Advance Directives and the Physician-Patient Relationship: A Surprising Metamorphosis

Chapter
Part of the International Library of Ethics, Law, and the New Medicine book series (LIME, volume 54)

Abstract

This chapter considers (1) the normative justification for the advance directive movement and, in light of that, its ultimate goal; (2) how the movement has failed to achieve this goal; and (3) the impact of the movement on the physician-patient relationship. While acknowledging the understandable disappointment of the advance directive movement’s most ardent supporters and the well-aimed critiques of many of its detractors, I argue that the movement itself has been a startling success in its impact on the physician-patient relationship—serving as a catalyst for a dramatic metamorphosis.

Keywords

Nursing Home Resident Moral Agency Good Doctor Normative Goal Normative Justification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank David Essi, MA, for his work in formatting this chapter and, along with David, Nicole Deming, JD, MA, Jason Gatliff, Ph.D., and Monica Gerrek, Ph.D., for good conversation that helped shape the contents of this chapter.

References

  1. Aulisio, M.P., R.M. Arnold, and S.J. Youngner. 2000. Health care ethics consultation: Nature, goals, and competencies. A position paper from the Society for Health and Human Values-Society for Bioethics Consultation Task Force on Standards for Bioethics Consultation. Annals of Internal Medicine 133(1): 59–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aulisio, M.P., R.M. Arnold, and S.J. Youngner (eds.). 2003. Ethics consultation: From theory to practice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Baumann, A., G. Audibert, F. Claudot, and L. Puybasset. 2009. Ethics review: End of life legislation – The French model. Critical Care 13(1): 204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brody, H. 1992. The healer’s power. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Buchanan, A. 1988. Advance directives and the personal identity problem. Philosophy & Public Affairs 17(4): 277–302.Google Scholar
  6. Buchanan, A.E., and D.W. Brock. 1989. Deciding for others: The ethics of surrogate decision making. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Castillo, L.S., B.A. Williams, S.M. Hooper, C.P. Sabatino, L.A. Weithorn, and R.L. Sudore. 2011. Lost in translation: The unintended consequences of advance directive law on clinical care. Annals of Internal Medicine 154(2): 121–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collins, L.G., S.M. Parks, and L. Winter. 2006. The state of advance care planning: One decade after SUPPORT. The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care 23(5): 378–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. of Health, 497 U.S. 261 (1990)Google Scholar
  10. Dunlay, S.M., K.M. Swetz, P.S. Mueller, and V.L. Roger. 2012. Advance directives in community patients with heart failure. Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 5(3): 283–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fagerlin, A., and C.E. Schneider. 2004. Enough. The failure of the living will. The Hastings Center Report 34(2): 30–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ikonomidis, S., and P.A. Singer. 1999. Autonomy, liberalism and advance care planning. Journal of Medical Ethics 25(6): 522–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. In re Quinlan, 355 A.2d 647, cert. denied sub nom. Garger v. New Jersey, 429 U.S. 922 (1976).Google Scholar
  14. Jones, A.L., A.J. Moss, and L.D. Harris-Kojetin. 2011. Use of advance directives in long-term care populations. NCHS Data Brief 54: 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Jonsen, A.R. 1993. The birth of bioethics. The Hastings Center Report 23(6): S1–S4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jonsen, A.R. 1997. The birth of bioethics: The origins and evolution of a demi-discipline. Medical Humanities Review 11(1): 9–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jonsen, A.R. 2000. A short history of medical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Kim, S.S., W.H. Lee, J. Cheon, J.E. Lee, K. Yeo, and J. Lee. 2012. Preferences for advance directives in Korea. Nursing Research and Practice 2012: 873892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kirschner, K.L. 2005. When written advance directives are not enough. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 21(1): 193–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kranidiotis, G., V. Gerovasili, A. Tasoulis, E. Tripodaki, I. Vasileiadis, E. Magira, V. Markaki, C. Routsi, A. Prekates, T. Kyprianou, P.M. Clouva-Molyvdas, G. Georgiadis, I. Floros, A. Karabinis, and S. Nanas. 2010. End-of-life decisions in Greek intensive care units: A multicenter cohort study. Critical Care 14(6): R228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. La Puma, J., D. Orentlicher, and R.J. Moss. 1991. Advance directives on admission. Clinical implications and analysis of the Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 266(3): 402–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. May, T. 1997. Reassessing the reliability of advance directives. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6(03): 325–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohrmann, M.E. 1995. Medicine as ministry: Reflections on suffering, ethics, and hope. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press.Google Scholar
  24. Moseley, R., A. Dobalian, and R. Hatch. 2005. The problem with advance directives: Maybe it is the medium, not the message. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 41(2): 211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Patient Self-Determination Act 1990 42 U.S.C. 1395 cc (a).Google Scholar
  26. Pence, G.E. 2008. Classic cases in medical ethics: Accounts of the cases and issues that define medical ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.Google Scholar
  27. Perkins, H.S. 2007. Controlling death: The false promise of advance directives. Annals of Internal Medicine 147(1): 51–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rodriguez-Arias, D., G. Moutel, M.P. Aulisio, A. Salfati, J.C. Coffin, J.L. Rodriguez-Arias, L. Calvo, and C. Herve. 2007. Advance directives and the family: French and American perspectives. Clinical Ethics 2(3): 139–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schaden, E., P. Herczeg, S. Hacker, A. Schopper, and C.G. Krenn. 2010. The role of advance directives in end-of-life decisions in Austria: Survey of intensive care physicians. BMC Medical Ethics 11: 19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schiff, R., P. Sacares, J. Snook, C. Rajkumar, and C.J. Bulpitt. 2006. Living wills and the Mental Capacity Act: A postal questionnaire survey of UK geriatricians. Age and Ageing 35(2): 116–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schuklenk, U., J.J. van Delden, J. Downie, S.A. McLean, R. Upshur, and D. Weinstock. 2011. End-of-life decision-making in Canada: The report by the Royal Society of Canada expert panel on end-of-life decision-making. Bioethics 25(Suppl 1): 1–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shalowitz, D.I., E. Garrett-Mayer, and D. Wendler. 2006. The accuracy of surrogate decision makers: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine 166(5): 493–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. SUPPORT. 1995. A controlled trial to improve care for seriously ill hospitalized patients. The study to understand prognoses and preferences for outcomes and risks of treatments (SUPPORT). The SUPPORT Principal Investigators. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 274(20): 1591–1598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ting, F.H., and E. Mok. 2011. Advance directives and life-sustaining treatment: Attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese elders with chronic disease. Hong Kong Medical Journal 17(2): 105–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Tollefsen, C. 1998. Response to “Reassessing the Reliability of Advance Directives” by Thomas May (CQ Vol. 6, No. 5). Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7(04): 405–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. van Wijmen, M.P., M.L. Rurup, H.R. Pasman, P.J. Kaspers, and B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen. 2010. Design of the advance directives cohort: A study of end-of-life decision-making focusing on advance directives. BMC Public Health 10: 166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Varelius, J. 2011. Respect for autonomy, advance directives, and minimally conscious state. Bioethics 25(9): 505–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wolf, S.M., P. Boyle, D. Callahan, J.J. Fins, B.N. Jennings, J.L. Nelson, J. Barondess, A.D.W. Brock, R. Dresser, L. Emanuel, S. Johnson, J. Lantos, D.R. Mason, M. Mezey, D. Orentlicher, and F. Rouse. 1991. Sources of concern about the Patient Self-Determination Act. New England Journal of Medicine 325(23): 1666–1671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Biomedical EthicsMetroHealth Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Department of BioethicsCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations