Faculty Development for Organizational Change

Chapter
Part of the Innovation and Change in Professional Education book series (ICPE, volume 11)

Abstract

There seems to be a widely held assumption that the long-term outcomes of most faculty development initiatives will include some degree of organizational change. In many cases they do; most people engaged in faculty development have observed change at the institutional level after faculty development interventions. However, not all these interventions lead to change. Some organizational changes take place without much faculty development taking place at all. In this chapter, we will explore the mechanisms and strategies that can be used to promote or assist in organizational change, in the form of ‘strategies for success’, for faculty developers, organizational leaders, and those participating in development. Faculty development for organizational change requires attention to the educational and institutional milieu, the workforce, and the organization itself. Most of the time, change will be slow, and also affected by external factors. But faculty development, astutely deployed, can make a significant contribution to that change.

Keywords

Organizational Change Faculty Development Faculty Developer Clinical Nurse Specialist Communication Skill Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

 The author wishes to acknowledge the gracious help and stimulating ideas of Clare and Jane Conway and Mary Lawson in the preparation and proofing of this chapter.

References

  1. 1st International Conference on Faculty Development in the Health Professions. (2011). Retrieved January 29th, 2013, from http://www.facultydevelopment2011.com
  2. ACEM (Australasian College for Emergency Medicine). (2012). Mentoring Champions Program. Retrieved February 14th, 2012, from http://www.acem.org.au/sitedocument.aspx?docId=1268
  3. Allen, D. L. (1990). Faculty development. Journal of Dental Education, 54(5), 266–267.Google Scholar
  4. Antonacopoulou, E. P. (2006). The relationship between individual and organizational learning: New evidence from managerial learning practices. Management Learning, 37(4), 455–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Argyris, C. & Schön, D. A. (1978). Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  6. Brew, A. & The Society for Research into Higher Education. (1995). Directions in staff development. Bristol, PA: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Billett, S. (1995). Workplace learning: Its potential and limitations. Education and Training, 37(5), 2027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buerhaus, P. I., Staiger, D. O., & Auerbach, D. I. (2008). The future of the nursing workforce in the United States: Data, trends and implications. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett.Google Scholar
  9. Burdick, W. P., Diserens, D., Friedman, S. R., Morahan, P. S., Kalishman, S., Eklund, M. A., et al. (2010). Measuring the effects of an international health professions faculty development fellowship: The FAIMER Institute. Medical Teacher, 32(5), 414–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burdick, W. P., Friedman, S. R., & Diserens, D. (2012). Faculty development projects for international health professions educators: Vehicles for institutional change? Medical Teacher, 34(1), 38–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davies, H. T. O., Hodges, C. L., & Rundall, T. G. (2003). Views of doctors and managers on the doctor-manager relationship in the NHS. BMJ, 326(7390), 626–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davis, D., O’Brien, M., Freemantle, N., Wolf, F., Mazmanian, P., & Taylor-Vaisey, A. (1999). Impact of formal continuing medical education: Do conferences, workshops, rounds, and other traditional continuing education activities change physician behavior or health care outcomes? JAMA, 282(9), 867–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elton, L. (1987). Teaching in higher education: Appraisal and training. London, UK: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  14. Elton, L. (1998). Staff development and the quality of teaching. In B. C. Jolly & L. Rees (Eds.), Medical education in the millennium, (pp. 199–204). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ernst & Young. (2012). University of the future: A thousand year old industry on the cusp of profound change. Retrieved November 26th, 2012, from http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/University_of_the_future/$FILE/University_of_the_future_2012.pdf
  16. General Medical Council. (2010). Widening access into the medical profession. Retrieved January 29th, 2013, from http://www.gmc-uk.org/Widening_Access_to_Medical_Education_1.0.pdf_25397210.pdf
  17. Grant, J. & Gale, R. (1989). Changing medical education. Medical Education, 23(3), 252–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greenfield, D., Nugus, P., Travaglia, J., & Braithwaite, J. (2011). Factors that shape the development of interprofessional improvement initiatives in health organisations. BMJ Quality and Safety, 20(4), 332–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ham, C., Clark, J., Spurgeon, P., Dickinson, H., & Armit, K. (2011). Doctors who become chief executives in the NHS: From keen amateurs to skilled professionals. Journal of The Royal Society of Medicine, 104(3), 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Handy, C. B. (1999). Understanding organizations, (4th Ed.). London, UK: Penguin.Google Scholar
  21. Hatton, P. & Bullimore, D. (1993). The role of staff development in changing environment: Experience from the University of Leeds. In Angela Towle (Ed.), Ch. 1, Section A, Effecting change through staff development: Change in medical education (Sharing ideas 2), (pp. 33–38). London, UK: The King’s Fund.Google Scholar
  22. HWA (Health Workforce Australia). (2012). Health LEADS Australia, Draft Australian Leadership Framework. Retrieved January 29th, 2013, from http://www.hwaleadershipframework.net.au/about
  23. Heaven, C., Clegg, J., & Maguire, P. (2006). Transfer of communication skills training from workshop to workplace: The impact of clinical supervision. Patient Education and Counseling, 60(3), 313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hill, A. G., Yu, T. C., Barrow, M., & Hattie, J. (2009). A systematic review of resident-as-teacher programmes. Medical Education, 43(12), 1129–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hilton, M. (2008). Skills for work in the 21st century: What does the research tell us? Academy of Management: Perspectives, 22(4), 63–78.Google Scholar
  26. Johansson, J., Skeff, K., & Stratos, G. (2009). Clinical teaching improvement: The transportability of the Stanford Faculty Development Program. Medical Teacher, 31(8), e377–e382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jolly, B. C. (2002). Faculty development for curricular implementation. In G. R. Norman, C. P. M. van der Vleuten, & D. I. Newble (Eds.), International handbook of research in medical education, Vol. 1, (pp. 945–967). Dordrecht, NL: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Khan, N., Khan, M. S., Dasgupta, P., & Ahmed, K. (2013). The surgeon as educator: Fundamentals of faculty training in surgical specialties. BJU International, 111(1), 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Langlands, Sir A. (2005). The gateways to the professions report. London, UK: Department for Education and Skills. Retrieved January 29th, 2013, from http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/corporate/migratedd/publications/g/gateways_to_the_professions_report.pdf
  30. Laprise, R. & Thivierge, R. L. (2012). Using speed dating sessions to foster collaboration in continuing interdisciplinary education. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 32(1), 24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lieff, S. & Albert, M. (2012). What do we do? Practices and learning strategies of medical education leaders. Medical Teacher, 34(4), 312–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Litzelman, D. K., Stratos, G. A., & Skeff, K. M. (1994). The effect of a clinical teaching retreat on residents’ teaching skills. Academic Medicine, 69(5), 433–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marinac, J. S., & Gerkovich, M. M. (2012). Outcomes from a mentored research boot camp: Focused Investigator Training (FIT) Program. Pharmacotherapy, 32(9), 792–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mennin, S. P. & Kaufman, A. (1989). The change process and medical education. Medical Teacher, 11(1), 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meyers, D. (2012). Australian Universities: A portrait of decline. AUPOD (e-Book). Available from: http://www.australianuniversities.id.au/Australian_Universities-A_Portrait_of_Decline.pdf
  37. Muurlink, O. & Matas, C. P. (2011). From romance to rocket science: Speed dating in higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 30(6), 751–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Newton, J. M., Billett, S., Jolly, B., & Ockerby, C. M. (2009). Lost in translation: Barriers to learning in health professional clinical education. Learning in Health and Social Care, 8(4), 315–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Newton, J. M., Billett, S., Jolly, B., & Ockerby, C. M. (2011). Preparing nurses and engaging preceptors. In S. Billett & A. Henderson (Eds.), Developing learning professionals: Integrating experiences in university and practice settings. Dordrecht, NL: Springer.Google Scholar
  40. Onsman, A. (2009). Carrots and sticks: Mandating teaching accreditation in higher education. AARE 2009 International Education Research Conference: Canberra, Australia. Retrieved September 29th, 2012, from http://monash.academia.edu/AndrysOnsman/Papers/943519/Carrots_and_sticks_mandating_teaching_accreditation_in_Higher_Education
  41. O’Sullivan, P. S. & Irby, D. M. (2011). Reframing research on faculty development. Academic Medicine, 86(4), 421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roberts, K. B., DeWitt, T. G., Goldberg, R. L., & Scheiner, A. P. (1994). A programme to develop residents as teachers. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 148(4), 405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rust, C. (2011). The professional development of faculty in the UK. In Y. Dong (Ed.), Developing coordinately and growing together: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Faculty Development. Changchun, CN: Northeast Normal University Press. Available from: http://www.academia.edu/1019080/The_professional_development_of_faculty_in_the_UK
  44. Shanley, C. (2004). Extending the role of nurses in staff development by combining an organizational change perspective with an individual learner perspective. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 20(2), 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Steinert, Y. (2010). Developing medical educators: A journey, not a destination. In Tim Swanwick (Ed.), Understanding medical education: Evidence, theory and practice, (pp. 403–418). Edinburgh, UK: The Association for the Study of Medical Education.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Steinert, Y., Naismith, L., & Mann, K. (2012). Faculty development initiatives designed to promote leadership in medical education. A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 19. Medical Teacher, 34(6), 483–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Towle, A. (1998). Staff development in UK medical schools. In B.C. Jolly & L. Rees (Eds.), Medical education in the millennium, (pp. 205–210). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. UK Department for Education and Employment. (1999). Learning to succeed: A new framework for post-16 learning. London, UK: Department for Education and Employment.Google Scholar
  49. Van Roermund, T. C. M., Tromp, F., Scherpbier, A. J. J. A., Bottema, B. J. A. M., & Bueving, H. J. (2011). Teachers’ ideas versus experts’ descriptions of ‘the good teacher’ in postgraduate medical education: Implications for implementation. A qualitative study. BMC Medical Education, 11, 42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Waddington, K. (2003). Medical education at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1123–1995. Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press.Google Scholar
  51. White, E. & Winstanley, J. (2010). Clinical supervision: Outsider reports of a research-driven implementation programme in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(6), 689–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wildavsky, B. (2010). The great brain race: How global universities are reshaping the world. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Wilkerson, L. & Irby, D. M. (1998). Strategies for improving teaching practices: A comprehensive approach to faculty development. Academic Medicine, 73(4), 387–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical Education, School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of HealthThe University of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Society for Simulation in Healthcare and Health Division of Simulation AustraliaAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations