Reflection and Reflective Behaviour in Work Teams

Chapter
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 9)

Abstract

Despite many routinised and rule-based workflows, there are often unique features and new experiences in the workplace. These deviations originate from exceptional cases or lasting changes. It is not until these experiences are reflected on that they lead to learning in terms of modified beliefs, mental models and knowledge. This need for reflection and reflective behaviour is of particular importance within work teams, and both require and benefit from the reflection skills of its participants. Starting with learning as problem-solving and the need for reflection, we will focus on the purpose of reflection to solve challenges (problems) and break-up routines. Afterwards, we discuss individual reflection and its connection to team reflection and team reflective behaviour because individual reflection is the basis of team reflection and benefits from it. Based on the discussion of the individual and team level, we look at the organisational level and focus on exemplary contextual settings and methods of reflection in team settings and their implementation in work settings. With this, we look at the connection between team reflection and organisational learning and offer a brief insight into the challenges and boundaries of reflection in teams. After showing the relations and difficulties of team learning and organisational learning, we conclude our chapter with the recognition that a comprehensive analysis of reflection has to consider the individual, social as well as the organisational perspective when it comes to team reflection.

Keywords

Organisational Learning Reflective Practice Workplace Learning Reflection Process Organisational Perspective 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Andersen, T. (1990). The reflecting team. In T. Andersen (Ed.), The reflecting team.—Dialogues and dialogues about the dialogues (pp. 19–110). Broadstairs, UK: Kent.Google Scholar
  2. Berry, D. C. (1987). The problem of implicit knowledge. Expert Systems, 4(3), 144–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Billett, S. (2006). Work, change and workers. Berlin: Springer Netherland.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolton, G. (2010). Reflective practice. Writing & professional development. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Boud, D. (2006). Creating the space for reflection at work. In D. Boud, P. Cressey, & P. Docherty (Eds.), Productive reflection at work. Learning for changing organizations (pp. 158–169). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Boud, D., Cressey, P., & Docherty, P. (2006). Setting the scene for productive reflection. In D. Boud, P. Cressey, & P. Docherty (Eds.), Productive reflection at work. Learning for changing organizations (pp. 3–10). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Promoting reflection in learning: A model. In D. Boud, R. Keogh, & D. Walker (Eds.), Reflection: Turning experience into learning (pp. 18–40). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  8. Boud, D., & Walker, D. (1993). Barriers to reflection on experience. In D. Boud, R. Cohen, & D. Walker (Eds.), Using experience for learning (pp. 73–86). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brooks, A. K. (1999). Critical reflection as a response to organizational disruption. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 1(3), 66–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brüggemann, A., & Rohs, M. (2007). Reflexionshaltige Lernspots – Reflexionen an der Schnittstelle zwischen Arbeiten und Lernen. In P. Dehnbostel, H.-J. Lindemann, & C. Ludwig (Eds.), Lernen im Prozess der Arbeit in Schule und Betrieb (pp. 275–290). Münster, Germany: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  11. Buljac-Samardžić, M., & Van Woerkom, M. (in press). Can managers coach their teams too much? Journal of Managerial Psychology.Google Scholar
  12. Busch, M. W. (2010). Teamreflexivität. Zeitschrift für Planung & Unternehmenssteuerung, 20, 295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Candy, P., Harri-Augstein, S., & Thomas, L. (1985). Reflection and the self-organized learner: A model of learning conversations. In D. Boud, R. Keogh, & D. Walker (Eds.), Reflection: Turning experience into learning (pp. 100–116). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  14. Carter, A. M., & West, M. A. (1998). Reflexivity, effectiveness, and mental health in BBC-TV production teams. Small Group Research, 29(5), 583–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Darling, M. J., & Parry, C. S. (2001). After action reviews: Linking reflection and planning in a learning practice. Reflections, 3(2), 64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daudelin, M. W. (1996). Learning from experience through reflection. Organizational Dynamics, 24(3), 36–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davies, S. (2012). Embracing reflective practice. Education for Primary Care, 23, 9–12.Google Scholar
  18. Dörner, D. (1979). Self reflection and problem solving. In F. Klix (Ed.), Human and artificial intelligence (pp. 101–107). Amsterdam/New York/Oxford, UK: North-Holland Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  19. Dörner, D. (1994). Selbstreflexion und Handlungsregulation: Die physiologischen Mechanismen und ihre Bedingungen. In W. Lübbe (Ed.), Kausalität und Zurechnung. Über Verantwortung in komplexen kulturellen Prozessen (pp. 199–222). Berlin, Germany/New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  20. Dörner, D. (1996). Verhalten und Handeln. In D. Dörner & H. Selg (Eds.), Psychologie. Eine Einführung in ihre Grundlagen und Anwendungsfelder (pp. 100–114). Stuttgart/Berlin/Köln, Germany: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  21. Dörner, D. (2002). Die Logik des Mißlingens: Strategisches Denken in komplexen Situationen (15 Aufl.). Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.Google Scholar
  22. Edmondson, A. C. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behaviour in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Edmondson, A. C. (2002). The local and variegated nature of learning in organizations: A group-level perspective. Organization Science, 13(2), 128–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Egloffstein, M., Frötschl, C., & Baierlein, J. (2010). ePortfolios zwischen Reflexion und Assessment – Erfahrungen aus der Lehrpersonenbildung. Medienpädagogik, 18. Online available: http://www.medienpaed.com/18/egloffstein1004.pdf. 15 July 2013.
  25. Ellis, S., & Davidi, I. (2005). After-event reviews: Drawing lessons from successful and failed experiences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 857–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ellström, P.-E. (2006). The meaning and role of reflection in informal learning at work. In D. Boud, P. Cressey, & P. Docherty (Eds.), Productive reflection at work. Learning for changing organizations (pp. 43–53). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Eraut, M. R. (1998). Development of knowledge and skills in employment. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex Institute of Education, Education Development Building.Google Scholar
  28. Eraut, M. R. (2000). Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 113–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51(4), 327–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Frensch, P., & Funke, J. (1995). Definitions, traditions, and a general framework for understanding complex problem solving. In P. Frensch & J. Funke (Eds.), Complex problem solving: The European perspective (pp. 3–26). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Frese, M., & Zapf, D. (1994). Action as the core of work psychology: A German approach. In H. Triandis, M. Dunnette, & L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 271–340). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  32. Geithner, S., & Krüger, V. (2008). Hochleistungsteams: Lernen durch Reflexion. In P. Pawlowsky & P. Mistele (Eds.), Hochleistungsmanagement (pp. 133–149). Wiesbaden, Germany: Gabler.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gersick, C. J., & Hackman, J. R. (1990). Habitual routines in task-performing groups. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 47(1), 65–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gigerenzer, G. (1981). Messung und Modellbildung in der Psychologie (Vol. 1047). München: Reinhardt.Google Scholar
  35. Gillen, J. (2007). Reflexion im beruflichen Handeln. Zur Funktion und Differenzierung des Reflexionsbegriffs. Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik, 103(4), 525–538.Google Scholar
  36. Groeben, N., & Scheele, B. (1982). Grundlagenprobleme eines Forschungsprogramms “Subjektive Theorien”. In H.-D. Dann, W. Humpert, F. Krause, & K.-C. Tennstädt (Eds.), Analyse und Modifikation subjektiver Theorien von Lehrern (pp. 9–12). Germany: University of Konstanz.Google Scholar
  37. Habermas, J. (1971). Knowledge and human interest. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  38. Habermas, J. (1974). Theory and practice. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  39. Habermas, J. (1984). The theory of communicative action (Vol. 1: Reason and the rationalization of society). Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  40. Hacker, W., & Wetzstein, A. (2004). Verbalisierende Reflexion und Lösungsgüte beim Entwurfsdenken. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 212(3), 152–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching & Teacher Education, 11(1), 33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Høyrup, S., & Elkjaer, B. (2006). Reflection: Taking it beyond the individual. In D. Boud, P. Cressey, & P. Docherty (Eds.), Productive reflection at work. Learning for changing organizations (pp. 29–42). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Jay, J. K., & Johnson, K. L. (2002). Capturing complexity: A typology of reflective practice for teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(1), 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jonassen, D. H. (2004). Learning to solve problems: An instructional design guide. San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Kaiser, H. J., & Werbik, H. (2012). Handlungspsychologie. Eine Einführung. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  46. Kayes, A., Kayes, D. C., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Experiential learning in teams. Simulation and Gaming, 36(3), 330–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. King, P., & Kitchener, K. (2004). Reflective judgment: Theory and research on the development of epistemic assumptions through adulthood. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lash, S. (1996). Reflexivität und ihre Doppelung. Struktur, Ästhetik und Gemeinschaft. In U. Beck, A. Giddens, & S. Lash (Eds.), Reflexive Modernisierung – Eine Kontroverse (pp. 195–286). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  49. Marsick, V. J. (1988). Learning in the workplace: The case for reflectivity and critical reflectivity. Adult Education Quarterly, 38(4), 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mezirow, J. (1990). How critical reflection triggers transformative learning. In J. Mezirow and Associates (Eds.), Fostering critical reflection in adulthood. A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning (pp. 1–20). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  51. Neininger, A., & Kauffeld, S. (2009). Reflexion als Schlüssel zur Weiterentwicklung von Gruppenarbeit. In S. Kauffeld, S. Grote, & E. Frieling (Eds.), Handbuch Kompetenzentwicklung (pp. 233–255). Stuttgart, Germany: Schaeffer-Poeschel Verlag.Google Scholar
  52. Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  53. Pearson, M., & Smith, D. (1985). Debriefing in experience based learning. In D. Boud, R. Keogh, & D. Walker (Eds.), Reflection: Turning experience into learning (pp. 69–84). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  54. Raelin, J. A. (2002). “I don’t have time to think!” versus the art of reflective practice. Reflections, 4(1), 66–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rausch, A. (2011). Erleben und Lernen am Arbeitsplatz in der betrieblichen Ausbildung. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rausch, A. (2012). Task characteristics and learning potentials—Empirical results of three diary studies on workplace learning. Vocations and Learning, 6(1), 55–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rausch, A., & Schley, T. (2011). Fostering workplace learning within vocational education and training – An interview study with trainees, workplace mentors, and full-time trainers. In Proceedings of the 7th international conference on researching work and learning, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China, 4–7 Dec 2011.Google Scholar
  58. Reason, J. T. (1988). Knowledge, representation and control of action in complex environments. University of Manchester (Special publication).Google Scholar
  59. Reither, F. (1979). Über die Selbstreflexion beim Problemlösen. Inaugural-dissertation, Justus Liebig University, Gießen.Google Scholar
  60. Reither, F. (1985). Zur Selbstorganisation kognitiver Prozesse: Ergebnisse und Anwendungen aus der Erforschung komplexer Problemlösungsprozesse. In R. Ellermann & U. Opolka (Eds.), Was bringen uns die Theorien selbstorganisierender Prozesse? Natur- und Sozialwissenschaftler im Gespräch (pp. 81–89). Sankt Augustin, Germany: COMDOK-Verl.-Abt.Google Scholar
  61. Ron, N., Lipshitz, R., & Popper, M. (2006). How organizations learn: Post-flight reviews in an F-16 fighter squadron. Organization Studies, 27(8), 1069–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Scherer, K. R. (1986). Vocal affect expression: A review and a model for future research. Psychological Bulletin, 99(2), 143–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schippers, M. C., Den Hartog, D. N., & Koopman, P. L. (2003). Diversity and team outcomes: The moderating effects of outcome interdependence and group longevity, and the mediating effect of reflexivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(6), 779–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schippers, M. C., Den Hartog, D. N., & Koopman, P. L. (2007). Reflexivity in teams: A measure and correlates. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(2), 189–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schippers, M. C., Den Hartog, D. N., Koopman, P. L., & Van Knippenberg, D. (2008). The role of transformational leadership in enhancing team reflexivity. Human Relations, 61(11), 1593–1616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schley, T. (2013). Strukturen sichtbar machen – Schule verändern. Strukturelle Reflexion zur Generierung eines Ideenpools für die Schulentwicklung. SchVw BY, 36(10), 277–280.Google Scholar
  67. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. London: Temple Smith.Google Scholar
  68. Sembill, D. (1992). Problemlösefähigkeit, Handlungskompetenz und Emotionale Befindlichkeit. Zielgrößen Forschenden Lernens. Göttingen, Germany/Toronto, ON, Canada/Zürich, Switzerland: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  69. Sembill, D. (1999). Selbstorganisation als Modellierungs-, Gestaltungs- und Erforschungsidee beruflichen Lernens. In T. Tramm, D. Sembill, F. Klauser, & E.-G. John (Eds.), Professionalisierung kaufmännischer Berufsbildung. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Frank Achtenhagen (pp. 146–174). Frankfurt, Germany/New York/Toronto, ON, Canada: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  70. Sembill, D. (2012). Was bedeutet die Hirnforschung für die Schul- und Lernkultur? In J. Warwas, P. Harder, & D. Sembill (Eds.), Kultur der Schule – Schule der Kultur(en) (pp. 85–112). Hohengehren, Germany: Schneider Verlag.Google Scholar
  71. Somerville, D., & Keeling, J. (2004). A practical approach to promote reflective practice within nursing. Nursing Times, 100(12), 42–50.Google Scholar
  72. Swift, T. A., & West, M. A. (1998). Reflexivity and group processes: Research and practice. Sheffield, UK: ESRC Centre for Organization and Innovation.Google Scholar
  73. Tarrant, P. (2013). Reflective practice and professional development. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  74. Tisdale, T. (1998). Selbstreflexion, Bewusstsein und Handlungsregulation. Weinheim, Germany: Beltz.Google Scholar
  75. Tjosvold, D. (1991). Team organization: An enduring competitive advantage. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  76. Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(2), 284–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Van Woerkom, M. (2003). Critical reflection at work. Bridging individual and organisational learning. Twente, The Netherlands: Twente University.Google Scholar
  78. Van Woerkom, M., & Croon, M. (2008). Operationalising critically reflective work behaviour. Personnel Review, 37(3), 317–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Van Woerkom, M. (2010). Critical reflection as a rationalistic ideal. Adult Education Quarterly, 60(4), 339–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Van Woerkom, M., Nijhof, W. J., & Nieuwenhuis, L. (2003). The relationship between critical reflection and learning – Experiences within Dutch companies. In B. Nyhan, M. Kelleher, P. Cressey, & R. Poell (Eds.), Facing up the learning organisation challenge (pp. 184–198). Luxembourg: Cedefop.Google Scholar
  81. Van Woerkom, M., & Tjepkema, S. (2013). Positive and critical: Enhancing constructive critical reflection in groups. In J. Walton & C. Valentin (Eds.), Human resource development: practices and orthodoxies (pp. 58–82). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  82. Vince, R. (2002). Organizing reflection. Management Learning, 33(1), 63–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. West, M. A. (1996). Reflexivity and work group effectiveness. A conceptual integration. In M. A. West (Ed.), Handbook of work group psychology (pp. 555–579). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  84. West, M. A. (2000). Reflexivity, revolution and innovation in work teams. In M. M. Beyerlein, D. A. Johnson, & S. T. Beyerlein (Eds.), Product development teams (Vol. 5, pp. 1–29). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  85. West, M. A. (2004). Effective teamwork (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: BPS Blackwell.Google Scholar
  86. West, M. A., Garrod, S., & Carletta, J. C. (1997). Group decision-making and effectiveness. Unexplored boundaries. In C. L. Cooper & S. Jackson (Eds.), Creating tomorrow’s organizations: A handbook for future research in organisational behavior (pp. 293–317). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chair of Business Education and Educational ManagementUniversity of BambergBambergGermany
  2. 2.Department of Human Resource StudiesTilburg UniversityTilburgThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations