We Know Where You Are. And We’re More and More Sure What That Means
Knowing where something occurs is most meaningful if placed in relation to other events, people, and things. Recent innovations in pervasive information and computing technology (PICT) and related information technology infrastructures open up capabilities to record and analyze locations and relations among events in unparalleled fashion, leading to increases in data about where people are and what they do. Spatial analysis can identify many of these relations and help create penetrating insights. First, this chapter considers how the field of geography has developed analytical capabilities that support understanding online and virtual activities involving pervasive information technology. Because of a growing infrastructure with a capability to thoroughly record locations and events, coupled with computational approaches that mine data and cross-reference data from different sources, geographic analysis has become a commonplace means of analyzing data and establishing patterns of activities or information about individuals. With vast amounts of location data and the use of analysis techniques, it has become possible to not only know where people are, but what the aggregation of data from different sources means. Also this chapter reviews recent developments and their underlying geographic concepts, and points to important questions in considering the role of location and relations in information-age surveillance.
- Acohido, Byron. 2011. Privacy implications of ubiquitous digital sensors. USA Today, January 26, 2011, P1B.Google Scholar
- Albrecht, Katherine, and Liz McIntyre. 2006. Spychips: How major corporations and government plan to track your every purchase and watch your every move. New York City: Plume Books.Google Scholar
- Bell, Killian. 2011. 27,000 users sue Apple for $25 million over locationgate. http://www.cultofmac.com/109211/27000-users-sue-apple-for-25-million-over-locationgate/. Accessed 1 Dec 2011.
- Cairncross, F. 2001. The death of distance: How the communications revolution is changing our lives. Cambridge: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
- Castells, Manuel. 2000. The rise of the network society, 2nd ed. Oxford/Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Cope, Meghan, and Sarah Elwood. 2009. Qualitative Gis: A mixed-methods approach. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
- Davies, Gavyn. 2006. Gavyn Davies does the maths. The Guardian, July 19, 2006. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/jul/20/secondworldwar.tvandradio. Accessed 27 May 2013.
- Duhigg, Charles. 2012. How companies learn your secrets. The New York Times, February 13. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/magazine/shopping-habits.html. Accessed 31 May 2013.
- Duquenoy, P. 2007. The information society: What next? The information society: Innovation, legitimacy, ethics and democracy in honor of professor Jacques Berleur sj, 263–68.Google Scholar
- Duquenoy, Penny, and Oliver K. Burmeister. 2009. Ethical issues and pervasive computing. In Risk assessment and management in pervasive computing, ed. Penny Duquenoy and Oliver K. Burmeister. Hershey: Information Science Reference.Google Scholar
- Electronic Privacy Information Center. 2013. Domestic Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Drones. http://epic.org/privacy/drones/. Accessed 23 Apr 2012.
- Elwood, Sarah, and Agnieszka Leszczynski. 2011. Privacy, reconsidered: New representations, data practices, and the geoweb. GeoJournal 42(1): 6–15.Google Scholar
- Fotheringham, Stewart, Peter Rogerson, Donna J. Peuquet, and Duane F. Marble (eds.). 1994. Spatial analysis and Gis. Technical issues in geographic information systems. Bristol: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Getis, Art. 1999. Spatial statistics. In Geographical information systems, ed. P.A. Longley, M.F. Goodchild, D.J. Maquire, and D.W. Rhind. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Goss, Jon. 1995. Marketing the new marketing: The strategic discourse of geodemographic information systems. In Ground truth: The social implications of geographic information systems, ed. J. Pickles. New York City: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Kitchin, R., and M. Dodge. 2011. Code/space: Software and everyday life. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Liptak, Adam. 2011. Court case asks if ‘Big Brother’ is spelled GPS. The New York Times, September 8. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/11/us/11gps.html. Accessed 31 May 2013.
- Livingstone, David N. 1992. The geographical tradition. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Longley, Paul A., Sue M. Brooks, Rachel McDonnell, and Bill MacMillan (eds.). 1998. Geocomputation: A primer. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Mandelbrot, B.B. 1983. The fractal geometry of nature. New York City: Wh. Freeman.Google Scholar
- Massey, Doreen. 2005. For space. Thousand Oaks: Sage Press.Google Scholar
- McLuhan, Marshall, and Bruce R. Powers. 1989. The global village: Transformations in world life and media in the 21st century, Communication and society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Monmonier, Mark. 1991. How to lie with maps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- National Research Council (US). Panel on Confidentiality Issues Arising from the Integration of Remotely Sensed Self-Identifying Data. 2007. Putting people on the map: Protecting confidentiality with linked social-spatial data. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Nissenbaum, Helen. 2010. Privacy in context: Technology, policy, and the integrity of social life. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- O’Sullivan, David, and David J. Unwin. 2003. Geographic information analysis. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Pogue, David. 2011. Wrapping up the apple location Brouhaha. http://pogue.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/04/28/wrapping-up-the-apple-location-brouhaha/. Accessed 26 Aug 2011.
- Rushton, Gerard, Marc P. Armstrong, Josephine Gittler, Barry R. Greene, Claire E. Pavlik, Michele M. West, and Dale L. Zimmerman. 2006. Geocoding in cancer research, a review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(25): 516–524.Google Scholar
- Sheppard, Eric, and Robert B. McMaster (eds.). 2004. Scale and geographic inquiry: Nature, society, and methods. New York: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Smith, Neil. 2004. Scale Bending. In Scale and geographic inquiry: Nature, society, and methods, ed. Eric Sheppard and Robert B. McMaster. New York: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Sui, Daniel Z. 2004. GIS, cartography, and the “third culture”: Geographic imaginations in the computer age. The Professional Geographer 56(1): 62–72.Google Scholar
- Sweeney, Laura. 2000. Uniqueness of simple demographics in the U.S. population: Laboratory for international data privacy working paper, LIDAP-WP4. Pittsburgh: Laboratory for International Data Privacy, Carnegie Mellon University.Google Scholar
- 2007. The logic of privacy. The Economist, January 4. http://www.economist.com/node/8486072. Accessed 13 Dec 2011.
- Unwin, David. 1981. Introductory spatial analysis. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
- Watson, P.G., P. Duquenoy, M. Brennan, M. Jones, and J. Walkerdine. 2009. Towards an ethical interaction design: The issue of including stakeholders in law-enforcement software development. Paper read at Proceedings of the 21st annual conference of the Australian computer-human interaction special interest group: Design: Open 24/7, Melbourne.Google Scholar