Casualties Distribution in Human and Natural Hazards

  • Carla M. A. Pinto
  • A. Mendes Lopes
  • J. A. Tenreiro Machado
Conference paper


Catastrophic events, such as wars and terrorist attacks, big tornadoes and hurricanes, huge earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and landslides, are always accompanied by a large number of casualties. The size distribution of these casualties have separately been shown to follow approximate power law (PL) distributions. In this paper, we analyze the number of victims of catastrophic phenomena, in particular, terrorism, and find double PL behavior. This means that the data set is better approximated by two PLs instead of one. We have plotted the two PL parameters corresponding to all terrorist events occurred in every year, from 1980 to 2010. We observe an interesting pattern in the chart, where the lines, that connect each pair of points defining the double PLs, are roughly aligned to each other.


Casualties distribution Power law behavior Double power law 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carla M. A. Pinto
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Mendes Lopes
    • 3
  • J. A. Tenreiro Machado
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsInstitute of Engineering of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Centro de Matemática da Universidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.UISPA, IDMEC - Polo FEUP Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.Department of Electrical EngineeringISEP-Institute of Engineering of Polytechnic of PortoPortoPortugal

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