The Mediterranean Human Population: An Anthropological Genetics Perspective

  • Marco Sazzini
  • Stefania Sarno
  • Donata Luiselli


The Mediterranean Sea has long been one of the most important and crowded natural hubs for the expansion of human genes and cultures, representing a tri-continental crossroads for human migrations since the first dispersals of anatomically modern humans out of Africa. Both its ancient and modern history, with its amazing chronicle of biological and cultural transitions, has substantially influenced the current patchwork of anthropological types existing within this area. For a deep dissection of this patchwork, Anthropological Genetics combines information related to the population dynamics able to shape the genetic structure of human populations (i.e. geographical constraints, language, cultural, social and political barriers) to those provided by the powerful tools of molecular biology and population genetics. This comprehensive approach allows to trace genetic profiles of Mediterranean populations into the past to discover and reconstruct their origins and demographic histories, as well as their evolutionary relationships. Nevertheless, the genetic landscape of Mediterranean populations is far from being exhaustively drawn. Several Anthropological Genetics projects, basing on an even deeper genetic characterization of dense and accurately selected geographic samples, have been just launched and promise to shed new light on the pivotal role of the Mediterranean basin as a genetic barrier and/or a bridge between human groups characterized by different African, Near Eastern or European cultural backgrounds.


Anthropological Genetics Mediterranean human populations Polymorphic genetic markers Paleolithic and Neolithic genetic signatures 



We are very grateful to Prof. Stanley Ulijaszek for his insightful remarks on the manuscript and for the language revision of it.


  1. 1000 Genomes Project Consortium (2010) A map of human genome variation from population-scale sequencing. Nature 467:1061–1073. doi: 10.1038/nature09534 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achilli A, Rengo C, Magri C, Battaglia V, Olivieri A, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Zeviani M, Briem E, Carelli V, Moral P, Dugoujon JM, Roostalu U, Loogväli EL, Kivisild T, Bandelt HJ, Richards M, Villems R, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Semino O, Torroni A (2004) The molecular dissection of mtDNA haplogroup H confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian glacial refuge was a major source for the European gene pool. Am J Hum Genet 75:910–918. doi: 10.1086/425590 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Achilli A, Rengo C, Battaglia V, Pala M, Olivieri A, Fornarino S, Magri C, Scozzari R, Babudri N, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Bandelt HJ, Semino O, Torroni A (2005) Saami and Berbers – an unexpected mitochondrial DNA link. Am J Hum Genet 76:883–886. doi: 10.1086/430073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adler DS, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Tushabramishvili N, Boaretto E, Mercier N, Valladas H, Rink WJ (2008) Dating the demise: Neanderthal extinction and the establishment of modern humans in the southern Caucasus. J Hum Evol 55:817–833. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.08.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander DH, Novembre J, Lange K (2009) Fast model-based estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals. Genome Res 19:1655–1664. doi: 10.1101/gr.094052.109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ammerman AJ, Cavalli-Sforza LL (1984) The Neolithic transition and the genetics of populations in Europe. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  7. Angius A, Bebbere D, Petretto E, Falchi M, Forabosco P, Maestrale B, Casu G, Persico I, Melis PM, Pirastu M (2002) Not all isolates are equal: linkage disequilibrium analysis on Xq13.3 reveals different patterns in Sardinian sub-populations. Hum Genet 111:9–15. doi: 10.1007/s00439-002-0753-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S, Zerjal T, Fathallah DM, Makrelouf M, Pascali VL, Novelletto A, Tyler-Smith C (2004) A predominantly Neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa. Am J Hum Genet 75:338–345. doi: 10.1086/423147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Athanasiadis G, Esteban E, Via M, Dugoujon JM, Moschonas N, Chaabani H, Moral P (2007) The X chromosome Alu insertions as a tool for human population genetics: data from European and African human groups. Eur J Hum Genet 15:578–583. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201797 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Athanasiadis G, González-Pérez E, Esteban E, Dugoujon JM, Stoneking M, Moral P (2010) The Mediterranean Sea as a barrier to gene flow: evidence from variation in and around the F7 and F12 genomic regions. BMC Evol Biol 10:84. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-84 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balaresque P, Bowden GR, Adams SM, Leung HY, King TE, Rosser ZH, Goodwin J, Moisan JP, Richard C, Millward A, Demaine AG, Barbujani G, Previderè C, Wilson IJ, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA (2010) A predominantly Neolithic origin for European paternal lineages. PLoS Biol 8:e1000285. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000285 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barbujani G, Colonna V (2010) Human genome diversity: frequently asked questions. Trends Genet 26:285–295. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2010.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barbujani G, Pilastro A, De Domenico S, Renfrew C (1994) Genetic variation in North Africa and Eurasia: Neolithic demic diffusion vs. Paleolithic colonisation. Am J Phys Anthropol 95:137–154. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330950203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barbujani G, Bertorelle G, Capitani G, Scozzari R (1995) Geographical structuring in the mtDNA of Italians. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9171–9175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Battaglia V, Fornarino S, Al-Zahery N, Olivieri A, Pala M, Myres NM, King RJ, Rootsi S, Marjanovic D, Primorac D, Hadziselimovic R, Vidovic S, Drobnic K, Durmishi N, Torroni A, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Underhill PA, Semino O (2008) Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in Southeast Europe. Eur J Hum Genet 17:820–830. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2008.249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benazzi S, Douka K, Fornai C, Bauer CC, Kullmer O, Svoboda J, Pap I, Mallegni F, Bayle P, Coquerelle M, Condemi S, Ronchitelli A, Harvati K, Weber GW (2011) Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour. Nature 479:525–528. doi: 10.1038/nature10617 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benjeddou M, Leat N, Davison S (2006) Use of molecular genetics and historical records to reconstruct the history of local communities. Afr J Biotechnol 5:2516–2519Google Scholar
  18. Berger JF, Guilaine J (2009) The 8200 cal BP abrupt environmental change and the Neolithic transition: a Mediterranean perspective. Quat Int 200:31–49. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2008.05.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Biagi P (2003) A review of the late Mesolithic in Italy and its implication for the Neolithic transition. In: Ammerman A, Biagi P (eds) The widening harvest. Archaeological Institute of America, BostonGoogle Scholar
  20. Bosch E, Calafell F, Pérez-Lezaun A, Comas D, Mateu E, Bertranpetit J (1997) Population history of North Africa: evidence from classical genetic markers. Hum Biol 69:295–311Google Scholar
  21. Bosch E, Calafell F, Santos FR, Pérez-Lezaun A, Comas D, Benchemsi N, Tyler-Smith C, Bertranpetit J (1999) Variation in short tandem repeats is deeply structured by genetic background on the human Y chromosome. Am J Hum Genet 65:1623–1638. doi: 10.1086/302676 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bosch E, Calafell F, Pérez-Lezaun A, Clarimón J, Comas D, Mateu E, Martínez-Arias R, Morera B, Brakez Z, Akhayat O, Sefiani A, Hariti G, Cambon-Thomsen A, Bertranpetit J (2000) Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by STR analysis. Eur J Hum Genet 8:360–366. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200464 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bosch E, Calafell F, Comas D, Oefner PJ, Underhill PA, Bertranpetit J (2001) High-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome variation shows a sharp discontinuity and limited gene flow between northwestern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. Am J Hum Genet 68:1019–1029. doi: 10.1086/319521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Busby GB, Brisighelli F, Sánchez-Diz P, Ramos-Luis E, Martinez-Cadenas C, Thomas MG, Bradley DG, Gusmão L, Winney B, Bodmer W, Vennemann M, Coia V, Scarnicci F, Tofanelli S, Vona G, Ploski R, Vecchiotti C, Zemunik T, Rudan I, Karachanak S, Toncheva D, Anagnostou P, Ferri G, Rapone C, Hervig T, Moen T, Wilson JF, Capelli C (2011) The peopling of Europe and the cautionary tale of Y chromosome lineage R-M269. Proc Biol Sci 279:884–892. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.1044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Calderon R (2000) Population and peopling in the Mediterranean world. Int J Anthropol 15:271–278. doi: 10.1007/BF02445138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Calò CM, Melis A, Vona G, Piras IS (2008) Sardinian population (Italy): a genetic review. Int J Mod Anthropol 1:39–64Google Scholar
  27. Capelli C, Redhead N, Romano V, Calì F, Lefranc G, Delague V, Megarbane A, Felice AE, Pascali VL, Neophytou PI, Poulli Z, Novelletto A, Malaspina P, Terrenato L, Berebbi A, Fellous M, Thomas MG, Goldstein DB (2005) Population structure in the Mediterranean basin: a Y chromosome perspective. Ann Hum Genet 70:207–225. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00224.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Capelli C, Brisighelli F, Scarnicci F, Arredi B, Caglia’ A, Vetrugno G, Tofanelli S, Onofri V, Tagliabracci A, Paoli G, Pascali VL (2007) Y chromosome genetic variation in the Italian peninsula is clinal and supports an admixture model for the Mesolithic-Neolithic encounter. Mol Phylogenet Evol 44:228–239. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.11.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Capelli C, Onofri V, Brisighelli F, Boschi I, Scarnicci F, Masullo M, Ferri G, Tofanelli S, Tagliabracci A, Gusmao L, Amorim A, Gatto F, Kirin M, Merlitti D, Brion M, Verea AB, Romano V, Cali F, Pascali V (2009) Moors and Saracens in Europe: estimating the medieval North African male legacy in southern Europe. Eur J Hum Genet 17:848–852. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2008.258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW (2003) The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolution. Nat Genet 33:266–275. doi: 10.1038/ng1113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozzi P, Piazza A (1994) History and geography of human genes. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  32. Cherni L, Loueslati BY, Pereira L, Ennafaâ H, Amorim A, El Gaaied AB (2005) Female gene pools of Berber and Arab neighboring communities in central Tunisia: microstructure of mtDNA variation in North Africa. Hum Biol 77:61–70. doi: 10.1353/hub.2005.0028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chikhi L, Nichols RA, Barbujani G, Beaumont MA (2002) Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11008–11013. doi: 10.1073/pnas.162158799 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cinnioğlu C, King R, Kivisild T, Kalfoğlu E, Atasoy S, Cavalleri GL, Lillie AS, Roseman CC, Lin AA, Prince K, Oefner PJ, Shen P, Semino O, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2004) Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia. Hum Genet 114:127–148. doi: 10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Colledge S, Conolly J, Shennan S (2004) Archaeobotanical evidence for the spread of farming in the Eastern Mediterranean. Curr Anthropol 45:35–45. doi: 10.1086/422086 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Colonna V, Boattini A, Guardiano C, Dall’ara I, Pettener D, Longobardi G, Barbujani G (2010) Long-range comparison between genes and languages based on syntactic distances. Hum Hered 70:245–254. doi: 10.1159/000317374 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Comas D (2010) The Genographic Project: insights into Western/Central European variation. J Anthropol Sci 88:243–244Google Scholar
  38. Comas D, Calafell F, Benchemsi N, Helal A, Lefranc G, Stoneking M, Batzer MA, Bertranpetit J, Sajantila A (2000) Alu insertion polymorphisms in NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula: evidence for a strong genetic boundary through the Gibraltar Straits. Hum Genet 107:312–319. doi: 10.1007/s004390000370 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Coudray C, Guitard E, Kandil M, Harich N, Melhaoui M, Baali A, Sevin A, Moral P, Dugoujon JM (2006) Study of GM immunoglobulin allotypic system in Berbers and Arabs from Morocco. Am J Hum Biol 18:23–34. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.20465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Coudray C, Olivieri A, Achilli A, Pala M, Melhaoui M, Cherkaoui M, El-Chennawi F, Kossmann M, Torroni A, Dugoujon JM (2009) The complex and diversified mitochondrial gene pool of Berber populations. Ann Hum Genet 73:196–214. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00493.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Shen P, Macaulay V, Moral P, Olckers A, Modiano D, Holmes S, Destro-Bisol G, Coia V, Wallace DC, Oefner PJ, Torroni A, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Scozzari R, Underhill PA (2002) A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 70:1197–1214. doi: 10.1086/340257 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cruciani F, La Fratta R, Santolamazza P, Sellitto D, Pascone R, Moral P, Watson E, Guida V, Colomb EB, Zaharova B, Lavinha J, Vona G, Aman R, Cali F, Akar N, Richards M, Torroni A, Novelletto A, Scozzari R (2004) Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa. Am J Hum Genet 74:1014–1022. doi: 10.1086/386294 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cruciani F, La Fratta R, Trombetta B, Santolamazza P, Sellitto D, Colomb EB, Dugoujon JM, Crivellaro F, Benincasa T, Pascone R, Moral P, Watson E, Melegh B, Barbujani G, Fuselli S, Vona G, Zagradisnik B, Assum G, Brdicka R, Kozlov AI, Efremov GD, Coppa A, Novelletto A, Scozzari R (2007) Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia: new clues from Y-chromosomal haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12. Mol Biol Evol 24:1300–1311. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msm049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Antonelli C, Pascone R, Valesini G, Scalzi V, Vona G, Melegh B, Zagradisnik B, Assum G, Efremov GD, Sellitto D, Scozzari R (2010) Strong intra- and inter-continental differentiation revealed by Y chromosome SNPs M269, U106 and U152. Forensic Sci Int Genet 5:49–52. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2010.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cunliffe B (2001) The Oxford illustrated history of prehistoric Europe. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  46. Cunliffe B (2008) Europe between the oceans: 9000 BC–AD 1000. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  47. Currat M, Excoffier L (2005) The effect of the Neolithic expansion on European molecular diversity. Proc Biol Sci 272:679–688. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2004.2999 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Currat M, Excoffier L (2011) Strong reproductive isolation between humans and Neanderthals inferred from observed patterns of introgression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:15129–15134. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1107450108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Currat M, Poloni ES, Sanchez-Mazas A (2010) Human genetic differentiation across the Strait of Gibraltar. BMC Evol Biol 10:237. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Di Gaetano C, Cerutti N, Crobu F, Robino C, Inturri S, Gino S, Guarrera S, Underhill PA, King RJ, Romano V, Cali F, Gasparini M, Matullo G, Salerno A, Torre C, Piazza A (2009) Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome. Eur J Hum Genet 17:91–99. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2008.120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Di Giacomo F, Luca F, Anagnou N, Ciavarella G, Corbo RM, Cresta M, Cucci F, Di Stasi L, Agostiano V, Giparaki M, Loutradis A, Mammi’ C, Michalodimitrakis EN, Papola F, Pedicini G, Plata E, Terrenato L, Tofanelli S, Malaspina P, Novelletto A (2003) Clinal patterns of human Y chromosomal diversity in continental Italy and Greece are dominated by drift and founder effects. Mol Phylogenet Evol 28:387–395. doi: 10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00016-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Di Giacomo F, Luca F, Popa LO, Akar N, Anagnou N, Banyko J, Brdicka R, Barbujani G, Papola F, Ciavarella G, Cucci F, Di Stasi L, Gavrila L, Kerimova MG, Kovatchev D, Kozlov AI, Loutradis A, Mandarino V, Mammi’ C, Michalodimitrakis EN, Paoli G, Pappa KI, Pedicini G, Terrenato L, Tofanelli S, Malaspina P, Novelletto A (2004) Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-Neolithic colonization of Europe. Hum Genet 115:357–371. doi: 10.1007/s00439-004-1168-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dupanloup I, Bertorelle G, Chikhi L, Barbujani G (2004) Estimating the impact of prehistoric admixture on the genome of Europeans. Mol Biol Evol 21:1361–1372. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msh135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ennafaa H, Amor MB, Yacoubi-Loueslati B, Khodjet el-khil H, Gonzalez-Perez E, Moral P, Maca-Meyer N, Elgaaied A (2006) Alu polymorphisms in Jerba Island population (Tunisia): comparative study in Arab and Berber groups. Ann Hum Biol 33:634–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ennafaa H, Cabrera VM, Abu-Amero KK, González AM, Amor MB, Bouhaha R, Dzimiri N, Elgaaïed AB, Larruga JM (2009) Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa. BMC Genet 10:8. doi: 10.1186/1471-2156-10-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fadhlaoui-Zid K, Plaza S, Calafell F, Ben Amor M, Comas D, Bennamar El gaaied A (2004) Mitochondrial DNA heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers. Ann Hum Genet 68:222–233. doi: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00096.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Falush D, Stephens M, Pritchard JK (2003) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: linked loci and correlated allele frequencies. Genetics 164:1567–1587Google Scholar
  58. Flores C, Maca-Meyer N, González AM, Cabrera VM (2000a) Northwest African distribution of the CD4/Alu microsatellite haplotypes. Ann Hum Genet 64:321–327. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-1809.2000.6440321.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Flores C, Hernández M, González AM, Cabrera VM (2000b) Genetic affinities among human populations inhabiting the Subsaharan area, Northwest Africa, and the Iberian Peninsula. In: Arnaiz-Villena A (ed) Proceedings of prehistoric Iberia: genetics, anthropology, and linguistics. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Flores C, Maca-Meyer N, Pérez JA, Hernández M, Cabrera VM (2001) Y-chromosome differentiation in Northwest Africa. Hum Biol 73:513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Flores C, Maca-Meyer N, Pérez JA, González AM, Larruga JM, Cabrera VM (2003) A predominant European ancestry of paternal lineages from Canary Islanders. Ann Hum Genet 67:138–152. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00015.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Francalacci P, Sanna D (2008) History and geography of human Y-chromosome in Europe: a SNP perspective. J Anthropol Sci 86:59–89Google Scholar
  63. Fu Q, Rudan P, Pääbo S, Krause J (2012) Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal Neolithic expansion into Europe. PLoS One 7:e32473. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032473 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gibbons A (2000) Evolutionary genetics. Europeans trace ancestry to Paleolithic people. Science 290:1080–1081. doi: 10.1126/science.290.5494.1080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. González AM, Brehm A, Pérez JA, Maca-Meyer N, Flores C, Cabrera VM (2003) Mitochondrial DNA affinities at the Atlantic fringe of Europe. Am J Phys Anthropol 120:391–404. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. González AM, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Tounkara A, Noumsi G, Thomas BN, Moulds JM (2006) Mitochondrial DNA variation in Mauritania and Mali and their genetic relationship to other Western Africa populations. Ann Hum Genet 70:631–657. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00259.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. González AM, Larruga JM, Abu-Amero KK, Shi Y, Pestano J, Cabrera VM (2007) Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa. BMC Genomic 8:223. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. González-Pérez E, Esteban E, Via M, Gayà-Vidal M, Athanasiadis G, Dugoujon JM, Luna F, Mesa MS, Fuster V, Kandil M, Harich N, Bissar-Tadmouri N, Saetta A, Moral P (2010) Population relationships in the Mediterranean revealed by autosomal genetic data (Alu and Alu/STR compound systems). Am J Phys Anthropol 141:430–439. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21161 Google Scholar
  69. Guilaine J, Manen C, Vigne JD (2008) New insights into the Neolithization of Mediterranean France. Centre d’Anthropologie, ToulouseGoogle Scholar
  70. Haak W, Forster P, Bramanti B, Matsumura S, Brandt G, Tänzer M, Villems R, Renfrew C, Gronenborn D, Alt KW, Burger J (2005) Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites. Science 310:1016–1018. doi: 10.1126/science.1118725 Google Scholar
  71. Haak W, Balanovsky O, Sanchez JJ, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Adler CJ, Der Sarkissian CS, Brandt G, Schwarz C, Nicklisch N, Dresely V, Fritsch B, Balanovska E, Villems R, Meller H, Alt KW, Cooper A, Genographic Consortium (2010) Ancient DNA from European early Neolithic farmers reveals their near eastern affinities. PLoS Biol 8:e1000536. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hervella M, Izagirre N, Alonso S, Fregel R, Alonso A, Cabrera VM, de la Rúa C (2012) Ancient DNA from hunter-gatherer and farmer groups from northern Spain supports a random dispersion model for the Neolithic expansion into Europe. PLoS One 7:e34417. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Higham T, Compton T, Stringer C, Jacobi R, Shapiro B, Trinkaus E, Chandler B, Gröning F, Collins C, Hillson S, O’Higgins P, FitzGerald C, Fagan M (2011) The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe. Nature 479:521–524. doi: 10.1038/nature10484 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hitti P (1990) The Arabs: a short history. Gateway, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  75. Hoffecker JF, Holliday VT, Anikovich MV, Sinitsyn AA, Popov VV, Lisitsyn SN, Levkovskaya GM, Pospelova GA, Forman SL, Giaccio B (2008) From the Bay of Naples to the River Don: the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Eastern Europe. J Hum Evol 55:858–870. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.08.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hublin JJ (2011) Palaeoanthropology: African origins. Nature 476:395. doi: 10.1038/476395a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jobling MA, Hurles ME, Tyler-Smith C (2004) Human evolutionary genetics: origins, peoples and disease. Garland Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008) New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree. Genome Res 18:830–838. doi: 10.1101/gr.7172008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. King RJ, Ozcan SS, Carter T, Kalfoğlu E, Atasoy S, Triantaphyllidis C, Kouvatsi A, Lin AA, Chow CE, Zhivotovsky LA, Michalodimitrakis M, Underhill PA (2008) Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. Ann Hum Genet 72:205–214. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. King RJ, Di Cristofaro J, Kouvatsi A, Triantaphyllidis C, Scheidel W, Myres NM, Lin AA, Eissautier A, Mitchell M, Binder D, Semino O, Novelletto A, Underhill PA, Chiaroni J (2011) The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean. BMC Evol Biol 11:69. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-69 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kivisild T, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Mastana S, Kaldma K, Parik J, Metspalu E, Adojaan M, Tolk HV, Stepanov V, Gölge M, Usanga E, Papiha SS, Cinnioğlu C, King R, Cavalli-Sforza L, Underhill PA, Villems R (2003) The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations. Am J Hum Genet 72:313–332. doi: 10.1086/346068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Klein RG (2003) Paleoanthropology. Whither the Neanderthals? Science 299:1525–1527. doi: 10.1126/science.1082025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kozlowski JK (2007) In: Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C (eds) Rethinking the human revolution. McDonald Institute, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  84. Krause J, Fu Q, Good JM, Viola B, Shunkov MV, Derevianko AP, Pääbo S (2010) The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia. Nature 464:894–897. doi: 10.1038/nature08976 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Krings M, Salem AE, Bauer K, Geisert H, Malek AK, Chaix L, Simon C, Welsby D, Di Rienzo A, Utermann G, Sajantila A, Pääbo S, Stoneking M (1999) mtDNA analysis of Nile River Valley populations: a genetic corridor or a barrier to migration? Am J Hum Genet 64:1166–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lacan M, Keyser C, Ricaut FX, Brucato N, Duranthon F, Guilaine J, Crubézy E, Ludes B (2011) Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9788–9791. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100723108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lander ES (2011) Initial impact of the sequencing of the human genome. Nature 470:187–197. doi: 10.1038/nature09792 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lao O, Lu TT, Nothnagel M, Junge O, Freitag-Wolf S, Caliebe A, Balascakova M, Bertranpetit J, Bindoff LA, Comas D, Holmlund G, Kouvatsi A, Macek M, Mollet I, Parson W, Palo J, Ploski R, Sajantila A, Tagliabracci A, Gether U, Werge T, Rivadeneira F, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, Gieger C, Wichmann HE, Rüther A, Schreiber S, Becker C, Nürnberg P, Nelson MR, Krawczak M, Kayser M (2008) Correlation between genetic and geographic structure in Europe. Curr Biol 18:1241–1248. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.07.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Latini V, Sole G, Doratiotto S, Poddie D, Memmi M, Varesi L, Vona G, Cao A, Ristaldi MS (2004) Genetic isolates in Corsica (France): linkage disequilibrium extension analysis on the Xq13 region. Eur J Hum Genet 12:613–619. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Leonardi M, Gerbault P, Thomas MG, Burger J (2012) The evolution of lactase persistence in Europe. A synthesis of archaeological and genetic evidence. Int Dairy J 22:88–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Maca-Meyer N, González AM, Pestano J, Flores C, Larruga JM, Cabrera VM (2003) Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography. BMC Genet 4:15. doi: 10.1186/1471-2156-4-15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Malaspina P, Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Torroni A, Pangrazio A, Akar N, Bakalli V, Brdicka R, Jaruzelska J, Kozlov A, Malyarchuk B, Mehdi SQ, Michalodimitrakis E, Varesi L, Memmi MM, Vona G, Villems R, Parik J, Romano V, Stefan M, Stenico M, Terrenato L, Novelletto A, Scozzari R (2000) Patterns of male-specific inter-population divergence in Europe, West Asia and North Africa. Ann Hum Genet 64:395–412. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-1809.2000.6450395.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Grzybowski T, Perkova M, Rogalla U, Vanecek T, Tsybovsky I (2010) The peopling of Europe from the mitochondrial haplogroup U5 perspective. PLoS One 5:e10285. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010285 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Martinez L, Underhill PA, Zhivotovsky LA, Gayden T, Moschonas NK, Chow CE, Conti S, Mamolini E, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Herrera RJ (2007) Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau. Eur J Hum Genet 15:485–493. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201769 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mellars P (2006) Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60,000 years ago? A new model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9381–9386. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0510792103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mellars P (2011) Palaeoanthropology: the earliest modern humans in Europe. Nature 479:483–485. doi: 10.1038/479483a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mithen S (2006) After the ice: a global human history, 20.000 – 5.000 BC. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  98. Morelli L, Contu D, Santoni F, Whalen MB, Francalacci P, Cucca F (2010) A comparison of Y-chromosome variation in Sardinia and Anatolia is more consistent with cultural rather than demic diffusion of agriculture. PLoS One 5:e10419. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Murray O (1993) Early Greece. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  100. Myres NM, Rootsi S, Lin AA, Järve M, King RJ, Kutuev I, Cabrera VM, Khusnutdinova EK, Pshenichnov A, Yunusbayev B, Balanovsky O, Balanovska E, Rudan P, Baldovic M, Herrera RJ, Chiaroni J, Di Cristofaro J, Villems R, Kivisild T, Underhill PA (2011) A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe. Eur J Hum Genet 19:95–101. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nelis M, Esko T, Mägi R, Zimprich F, Zimprich A, Toncheva D, Karachanak S, Piskácková T, Balascák I, Peltonen L, Jakkula E, Rehnström K, Lathrop M, Heath S, Galan P, Schreiber S, Meitinger T, Pfeufer A, Wichmann HE, Melegh B, Polgár N, Toniolo D, Gasparini P, D’Adamo P, Klovins J, Nikitina-Zake L, Kucinskas V, Kasnauskiene J, Lubinski J, Debniak T, Limborska S, Khrunin A, Estivill X, Rabionet R, Marsal S, Julià A, Antonarakis SE, Deutsch S, Borel C, Attar H, Gagnebin M, Macek M, Krawczak M, Remm M, Metspalu A (2009) Genetic structure of Europeans: a view from the North-East. PLoS One 4:e5472. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Norman D (1975) The Arabs and medieval Europe. Longman Group Limited, LondonGoogle Scholar
  103. Norwich JJ (2007) The Middle Sea: a history of the Mediterranean. Secker and Warburg, LondonGoogle Scholar
  104. Olivieri A, Achilli A, Pala M, Battaglia V, Fornarino S, Al-Zahery N, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Behar DM, Dugoujon JM, Coudray C, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Semino O, Bandelt HJ, Torroni A (2006) The mtDNA legacy of the Levantine early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa. Science 314:1767–1770. doi: 10.1126/science.1135566 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Otte M (2007) In: Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C (eds) Rethinking the human revolution. McDonald Institute, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  106. Ottoni C, Martinez-Labarga C, Vitelli L, Scano G, Fabrini E, Contini I, Biondi G, Rickards O (2009) Human mitochondrial DNA variation in Southern Italy. Ann Hum Biol 36:785–811. doi: 10.3109/03014460903198509 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pala M, Achilli A, Olivieri A, Kashani BH, Perego UA, Sanna D, Metspalu E, Tambets K, Tamm E, Accetturo M, Carossa V, Lancioni H, Panara F, Zimmermann B, Huber G, Al-Zahery N, Brisighelli F, Woodward SR, Francalacci P, Parson W, Salas A, Behar DM, Villems R, Semino O, Bandelt HJ, Torroni A (2009) Mitochondrial haplogroup U5b3: a distant echo of the epipaleolithic in Italy and the legacy of the early Sardinians. Am J Hum Genet 84:814–821. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pericić M, Barać Lauc L, Martinović Klarić I, Janićijević B, Rudan P (2005) Review of Croatian genetic heritage as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal lineages. Croat Med J 46:502–513Google Scholar
  109. Pérles C (2001) The early Neolithic in Greece. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Picornell A, Gómez-Barbeito L, Tomàs C, Castro JA, Ramon MM (2005) Mitochondrial DNA HVRI variation in Balearic populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:119–130. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10423 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pinhasi R, Fort J, Ammerman AJ (2005) Tracing the origin and spread of agriculture in Europe. PLoS Biol 3:e410. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030410 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Plaza S, Calafell F, Helal A, Bouzerna N, Lefranc G, Bertranpetit J, Comas D (2003) Joining the pillars of Hercules: mtDNA sequences show multidirectional gene flow in the western Mediterranean. Ann Hum Genet 67:312–328. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00039.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Prat S, Péan SC, Crépin L, Drucker DG, Puaud SJ, Valladas H, Lázničková-Galetová M, van der Plicht J, Yanevich A (2011) The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior. PLoS One 6:e20834. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Quintana-Murci L, Semino O, Bandelt HJ, Passarino G, McElreavey K, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS (1999) Genetic evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa. Nat Genet 23:437–441. doi: 10.1038/70550 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rando JC, Pinto F, González AM, Hernández M, Larruga JM, Cabrera VM, Bandelt HJ (1998) Mitochondrial DNA analysis of northwest African populations reveals genetic exchanges with European, Near-Eastern, and sub-Saharan populations. Ann Hum Genet 62:531–550. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-1809.1998.6260531.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rando JC, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Hernández M, González AM, Pinto F, Bandelt HJ (1999) Phylogeographic patterns of mtDNA reflecting the colonization of the Canary Islands. Ann Hum Genet 63:413–428. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-1809.1999.6350413.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rasmussen M, Li Y, Lindgreen S, Pedersen JS, Albrechtsen A, Moltke I, Metspalu M, Metspalu E, Kivisild T, Gupta R, Bertalan M, Nielsen K, Gilbert MT, Wang Y, Raghavan M, Campos PF, Kamp HM, Wilson AS, Gledhill A, Tridico S, Bunce M, Lorenzen ED, Binladen J, Guo X, Zhao J, Zhang X, Zhang H, Li Z, Chen M, Orlando L, Kristiansen K, Bak M, Tommerup N, Bendixen C, Pierre TL, Grønnow B, Meldgaard M, Andreasen C, Fedorova SA, Osipova LP, Higham TF, Ramsey CB, Hansen TV, Nielsen FC, Crawford MH, Brunak S, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Villems R, Nielsen R, Krogh A, Wang J, Willerslev E (2010) Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo. Nature 463:757–762. doi: 10.1038/nature08835 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Reich D, Green RE, Kircher M, Krause J, Patterson N, Durand EY, Viola B, Briggs AW, Stenzel U, Johnson PL, Maricic T, Good JM, Marques-Bonet T, Alkan C, Fu Q, Mallick S, Li H, Meyer M, Eichler EE, Stoneking M, Richards M, Talamo S, Shunkov MV, Derevianko AP, Hublin JJ, Kelso J, Slatkin M, Pääbo S (2010) Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature 468:1053–1060. doi: 10.1038/nature09710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Reidla M, Kivisild T, Metspalu E, Kaldma K, Tambets K, Tolk HV, Parik J, Loogväli EL, Derenko M, Malyarchuk B, Bermisheva M, Zhadanov S, Pennarun E, Gubina M, Golubenko M, Damba L, Fedorova S, Gusar V, Grechanina E, Mikerezi I, Moisan JP, Chaventré A, Khusnutdinova E, Osipova L, Stepanov V, Voevoda M, Achilli A, Rengo C, Rickards O, De Stefano GF, Papiha S, Beckman L, Janicijevic B, Rudan P, Anagnou N, Michalodimitrakis E, Koziel S, Usanga E, Geberhiwot T, Herrnstadt C, Howell N, Torroni A, Villems R (2003) Origin and diffusion of mtDNA haplogroup X. Am J Hum Genet 73:1178–1190. doi: 10.1086/379380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Renfrew C (1991) Before Babel: speculations on the origins of linguistic diversity. Camb Archaeol J 1:3–23. doi: 10.1017/S0959774300000238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Richards M (2003) The Neolithic invasion of Europe. Annu Rev Anthropol 32:135–162. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.32.061002.093207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Richards M, Macaulay V, Hickey E, Vega E, Sykes B, Guida V, Rengo C, Sellitto D, Cruciani F, Kivisild T, Villems R, Thomas M, Rychkov S, Rychkov O, Rychkov Y, Gölge M, Dimitrov D, Hill E, Bradley D, Romano V, Calì F, Vona G, Demaine A, Papiha S, Triantaphyllidis C, Stefanescu G, Hatina J, Belledi M, Di Rienzo A, Novelletto A, Oppenheim A, Nørby S, Al-Zaheri N, Santachiara-Benerecetti S, Scozari R, Torroni A, Bandelt HJ (2000) Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA pool. Am J Hum Genet 67:1251–1276. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9297(07)62954-1 Google Scholar
  123. Richards M, Macaulay V, Torroni A, Bandelt HJ (2002) In search of geographical patterns in European mitochondrial DNA. Am J Hum Genet 71:1168–1174. doi: 10.1086/342930 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Roewer L, Croucher PJ, Willuweit S, Lu TT, Kayser M, Lessig R, de Knijff P, Jobling MA, Tyler-Smith C, Krawczak M (2005) Signature of recent historical events in the European Y-chromosomal STR haplotype distribution. Hum Genet 116:279–291. doi: 10.1007/s00439-004-1201-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rootsi S (2006) Y Chromosome haplogroup I prehistoric gene flow in Europe. Documenta Praehistorica 33:17–20Google Scholar
  126. Rootsi S, Magri C, Kivisild T, Benuzzi G, Help H, Bermisheva M, Kutuev I, Barać L, Pericić M, Balanovsky O, Pshenichnov A, Dion D, Grobei M, Zhivotovsky LA, Battaglia V, Achilli A, Al-Zahery N, Parik J, King R, Cinnioğlu C, Khusnutdinova E, Rudan P, Balanovska E, Scheffrahn W, Simonescu M, Brehm A, Goncalves R, Rosa A, Moisan JP, Chaventre A, Ferak V, Füredi S, Oefner PJ, Shen P, Beckman L, Mikerezi I, Terzić R, Primorac D, Cambon-Thomsen A, Krumina A, Torroni A, Underhill PA, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Villems R, Semino O (2004) Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in Europe. Am J Hum Genet 75:128–137. doi: 10.1086/422196 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, Adojaan M, Alavantic D, Amorim A, Amos W, Armenteros M, Arroyo E, Barbujani G, Beckman G, Beckman L, Bertranpetit J, Bosch E, Bradley DG, Brede G, Cooper G, Côrte-Real HB, de Knijff P, Decorte R, Dubrova YE, Evgrafov O, Gilissen A, Glisic S, Gölge M, Hill EW, Jeziorowska A, Kalaydjieva L, Kayser M, Kivisild T, Kravchenko SA, Krumina A, Kucinskas V, Lavinha J, Livshits LA, Malaspina P, Maria S, McElreavey K, Meitinger TA, Mikelsaar AV, Mitchell RJ, Nafa K, Nicholson J, Nørby S, Pandya A, Parik J, Patsalis PC, Pereira L, Peterlin B, Pielberg G, Prata MJ, Previderé C, Roewer L, Rootsi S, Rubinsztein DC, Saillard J, Santos FR, Stefanescu G, Sykes BC, Tolun A, Villems R, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA (2000) Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. Am J Hum Genet 67:1526–1543. doi: 10.1086/316890 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sampietro ML, Lao O, Caramelli D, Lari M, Pou R, Martí M, Bertranpetit J, Lalueza-Fox C (2007) Palaeogenetic evidence supports a dual model of Neolithic spreading into Europe. Proc Biol Sci 274:2161–2167. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.0465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Scarre C (1995) The Penguin historical atlas of Ancient Rome. The Bath Press, BathGoogle Scholar
  130. Schaffner SF (2004) The X chromosome in population genetics. Nat Rev Genet 5:43–51. doi: 10.1038/nrg1247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2000) The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective. Science 290:1155–1159. doi: 10.1126/science.290.5494.1155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, Lin AA, Al-Zahery N, Battaglia V, Maccioni L, Triantaphyllidis C, Shen P, Oefner PJ, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, Torroni A, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS (2004) Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area. Am J Hum Genet 74:1023–1034. doi: 10.1086/386295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Simoni L, Gueresi P, Pettener D, Barbujani G (1999) Patterns of gene flow inferred from genetic distances in the Mediterranean region. Hum Biol 71:399–415Google Scholar
  134. Simoni L, Calafell F, Pettener D, Bertranpetit J, Barbujani G (2000) Geographic patterns of mtDNA diversity in Europe. Am J Hum Genet 66:262–278. doi: 10.1086/302706 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Skeates R (2003) Radiocarbon dating and interpretations of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Italy. In: Ammerman A, Biagi P (eds) The widening harvest. Archaeological Institute of America, BostonGoogle Scholar
  136. Soares P, Achilli A, Semino O, Davies W, Macaulay V, Bandelt HJ, Torroni A, Richards MB (2010) The archaeogenetics of Europe. Curr Biol 20:174–183. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sokal RR, Harding RM, Oden NL (1989) Spatial patterns of human gene frequencies in Europe. Am J Phys Anthropol 80:267–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stevanovitch A, Gilles A, Bouzaid E, Kefi R, Paris F, Gayraud RP, Spadoni JL, El-Chenawi F, Béraud-Colomb E (2004) Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a sedentary population from Egypt. Ann Hum Genet 68:23–39. doi: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00057.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Stoneking M (2008) Human origins. The molecular perspective. EMBO Rep 9:46–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stoneking M, Krause J (2011) Learning about human population history from ancient and modern genomes. Nat Rev Genet 12:603–614. doi: 10.1038/nrg3029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Stringer C, Davies W (2001) Archaeology. Those elusive Neanderthals. Nature 413:791–792. doi: 10.1038/35101688 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tomas C, Sanchez JJ, Barbaro A, Brandt-Casadevall C, Hernandez A, Ben Dhiab M, Ramon M, Morling N (2008) X-chromosome SNP analyses in 11 human Mediterranean populations show a high overall genetic homogeneity except in North-west Africans (Moroccans). BMC Evol Biol 8:75. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-75 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Torroni A, Bandelt HJ, D’Urbano L, Lahermo P, Moral P, Sellitto D, Rengo C, Forster P, Savontaus ML, Bonné-Tamir B, Scozzari R (1998) MtDNA analysis reveals a major late Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern to northeastern Europe. Am J Hum Genet 62:1137–1152. doi: 10.1086/301822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Torroni A, Bandelt HJ, Macaulay V, Richards M, Cruciani F, Rengo C, Martinez-Cabrera V, Villems R, Kivisild T, Metspalu E, Parik J, Tolk HV, Tambets K, Forster P, Karger B, Francalacci P, Rudan P, Janicijevic B, Rickards O, Savontaus ML, Huoponen K, Laitinen V, Koivumäki S, Sykes B, Hickey E, Novelletto A, Moral P, Sellitto D, Coppa A, Al-Zaheri N, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Semino O, Scozzari R (2001) A signal, from human mtDNA, of postglacial recolonization in Europe. Am J Hum Genet 69:844–852. doi: 10.1086/323485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, Richards M, Bandelt HJ (2006) Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree. Trends Genet 22:339–345. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2006.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tresset A, Vigne JD (2007) Substitution of species, techniques and symbols at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in western Europe. Proc Br Acad 144:189–210Google Scholar
  147. Tresset A, Vigne JD (2011) Last hunter-gatherers and first farmers of Europe. C R Biol 334:182–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Turchi C, Buscemi L, Previderè C, Grignani P, Brandstätter A, Achilli A, Parson W, Tagliabracci A, Ge.F.I. Group (2008) Italian mitochondrial DNA database: results of a collaborative exercise and proficiency testing. Int J Legal Med 122:199–204. doi: 10.1007/s00414-007-0207-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA, Jin L, Passarino G, Yang WH, Kauffman E, Bonné-Tamir B, Bertranpetit J, Francalacci P, Ibrahim M, Jenkins T, Kidd JR, Mehdi SQ, Seielstad MT, Wells RS, Piazza A, Davis RW, Feldman MW, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Oefner PJ (2000) Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations. Nat Genet 26:358–361. doi: 10.1038/81685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Underhill PA, Passarino G, Lin AA, Shen P, Mirazón Lahr M, Foley RA, Oefner PJ, Cavalli-Sforza LL (2001) The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations. Ann Hum Genet 65:43–62. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6510043.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Underhill PA, Myres NM, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Zhivotovsky LA, King RJ, Lin AA, Chow CE, Semino O, Battaglia V, Kutuev I, Järve M, Chaubey G, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Mehdi SQ, Sengupta S, Rogaev EI, Khusnutdinova EK, Pshenichnov A, Balanovsky O, Balanovska E, Jeran N, Augustin DH, Baldovic M, Herrera RJ, Thangaraj K, Singh V, Singh L, Majumder P, Rudan P, Primorac D, Villems R, Kivisild T (2010) Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a. Eur J Hum Genet 18:479–484. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2009.194 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Whittle A (1996) Europe in the Neolithic. The creation of new worlds. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  153. Wilkins JF (2006) Unraveling male and female histories from human genetic data. Curr Opin Genet Dev 16:611–617. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2006.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Y Chromosome Consortium (2002) A nomenclature system for the tree of human Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups. Genome Res 12:339–348. doi: 10.1101/gr.217602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Zalloua PA, Platt DE, El Sibai M, Khalife J, Makhoul N, Haber M, Xue Y, Izaabel H, Bosch E, Adams SM, Arroyo E, López-Parra AM, Aler M, Picornell A, Ramon M, Jobling MA, Comas D, Bertranpetit J, Wells RS, Tyler-Smith C, Genographic Consortium (2008) Identifying genetic traces of historical expansions: Phoenician footprints in the Mediterranean. J Hum Genet 83:633–642. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zeder MA (2008) Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean basin: origins, diffusion, and impact. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11597–11604. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0801317105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Zvelebil M (2004) Who were we 6,000 years ago? In search of prehistoric identities. In: Jones M (ed) Traces of ancestry: studies in honour of Colin Renfrew. McDonald Institute Monographs, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Sazzini
    • 1
  • Stefania Sarno
    • 1
  • Donata Luiselli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations