang W-M (2006) Performance of direct methanol fuel cell using carbon nanotube-supported Pt–Ru anode catalyst with controlled composition. J Power Sources 160:97–104Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Prabhuram J, Zhao TS, Tang ZK, Chen R, Liang ZX (2006) Multiwalled carbon nanotube supported PtRu for the anode of direct methanol fuel cells. J Phys Chem B 110:5245–5252Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tsuji M, Kubokawa M, Yano R, Miyamae N, Tsuji T, Jun M-S, Hong S, Lim S, Yoon S-H, Mochida I (2006) Fast preparation of PtRu catalysts supported on carbon nanofibers by the microwave-polyol method and their application to fuel cells. Langmuir 23:387–390Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Joo SH, Pak C, You DJ, Lee S-A, Lee HI, Kim JM, Chang H, Seung D (2006) Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) as supports of electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC): effect of carbon precursors of OMC on DMFC performances. Electrochim Acta 52:1618–1626Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chang H, Joo SH, Pak C (2007) Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous carbon for fuel cell applications. J Mater Chem 17:3078–3088Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pekala RW (1989) Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels. US Patent 4,873,218, 10 Oct 1989Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yamamoto T, Mukai SR, Endo A, Nakaiwa M, Tamon H (2003) Interpretation of structure formation during the sol-gel transition of a resorcinol-formaldehyde solution by population balance. J Colloid Interf Sci 264:532–537Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Aegerter MA, Leventis N, Koebel MM (2011) Aerogels handbook. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Job N, Théry A, Pirard R, Marien J, Kocon L, Rouzaud J-N, Béguin F, Pirard J-P (2005) Carbon aerogels, cryogels and xerogels: influence of the drying method on the textural properties of porous carbon materials. Carbon 43:2481–2494Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Takashi K (2000) Control of pore structure in carbon. Carbon 38:269–286Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lu AH, Spliethoff B, Schüth F (2008) Aqueous synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon via self-assembly catalyzed by amino acid. Chem Mater 20:5314–5319Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang F, Meng Y, Gu D, Yan Y, Yu C, Tu B, Zhao D (2005) A facile aqueous route to synthesize highly ordered mesoporous polymers and carbon frameworks with Ia3d bicontinuous cubic structure. J Am Chem Soc 127:13508–13509Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Al-Muhtaseb SA, Ritter JA (2003) Preparation and properties of resorcinol–formaldehyde organic and carbon gels. Adv Mater 15:101–114Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Du H, Li B, Kang F, Fu R, Zeng Y (2007) Carbon aerogel supported Pt–Ru catalysts for using as the anode of direct methanol fuel cells. Carbon 45:429–435Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Calderón JC, Mahata N, Pereira MFR, Figueiredo JL, Fernandes VR, Rangel CM, Calvillo L, Lázaro MJ, Pastor E (2012) Pt-Ru catalysts supported on carbon xerogels for PEM fuel cells. Int J Hydrogen Energy 37:7200–7211Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mahata N, Silva AR, Pereira MFR, Freire C, de Castro B, Figueiredo JL (2007) Anchoring of a [Mn(salen)Cl] complex onto mesoporous carbon xerogels. J Colloid Interf Sci 311:152–158Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Arbizzani C, Beninati S, Soavi F, Varzi A, Mastragostino M (2008) Supported PtRu on mesoporous carbons for direct methanol fuel cells. J Power Sources 185:615–620Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Knox JH, Kaur B, Millward GR (1986) Structure and performance of porous graphitic carbon in liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 352:3–25Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ryoo R, Joo SH, Jun S (1999) Synthesis of highly ordered carbon molecular sieves via template-mediated structural transformation. J Phys Chem B 103:7743–7746Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vinu A, Mori T, Ariga K (2006) New families of mesoporous materials. Sci and Technol Adv Mat 7:753–771Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lee KT, Oh SM (2002) Novel synthesis of porous carbons with tunable pore size by surfactant-templated sol-gel process and carbonisation. Chem Commun 22:2722–2723Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lu AH, Schüth F (2006) Nanocasting: a versatile strategy for creating nanostructured porous materials. Adv Mater 18:1793–1805Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ryoo R, Joo SH, Jun S, Tsubakiyama T, Terasaki O (2001) Ordered mesoporous carbon molecular, sieves by templated synthesis: the structural varieties. In: Galarneau A, Fajula F, Renzo FD, Vedrine J (eds) Studies in surface science and catalysis. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shin HJ, Ryoo R, Kruk M, Jaroniec M (2001) Modification of SBA-15 pore connectivity by high-temperature calcination investigated by carbon inverse replication. Chem Commun 4:349–350Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Liu X, Tian B, Yu C, Gao F, Xie S, Tu B, Che R, Peng L-M, Zhao D (2002) Room-temperature synthesis in acidic media of large-pore three-dimensional bicontinuous mesoporous silica with Ia3d symmetry. Angew Chem Int Ed 41:3876–3878Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lu AH, Schmidt W, Spliethoff B, Schüth F (2003) Synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon with bimodal pore system and high pore volume. Adv Mater 15:1602–1606Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fuertes AB (2003) Template synthesis of mesoporous carbons with a controlled particle size. J Mater Chem 13:3085–3088Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lu AH, Zhao D, Wan Y (2009) Nanocasting: a versatile strategy for creating nanostructured porous materials. Royal Society of Chemistry, LondonGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stein A, Wang Z, Fierke MA (2009) Functionalization of porous carbon materials with designed pore architecture. Adv Mater 21:265–293Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jun S, Joo SH, Ryoo R, Kruk M, Jaroniec M, Liu Z, Ohsuna T, Terasaki O (2000) Synthesis of new, nanoporous carbon with hexagonally ordered mesostructure. J Am Chem Soc 122:10712–10713Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chai GS, Yoon SB, Yu J-S, Choi J-H, Sung Y-E (2004) Ordered porous carbons with tunable pore sizes as catalyst supports in direct methanol fuel cell. J Phys Chem B 108:7074–7079Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Qi J, Jiang L, Tang Q, Zhu S, Wang S, Yi B, Sun G (2012) Synthesis of graphitic mesoporous carbons with different surface areas and their use in direct methanol fuel cells. Carbon 50:2824–2831Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ding J, Chan K-Y, Ren J, F-s X (2005) Platinum and platinum–ruthenium nanoparticles supported on ordered mesoporous carbon and their electrocatalytic performance for fuel cell reactions. Electrochim Acta 50:3131–3141Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kim P, Kim H, Joo JB, Kim W, Song IK, Yi J (2005) Preparation and application of nanoporous carbon templated by silica particle for use as a catalyst support for direct methanol fuel cell. J Power Sources 145:139–146Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zhao D (2012) Ordered mesoporous materials. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Liang C, Dai S (2006) Synthesis of mesoporous carbon materials via enhanced hydrogen-bonding interaction. J Am Chem Soc 128:5316–5317Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bell W, Dietz S (2001) Mesoporous carbons and polymers. US Patent 6,297,293, 2 Oct 2001Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fujikawa D, Uota M, Sakai G, Kijima T (2007) Shape-controlled synthesis of nanocarbons from resorcinol–formaldehyde nanopolymers using surfactant-templated vesicular assemblies. Carbon 45:1289–1295Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fujikawa D, Uota M, Yoshimura T, Sakai G, Kijima T (2006) Surfactant-templated synthesis of resorcinol-formaldehyde polymer and carbon nanostructures: nanospheres and nanowires. Chem Lett 35:432–433Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nishiyama N, Zheng T, Yamane Y, Egashira Y, Ueyama K (2005) Microporous carbons prepared from cationic surfactant–resorcinol/formaldehyde composites. Carbon 43:269–274Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bruno MM, Cotella NG, Miras MC, Barbero CA (2010) A novel way to maintain resorcinol–formaldehyde porosity during drying: stabilization of the sol–gel nanostructure using a cationic polyelectrolyte. Colloids Surface A 362:28–32Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Liang C, Hong K, Guiochon GA, Mays JW, Dai S (2004) Synthesis of a large-scale highly ordered porous carbon film by self-assembly of block copolymers. Angew Chem Int Ed 43:5785–5789Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pantea D, Darmstadt H, Kaliaguine S, Sümmchen L, Roy C (2001) Electrical conductivity of thermal carbon blacks: influence of surface chemistry. Carbon 39:1147–1158Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tanaka S, Nishiyama N, Egashira Y, Ueyama K (2005) Synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbons with channel structure from an organic-organic nanocomposite. Chem Commun 16:2125–2127Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Xu J, Wang A, Zhang T (2012) A two-step synthesis of ordered mesoporous resorcinol–formaldehyde polymer and carbon. Carbon 50:1807–1816Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wang X, Liang C, Dai S (2008) Facile synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbons with high thermal stability by self-assembly of resorcinol − formaldehyde and block copolymers under highly acidic conditions. Langmuir 24:7500–7505Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Meng Y, Gu D, Zhang F, Shi Y, Yang H, Li Z, Yu C, Tu B, Zhao D (2005) Ordered mesoporous polymers and homologous carbon frameworks: amphiphilic surfactant templating and direct transformation. Angew Chem Int Ed 44:7053–7059Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Meng Y, Gu D, Zhang F, Shi Y, Cheng L, Feng D, Wu Z, Chen Z, Wan Y, Stein A, Zhao D (2006) A family of highly ordered mesoporous polymer resin and carbon structures from organic − organic self-assembly. Chem Mater 18:4447–4464Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Deng Y, Yu T, Wan Y, Shi Y, Meng Y, Gu D, Zhang L, Huang Y, Liu C, Wu X, Zhao D (2007) Ordered mesoporous silicas and carbons with large accessible pores templated from amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene. J Am Chem Soc 129:1690–1697Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Atiyeh H, Karan K, Peppley B, Phoenix A, Halliop E, Pharoah J (2007) Experimental investigation of the role of a microporous layer on the water transport and performance of a PEM fuel cell. J Power Sources 170:111–121Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Thomas YRJ, Bruno MM, Corti HR (2012) Characterization of a monolithic mesoporous carbon as diffusion layer for micro fuel cells application. Micropor Mesopor Mat 155:47–55Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Krishnamurthy B, Deepalochani S (2009) Effect of PTFE content on the performance of a Direct Methanol fuel cell. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:446–452Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wilkinson DP, Zhang J, Hui R, Fergus J, Li X (2009) Proton exchange membrane fuel cells: materials, properties and performance. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Akio S (1964) On the carbonization of polyacrylonitrile fiber. Carbon 1:391–392Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shindo A, Fujii R, Sengoku T (1959) Method for manufacturing carbon product from acrylonitrile synthetic macromolecular substance. Japan Patent 37–4405Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Greiner A, Wendorff JH (2007) Electrospinning: a fascinating method for the preparation of ultrathin fibers. Angew Chem Int Ed 46:5670–5703Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sutasinpromprae J, Jitjaicham S, Nithitanakul M, Meechaisue C, Supaphol P (2006) Preparation and characterization of ultrafine electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers and their subsequent pyrolysis to carbon fibers. Polym Int 55:825–833Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mittal J, Mathur RB, Bahl OP (1997) Post spinning modification of PAN fibres – a review. Carbon 35:1713–1721Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yusof N, Ismail AF (2012) Post spinning and pyrolysis processes of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber and activated carbon fiber: a review. J Anal Appl Pyrol 93:1–13Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pierson HO (1995) Handbook of carbon, graphite, diamonds and fullerenes: processing, properties and applications. Noyes Publications, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ko T-H, Chiranairadul P, Lin C-H (1991) The influence of continuous stabilization on the properties of stabilized fibers and the final activated carbon fibers. Part I. Polym Eng Sci 31:1618–1626Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Donnet JB (1998) Carbon fibers. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zhang X, Shen Z (2002) Carbon fiber paper for fuel cell electrode. Fuel 81:2199–2201Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mathur RB, Maheshwari PH, Dhami TL, Tandon RP (2007) Characteristics of the carbon paper heat-treated to different temperatures and its influence on the performance of PEM fuel cell. Electrochim Acta 52:4809–4817Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Liu C-H, Ko T-H, Liao Y-K (2008) Effect of carbon black concentration in carbon fiber paper on the performance of low-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. J Power Sources 178:80–85Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mathur RB, Maheshwari PH, Dhami TL, Sharma RK, Sharma CP (2006) Processing of carbon composite paper as electrode for fuel cell. J Power Sources 161:790–798Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Toray carbon paper specification (2005) http://www.torayca.com/en/index.html. Accessed 18 July 2012
  98. 98.
    Ballard gas difussion layer (2012) http://www.ballard.com/material-products/gas-diffusion.aspx. Accessed 18 July 2012
  99. 99.
    Liu C-H, Ko T-H, Kuo W-S, Chou H-K, Chang H-W, Liao Y-K (2009) Effect of carbon fiber cloth with different structure on the performance of low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. J Power Sources 186:450–454Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ko T-H, Liao Y-K, Liu C-H (2007) Effects of graphitization of PAN-based carbon fiber cloth on its use as gas diffusion layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. New Carbon Mater 22:97–101Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wei J, Liang P, Huang X (2011) Recent progress in electrodes for microbial fuel cells. Bioresource Technol 102:9335–9344Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dicks AL (2006) The role of carbon in fuel cells. J Power Sources 156:128–141Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Qi Z, Kaufman A (2002) Improvement of water management by a microporous sublayer for PEM fuel cells. J Power Sources 109:1–9Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tucker MC, Odgaard M, Lund PB, Yde-Andersen S, Thomas JO (2005) The pore structure of direct methanol fuel cell electrodes. J Electrochem Soc 152:A1844–A1844Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Park G-G, Sohn Y-J, Yang T-H, Yoon Y-G, Lee W-Y, Kim C-S (2004) Effect of PTFE contents in the gas diffusion media on the performance of PEMFC. J Power Sources 131:182–187Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Velayutham G (2011) Effect of micro-layer PTFE on the performance of PEM fuel cell electrodes. Int J Hydrogen Energy 36:14845–14850Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sun X, Saha MS (2008) Nanotubes, nanofibers and nanowires as supports for catalysts. In: Zhang J (ed) PEM fuel cell electrocatalysts and catalyst layers: fundamentals and applications. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lin G, Nguyen TV (2005) Effect of thickness and hydrophobic polymer content of the gas diffusion layer on electrode flooding level in a PEMFC. J Electrochem Soc 152:A1942–A1948Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Oedegaard A, Hebling C, Schmitz A, Møller-Holst S, Tunold R (2004) Influence of diffusion layer properties on low temperature DMFC. J Power Sources 127:187–196Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wang X, Zhang H, Zhang J, Xu H, Tian Z, Chen J, Zhong H, Liang Y, Yi B (2006) Micro-porous layer with composite carbon black for PEM fuel cells. Electrochim Acta 51:4909–4915Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wang T, Lin C, Fang Y, Ye F, Miao R, Wang X (2008) A study on the dissymmetrical microporous layer structure of a direct methanol fuel cell. Electrochim Acta 54:781–785Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chen-Yang YW, Hung TF, Huang J, Yang FL (2007) Novel single-layer gas diffusion layer based on PTFE/carbon black composite for proton exchange membrane fuel cell. J Power Sources 173:183–188Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Du H-Y, Wang C-H, Hsu H-C, Chang S-T, Yen S-C, Chen L-C, Viswanathan B, Chen K-H (2011) High performance of catalysts supported by directly grown PTFE-free micro-porous CNT layer in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. J Mater Chem 21:2512–2516Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tang Z, Poh CK, Tian Z, Lin J, Ng HY, Chua DHC (2011) In situ grown carbon nanotubes on carbon paper as integrated gas diffusion and catalyst layer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrochim Acta 56:4327–4334Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jeng K-T, Chien C-C, Hsu N-Y, Huang W-M, Chiou S-D, Lin S-H (2007) Fabrication and impedance studies of DMFC anode incorporated with CNT-supported high-metal-content electrocatalyst. J Power Sources 164:33–41Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wang CH, Du HY, Tsai YT, Chen CP, Huang CJ, Chen LC, Chen KH, Shih HC (2007) High performance of low electrocatalysts loading on CNT directly grown on carbon cloth for DMFC. J Power Sources 171:55–62Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Gao Y, Sun GQ, Wang SL, Zhu S (2010) Carbon nanotubes based gas diffusion layers in direct methanol fuel cells. Energy 35:1455–1459Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gerteisen D, Heilmann T, Ziegler C (2008) Enhancing liquid water transport by laser perforation of a GDL in a PEM fuel cell. J Power Sources 177:348–354Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gerteisen D, Sadeler C (2010) Stability and performance improvement of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack by laser perforation of gas diffusion layers. J Power Sources 195:5252–5257Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Manahan MP, Hatzell MC, Kumbur EC, Mench MM (2011) Laser perforated fuel cell diffusion media. Part I: Related changes in performance and water content. J Power Sources 196:5573–5582Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bruno MM, Corti HR, Balach J, Cotella NG, Barbero CA (2009) Hierarchical porous materials: capillaries in nanoporous carbon. Funct Mat Lett 2:135–138Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bruno MM, Franceschini EA, Viva FA, Thomas YRJ, Corti HR (2012) Electrodeposited mesoporous platinum catalysts over hierarchical carbon monolithic support as anode in small PEM fuel cells. Int J Hydrogen Energy 37:14911–14919Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. 2011 Annual Progress Report (2011) No DOE/GO-102011-3422. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Middelman E, Kout W, Vogelaar B, Lenssen J, de Waal E (2003) Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells. J Power Sources 118:44–46Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Blunk R, Abd Elhamid MH, Lisi D, Mikhail Y (2006) Polymeric composite bipolar plates for vehicle applications. J Power Sources 156:151–157Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Heinzel A, Mahlendorf F, Niemzig O, Kreuz C (2004) Injection moulded low cost bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells. J Power Sources 131:35–40Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kim M, Yu HN, Lim JW, Lee DG (2012) Bipolar plates made of plain weave carbon/epoxy composite for proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Int J Hydrogen Energy 37:4300–4308Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lee Y-B, Lee C-H, Kim K-M, Lim D-S (2011) Preparation and properties on the graphite/polypropylene composite bipolar plates with a 304 stainless steel by compression molding for PEM fuel cell. Int J Hydrogen Energy 36:7621–7627Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mathur RB, Dhakate SR, Gupta DK, Dhami TL, Aggarwal RK (2008) Effect of different carbon fillers on the properties of graphite composite bipolar plate. J Mater Process Tech 203:184–192Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Huang J, Baird DG, McGrath JE (2005) Development of fuel cell bipolar plates from graphite filled wet-lay thermoplastic composite materials. J Power Sources 150:110–119Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chen W, Liu Y, Xin Q (2010) Evaluation of a compression molded composite bipolar plate for direct methanol fuel cell. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:3783–3788Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    de Oliveira MCL, Ett G, Antunes RA (2012) Materials selection for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells using the Ashby approach. J Power Sources 206:3–13Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grupo Celdas de Combustible, Departamento de Física de la Materia CondensadaCentro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA)San Martín, Buenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations