Non-motorized Travel as a Sustainable Travel Option
In many developed countries walking and bicycling are not extensively used as a means of transportation. Further, the share of these non-motorized travel modes (as a percentage of all trips) has been reducing over time. The increasingly low use of walk and bicycle modes of transportation, and the concomitant increasing use of motorized vehicles for transportation, may be associated with several factors, including land use and development patterns, traffic safety and personal security concerns, and perceptions of and attitudes towards non-motorized transport. These factors manifest themselves differently in developing and developed countries, but throughout the world the increasing reliance on motorized transport contributes to serious traffic congestion problems, air quality degradation, and greenhouse gas emission increases. In addition to transportation professionals, health agencies are also paying increased attention to non-motorized modes, or “active transport” as a route to improve public health. We discuss the many benefits of non-motorized travel, identify its facilitators and impediments, analyze its utilization in select developed and developing countries, review previous studies of the effectiveness of strategies to promote it, and recommend possible pathways to promote non-motorized travel as a sustainable travel option.
KeywordsTraffic Congestion Travel Behaviour Mode Share Trip Purpose Motorize Vehicle
- Australia Institute of Health and Welfare. (2000). Physical inactivity. Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/risk-factors-physical-inactivity/. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Belwal, R., & Belwal, S. (2010). Public transportation services in Oman: A study of public perceptions. Journal of Public Transportation, 13, 1–21.Google Scholar
- Bongardt, D., Breithaupt, M., & Creutzig, F. (2010). Beyond the fossil city: Towards low carbon transport and green growth. Paper presented at the 5th regional environmentally sustainable transport forum in Asia, United Nations Centre for Regional Development, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
- Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Consumer expenditure survey: Consumer expenditure tables. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cex/tables.htm. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P. L., & Handy, S. (2009). The relationship between the built environment and nonwork travel: A case study of Northern California. Transportation Research Part A, 43, 548–559.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Overweight and obesity: Data and statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- De Nazelle, A., Neiuwenhuijsen, M. J., Antol, J. M., Brauer, M., Briggs, D., Braun-Fahrlander, C., et al. (2011). Improving health through policies that promote active travel: A review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment. Environment International, 37, 766–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- European Environment Agency. (2006). Urban sprawl in Europe: The ignored challenge (Report 10/2006). Retrieved from http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_report_2006_10. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Federal Highway Administration. (2012). Report to the U.S. Congress on the outcomes of the nonmotorized transportation pilot program SAFETEA-LU Section 1807. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved from http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/ntpp/2012_report/page06.cfm. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Goldberg, D., Frank, L. D., McCann, B., Chapman, J. E., & Kavage, S. (2007). New data for a new era: A summary of the SMARTRAQ findings linking land use, transportation, air quality, and health in the Atlanta region. Retrieved from http://health-design.spph.ubc.ca/files/2011/06/smartraq_summary.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Hazen, A., & Ehiri, J. E. (2006). Road traffic injuries: Hidden epidemic in less developed countries. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98, 73–82.Google Scholar
- INRIX. (2012). Traffic scorecard by country: United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://www.inrix.com/scorecard/default.asp. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives. (2011). Curitiba, Brazil: A model of transit oriented planning. Retrieved from http://www.ecomobility.org/fileadmin/template/project_templates/ecomobility/files/Publications/Case_stories_EcoMobility_Curitiba_PDF_print.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- IPCC. (2007). Summary for policymakers. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. Van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 7–22). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Kato, T., Kawanaka, H., Bhuiyan, M. S., & Oguri, K. (2011). Classification of positive and negative emotion evoked by traffic jam based on electrocardiogram (ECG) and pulse wave. Paper presented at the 14th international IEEE conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Land Transport Authority. (2011). Journeys: Sharing urban transport solutions. Retrieved from http://ltaacademy.gov.sg/doc/JOURNEYS_Nov2011%20Revised.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Litman, T. A. (2012). Evaluating non-motorized transportation benefits and costs. Retrieved from http://www.vtpi.org/nmt-tdm.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. (2003). Street smart: The 2002 pedestrian safety awareness campaign. Retrieved from http://www.mwcog.org/streetsmart/pdfs/SS03_summaryFinal.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Ministry of Urban Development and Wilbur Smith Associates. (2008). Study on traffic and transportation policies and strategies in urban areas in India: Final report. Retrieved from http://casi.ssc.upenn.edu/system/files/GOI+2008+Traffic+Study.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- National Center for Safe Routes to School. (2011). How children get to school: School travel patterns from 1969 to 2009. Retrieved from http://www.saferoutesinfo.org/program-tools/NHTS-school-travel-1969-2009. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- National Household Travel Survey. (2009). United States Department of Transportation. Retrieved from http://nhts.ornl.gov/2009/pub/stt.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- National Travel Survey. (2009). The Netherlands: Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.swov.nl/uk/research/kennisbank/inhoud/90_gegevensbronnen/inhoud/ovg.htm. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Nygard, J., Cao, J., Csordas, S., Larssen, S., Liu, L., Strand, J., et al. (2012). Air pollution control and carbon reduction co-benefits. In A. Baeumler, E. Ijjasz-Vasquez, & S. Mehndiratta (Eds.), Sustainable low-carbon city development in China (pp. 367–384). Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Pinjari, A. R., Eluru, N., Bhat, C. R., Pendyala, R. M., & Spissu, E. (2008). Joint model of choice of residential neighborhood and bicycle ownership: Accounting for self-selection and unobserved heterogeneity. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2082, 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rahman, M. M., D’Este, G., & Bunker, J. M. (2010, July). Non-motorized public transport: A global review and analysis of trends and issues. Paper presented at the 12th world conference on transport research, Lisbon, Portugal.Google Scholar
- Russell-Evans, V., & Hacker, C. S. (2011). Expanding waistlines and expanding cities: Urban sprawl and its impact on obesity, how the adoption of smart growth statutes can build healthier and more active communities. Virginia Environmental Law Journal, 29, 63–113.Google Scholar
- Schneider, J. (2011). Understanding sustainable transportation choices: Shifting routine automobile travel to walking and bicycling. Doctoral dissertation. University of California, Transportation Center, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
- Schrank, D., Lomax, T., & Eisele, B. (2011). 2011 Urban mobility report. College Station, TX: Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System. Retrieved from http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/mobility-report-2011.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Seraj, S., Sidharthan, R., Bhat, C. R., Pendyala, R. M., & Goulias, K. (2012). Parental attitudes toward children walking and bicycling to school: A multivariate ordered response analysis. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2323, 56–66.Google Scholar
- SQW. (2007). Valuing the benefits of cycling: A report to cycling England. Retrieved from http://www.ciltuk.org.uk/download/Valuing_the_Benefits_of_Cycling.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Statistics Canada. (2006). The time it takes to get to work and back (Catalogue no. 89-622-XIE2006001). Ottawa, Canada: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
- Transport Corporation of India and Indian Institute of Management Calcutta. (2012). Operational efficiency of national highways for freight transportation in India. Calcutta, India: Union Cabinet Minister, Road Transport and Highways.Google Scholar
- Van Essen, H., & Van Grinsven, A. (2012). Interaction of GHG policy for transport with congestion and accessibility policies. Task 11 ad-hoc paper 1 produced as part of a contract between European Commission Directorate-General Climate Action and AEA Technology plc. Retrieved from http://www.eutransportghg2050.eu/cms/reports/. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.
- Winters, M., Brauer, M., Setton, E. M., & Teschke, K. (2010). Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: Bicycling versus driving. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 87, 969–993.Google Scholar
- World Bank. (2011, July). World development indicators database. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators/wdi-2011. Accessed 3 Oct 2012.