Systematic and Morphological Survey

  • David Evans Walter
  • Heather C. Proctor
Chapter

Abstract

To work with mites (Fig. 3.1), one must first understand their morphology and classification. Other than the need for a good microscope, the major hurdle to mite identification is the scattered nature of the literature. This disarray includes both the variety of languages and locations of the relevant papers and the babel of jargon used to describe mite morphology. Fortunately, in recent years mite morpho-speak has become more homogeneous and several excellent texts exist that provide clear and comprehensive discussions of mite morphology. For those interested in learning to identify mites, we recommend the ‘bible’ of acarologists: A Manual of Acarology 3rd Edition (Krantz and Walter 2009). For those who speak English and who wish to become proficient in the identification of mites, The Acarology Laboratory at The Ohio State University runs a series of short courses during the Northern Hemisphere summer. The Acarology Summer Program has been in existence for over 50 years and both authors learned much of what they know about mite taxonomy there. For an overview of acarological resources see Google or Walter and Proctor (2010).

Keywords

Spider Mite Horseshoe Crab Oribatid Mite Scrub Typhus Water Mite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alberti, G. (2006). On some fundamental characteristics in acarine morphology. – Atti della Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia. Rendiconti LIII, 2005, 315–360.Google Scholar
  2. Alberti, G. (2010). On predation in Epicriidae (Gamasida, Anactinotrichida) and fine-structural details of their forelegs. Soil Organisms, 82, 179–192.Google Scholar
  3. Coineau, Y. (1973). Les Caeculidae (Acariens Prostigmates) quelques aspects de leurs particularités éco-éthologiques. Bulletin D’Écologie, 4, 329–337.Google Scholar
  4. Dabert, M., Witalinski, W., Kazmierski, A., Olszanowski, Z., & Dabert, J. (2010). Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): Strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 56, 222–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dunlop, J. A., & Alberti, G. (2007). The affinities of mites and ticks: A review. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 46, 1–18.Google Scholar
  6. Garga, N., Proctor, H., & Belczewski, R. (1997). Leg size affects mating success in Tarsonemus confusus Ewing (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae). Acarologia, 38, 369–375.Google Scholar
  7. Gerson, U. (1985). Webbing. In A. W. Helle & M. W. Sabelis (Eds.), Spider mites, their biology, natural enemies and control (Vol. 1, pp. 223–232). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  8. Guglielmone, A. A., Robbins, R. G., Apanaskevich, D. A., Petney, T. N., Estrada-Peña, A., Horak, I. G., Shao, R., & Barker, S. C. (2010). The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae (Acari: Ixodida) of the world: a list of valid species names. Zootaxa, 2528, 1–28.Google Scholar
  9. Kierans, J. E. (2009). Order Ixodida. In G. E. Krantz & D. E. Walter (Eds.), A manual of acarology (3rd ed., pp. 111–117). Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Klompen, H. (2011). Holothyrids and ticks: new insights from larval morphology and dna sequencing, with the description of a new species of Diplothyrus (Parasitiformes: Neothyridae). Acarologia, 50(2), 269–285. doi: 10.1051/acarologia/20101970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Krantz, G. W. (1978). A manual of acarology. Corvallis: Oregon State University Bookstores.Google Scholar
  12. Krantz, G. W., & Walter, D. E. (Eds.). (2009). A Manual of Acarology (3rd ed.). Texas Tech University Press. 807 pages, 338 b/w illustrations; 60 figures ISBN 978-0-89672-620-8. http://www.ttup.ttu.edu/BookPages/9780896726208.html.
  13. Lindquist, E. E., Krantz, G. W., & Walter, D. E. (2009). Classification. In G. E. Krantz & D. E. Walter (Eds.), A manual of acarology (3rd ed., pp. 97–103). Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Lindquist, E. E., & Walter, D. E. (1989). Biology and description of Antennoseius janus, new species (Mesostigmata: Ascidae), a mesostigmatic mite exhibiting adult female dimorphism. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67, 1291–1310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mans, B. J., de Klerk, D., Pienaar, R., & Latif, A. A. (2011). Nuttalliella namaqua: A Living Fossil and Closest Relative to the Ancestral Tick Lineage: Implications for the Evolution of Blood-Feeding in Ticks. PLoS One, 6(8), e23675. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Manton, S. M. (1977). The arthropoda. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  17. Norton, R. A. (1998). Morphological evidence for the evolutionary origin of Astigmata (Acari: Acariformes). Experimental & Applied Acarology, 22, 559–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Norton, R. A., & Behan-Pelletier, V. M. (2009). Suborder Oribatida. In G. E. Krantz & D. E. Walter (Eds.), A manual of acarology (3rd ed., pp. 430–564). Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Pepato, R., da Rocha, C. E. F., & Dunlop, J. (2010). Phylogenetic position of the acariform mites: Sensitivity to homology assessment under total evidence. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10, 235. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/235.
  20. Proctor, H. C. (1992). Mating and spermatophore morphology of water mites (Acari: Parasitengona). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106, 341–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Proctor, H. C., & Pritchard, G. (1990). Prey detection by the water mite Unionicola crassipes (Acari: Unionicolidae). Freshwater Biology, 23, 271–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Regier, J. C., Shultz, J. W., Zwick, A., Hussey, A., Ball, B., Wetzer, R., Martin, J. W., & Cunningham, C. W. (2010). Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature, 463, 1079–1084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Saito, Y. (1986a). Prey kills predator: Counter-attack success of a spider mite against its specific phytoseiid predator. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 2, 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Saito, Y. (1986b). Biparental defence in a spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting Sasa bamboo. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 18, 377–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Seniczak, S. (1975). Revision of the family Oppiidae Granjean, 1953 (Acarina, Oribatei). Acarologia, 17, 331–345.Google Scholar
  26. Snodgrass, R. E. (1948). The feeding organs of Arachnida, including mites and ticks. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 110, 1–93.Google Scholar
  27. Sonenshine, D. E. (1991). Biology of ticks (Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Talarico, G., Lipke, E., & Alberti, G. (2011). Gross morphology, histology, and ultrastructure of the alimentary system of Ricinulei (Arachnida) with emphasis on functional and phylogenetic implications. Journal of Morphology, 272, 89–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Walter, D. E. (1988). Predation and mycophagy by endeostigmatid mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata). Experimental & Applied Acarology, 4, 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Walter, D. E. (2009). Genera of Gymnodamaeidae (Acari: Oribatida: Plateremaeoidea) of Canada, with notes on some nomenclatorial problems. Zootaxa, 2206, 23–44.Google Scholar
  31. Walter, D. E., & Proctor, H. C. (1998). Feeding behaviour and phylogeny: Observations on early derivative Acari. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 22, 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Walter, D. E., & Proctor, H. C. (2010). Mites as modern models: Acarology in the 21st century. Acarologia (Paris), 50, 131–141. doi: 10.1051/acarologia/20101955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Walter, D. E., & Winterton, S. L. (2007). Keys and the crisis in taxonomy: Extinction or reinvention? Annual Review of Entomology, 52, 193–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Evans Walter
    • 1
  • Heather C. Proctor
    • 2
  1. 1.Invertebrate ZoologyUniversity of the Sunshine Coast Royal Alberta MuseumEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Biological SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations