Real-Time Monitoring of Water Contaminants for Situation Awareness Using Electromagnetic Field Sensing System

  • O. Korostynska
  • K. Arshak
  • A. Arshak
  • A. Mason
  • Ashok Vaseashta
  • A. Al-Shamma’a
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics book series (NAPSB)

Abstract

Up to 70,000 known and emerging chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants may be present in various water resources. To assure the safety and quality of water and to guarantee the situational awareness of safe water supplies, efficient real-time measurement methods with superior sensitivity are required. Current measurement methods of pollutants are mostly based on off-line monitoring which implies low frequency data sampling, delays between sampling and results, and additional chemical use. In this study, a novel sensing system where the interaction of the electromagnetic field with the tested fluid reveals its composition is presented. In particular, it is suggested that microwave based sensors are a suitable technology to fulfill the requirement for a real-time water pollution monitoring platform. A prototype microwave sensor in the form of printed Cu pattern on FR4 substrate was designed and tested for its response to air, deionized water, 500 ppm phosphate solution, and cooking oil samples. This sensor operates based upon the interaction of the electromagnetic waves and the material under test, which manifests itself as a unique spectra as measured for each sample due to its specific permittivity. By considering how the reflected microwave signal (in a form of S11 parameter) varies at discrete frequency intervals, the change in the signal can be linked to the composition of the object under test.

Keywords

Water sensing Water quality Sensors Microwave sensors 

References

  1. 1.
    Schwarzenbach RP, Escher BI, Fenner K, Hofstetter TB, Johnson CA, Von Gunten U, Wehrli B (2006) The challenge of micropollutants in aquatic systems. Science 313:1072–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stuart M, Lapworth D, Crane E, Hart A (2012) Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater. Sci Total Environ 416:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Lopez de Alda MJ, Barceló D (2007) Advantages and limitations of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry technologies versus biosensors for monitoring of emerging contaminants in water. J Chromatogr A 1152:97–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heberer T (2002) Occurrence, fate, and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment: a review of recent research data. Toxicol Lett 131:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Larsen TA, Lienert J, Joss A, Siegrist H (2004) How to avoid pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. J Biotechnol 113:295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rosen R (2007) Mass spectrometry for monitoring micropollutants in water. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:246–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Korostynska O, Mason A, Al-Shamma’a AI (2012, March) Monitoring of nitrates and phosphates in wastewater: current technologies and further challenges. Int J Smart Sens Intell Syst 5:149–176Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Srivastava A, Choi G-G, Ahn C-Y, Oh H-M, Ravi AK, Asthana RK (2012) Dynamics of microcystin production and quantification of potentially toxigenic Microcystis sp. Using real-time PCR. Water Res 46:817–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Al-Dasoqi N, Mason A, Alkhaddar R, Al-Shamma’a A (2011) Use of sensors in wastewater quality monitoring – a review of available technologies. In: World environmental and water resources congress 2011: bearing knowledge for sustainability, Palm Springs, 2011, p 354Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Engblom SO (1998) The phosphate sensor. Biosens Bioelectron 13:981–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Capitán-Vallvey LF, Palma AJ (2011) Recent developments in handheld and portable optosensing—a review. Anal Chim Acta 696:27–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ahmad A, Paschero A, Moore E (2011) Amperometric immunosensors for screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. In: 16th conference in the biennial sensors and their applications, Cork, 12–14 Sept 2011Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arshak K, Korostynska O (2006) Advanced materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry. Artech House, BostonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Van der Star WRL, Abma WR, Blommers D, Mulder J-W, Tokutomi T, Strous M, Picioreanu C, Van Loosdrecht MCM (2007) Startup of reactors for anoxic ammonium oxidation: experiences from the first full-scale anammox reactor in Rotterdam. Water Res 41:4149–4163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Velusamy V, Arshak K, Korostynska O, Oliwa K, Adley C (2010) An overview of foodborne pathogen detection: in the perspective of biosensors. Biotechnol Adv 28:232–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Amine A, Palleschi G (2004) Phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate biosensors. Anal Lett 37(1):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gilbert L, Jenkins ATA, Browning S, Hart JP (2011) Development of an amperometric, screen-printed, single-enzyme phosphate ion biosensor and its application to the analysis of biomedical and environmental samples. Sens Actuator B Chem 160:1322–1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee WH, Seo Y, Bishop PL (2009) Characteristics of a cobalt-based phosphate microelectrode for in situ monitoring of phosphate and its biological application. Sens Actuator B Chem 137:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Storey MV, Van der Gaag B, Burns BP (2011) Advances in on-line drinking water quality monitoring and early warning systems. Water Res 45:741–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Korostynska O, Arshak K, Velusamy V, Arshak A, Vaseashta A (2012) Recent advances in point-of-access water quality monitoring. In: Vaseashta A, Braman E, Susmann P (eds) Technological innovations in sensing and detection of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear threats and ecological terrorism. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kapilevich B, Litvak B (2007) Microwave sensor for accurate measurements of water solution concentrations. In: Asia-Pacific microwave conference APMC, Bangkok, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yunus MAM, Mukhopadhyay S, Punchihewa A (2011) Application of independent component analysis for estimating nitrate contamination in natural water sources using planar electromagnetic sensor. In: ICST 2011 fifth international conference on sensing technology, Limerick, pp 538–543Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yunus MAM, Mukhopadhyay SC (2011) Novel planar electromagnetic sensors for detection of nitrates and contamination in natural water sources. Sens J IEEE 11:1440–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boon JD, Brubaker JM (2008) Acoustic-microwave water level sensor comparisons in an estuarine environment. In: OCEANS 2008, Quebec City, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jackson B, Jayanthy T (2010) A novel method for water impurity concentration using microstrip resonator sensor. In: Recent advances in space technology services and climate change (RSTSCC), pp 376–379, 13–15 November 2010, in Chennai, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bernou C, Rebière D, Pistré J (2000) Microwave sensors: a new sensing principle. Application to humidity detection. Sens Actuator B Chem 68:88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    NackeT, Barthel A, Pflieger C, Pliquett U, Beckmann D, Goller A (2010) Continuous process monitoring for biogas plants using microwave sensors. In: 12th biennial baltic electronics conference (BEC), Tallinn, pp 239–242Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Korostynska O, Arshak A, Creedon P, Arshak K, Wendling L, Al-Shamma’a AI, O’Keeffe S (2009) Glucose monitoring using electromagnetic waves and microsensor with interdigitated electrodes. In: Sensors applications symposium, IEEE SAS 2009, New Orleans, pp. 34–37Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mason A, Wylie S, Thomas A, Keele H, Shaw A, Al-Shamma’a A (2010, Sept) HEPA filter material load detection using a microwave cavity sensor. Int J Smart Sens Intell Syst 3:16Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Al-Shamma’a A, Mason A, Shaw A (2012) Patent: Non-invasive monitoring device, US2012150000 (A1), WO2010131029 (A1), EP2429397 (A1). http://www.google.com/patents/US20120150000
  31. 31.
    Guha D, Antar YMM (2010) Microstrip and printed antennas: new trends, techniques and applications. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Korostynska
    • 1
  • K. Arshak
    • 2
  • A. Arshak
    • 3
  • A. Mason
    • 1
  • Ashok Vaseashta
    • 4
    • 5
  • A. Al-Shamma’a
    • 1
  1. 1.BEST Research Institute, School of Built EnvironmentLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Electronics and Computer Engineering DepartmentUniversity of LimerickLimerickIreland
  3. 3.Department of Physics and EnergyUniversity of LimerickLimerickIreland
  4. 4.Norwich University Applied Research InstitutesHerndonUSA
  5. 5.VTT/AVC U.S. Department of StateWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations