Advertisement

Land Use and Land Cover Changes and Their Impacts on Hydroclimate, Ecosystems and Society

  • Taikan OkiEmail author
  • Eleanor M. Blyth
  • Ernesto Hugo Berbery
  • Domingo Alcaraz-Segura
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents recent advances in the understanding of the effect of land cover/land use changes on the hydrologic cycle, and identifies current gaps in the knowledge needed for useful decision-making and water resource management. Research achievements within a framework of Earth System Models (ESM) are introduced, and research needs and future challenges are identified. Land surface provides the lower boundary condition to the atmosphere over continents by controlling the fluxes of momentum, heat, water, and materials such as carbon. In turn, land surface conditions are substantially influenced by atmospheric conditions on various temporal scales. As such, a land-atmosphere coupled system is established through biogeochemical feedbacks. Current land surface models exhibit a wide variety of responses to the same forcings, suggesting the need for increased research at the land-atmosphere interface. Indeed, all Earth System Models require the inclusion and validation of the processes that pertain to the biogeochemical feedbacks. Anthropogenic activities that result in land use and land cover changes affect the land surface characteristics and consequently the land-atmosphere feedbacks and coupling strength. Therefore, human activities play a role in the land-atmosphere coupling system, and thus, in the climate system. Water is essential to societal needs that require the construction of reservoirs, extraction of ground water, irrigation, changes in land use, urbanization among many other influences. The extent and sustainability of those interferences in the natural system remains to be assessed at global scales.

Keywords

Land-atmosphere feedback Vegetation Ecosystem Human impacts Water Energy Carbon Land cover/land use 

References

  1. Alcaraz-Segura D, Paruelo JM, Cabello J (2006) Identification of current ecosystem functional types in the Iberian Peninsula. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:200–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcaraz-Segura D, Cabello J, Paruelo J (2009) Baseline characterization of major Iberian vegetation types based on the NDVI dynamics. Plant Ecol 202(1):13–29. doi: 10.1007/s11258-008-9555-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcaraz-Segura D, Chuvieco E, Epstein HE, Kasischke ES, Trishchenko A (2010a) Debating the greening vs. browning of the North American boreal forest: differences between satellite datasets. Glob Chang Biol 16:760–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alcaraz-Segura D, Liras E, Tabik S, Paruelo J, Cabello J (2010b) Evaluating the consistency of the 1982–1999 NDVI trends in the Iberian Peninsula across four time-series derived from the AVHRR sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II. Sensors 10:1291–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alcaraz-Segura D, Paruelo JM, Epstein HE, Cabello J (2013a) Environmental and human controls of ecosystem functional diversity in temperate South America. Remote Sens 5(1):127–154. doi:10.3390/rs5010127, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs5010127
  6. Alcaraz-Segura D, Berbery HE, Müller O, Paruelo JM (2013b) Characterizing and monitoring climate regulation services. In: Alcaraz-Segura D, Di Bella CM, Straschnoy JV (eds) Earth observation of ecosystem services. CRC Press. ISBN: 9781466505889 http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781466505889 (in press)
  7. Anderson-Teixeira KJ, Snyder PK, Twine TE, Cuadra SV, Costa MH, DeLucia EH (2012) Climate-regulation services of natural and agricultural ecoregions of the Americas. Nat Climate Change 2(3):177–181. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1346 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baidya Roy S, Avissar R (2002) Impact of land use/land cover change on regional hydrometeorology in Amazonia. J Geophys Res 107(D20):LBA 4–1–LBA 4–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonan GB (2008) Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320:1444–1449. doi: 10.1126/science.1155121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brando PM, Goetz SJ, Baccini A, Nepstad DC, Beck PSA, Christman MC (2010) Seasonal and interannual variability of climate and vegetation indices across the Amazon. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:14685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Budyko MI (1974) Climate and life, English edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Cai W, Cowan T, Briggs P, Raupach M (2009) Rising temperature depletes soil moisture and exacerbates severe drought conditions across southeast Australia. Geophys Res Lett 36:L21709. doi: 10.1029/2009GL040334 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapin FS III, Randerson JT, McGuire AD, Foley JA, Field JA (2008) Changing feedbacks in the climate-biosphere system. Front Ecol Environ 6:313–320. doi: 10.1890/080005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen F, Dudhia J (2001) Coupling an advanced land-surface/hydrology model with the Penn State/NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: model description and implementation. Mon Weather Rev 129:569–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Choudhury BJ (1999) Evaluation of an empirical equation for annual evaporation using field observations and results from a biophysical model. J Hydrol 216:99–110. doi: 10.1016/S0022-1694(98)00293-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Church TM (1996) An underground route for the water cycle. Nature 380:579–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costanza R, d‘Arge R, de Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Naeem S, Limburg K, Paruelo J, O’Neill RV, Raskin R, Sutton P, van den Belt M (1998) The value of ecosystem services: putting the issue in perspective. Ecol Econ 25:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Rosnay P, Polcher J, Laval K, Sabre M (2003) Integrated parameterization of irrigation in the land surface model ORCHIDEE. Validation over Indian Peninsula. Geophys Res Lett 30(19):1986. doi: 10.1029/2003GL018024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dirmeyer PA, Gao XA, Zhao M, Guo ZC, Oki T, Hanasaki N (2006) GSWP-2 multimodel analysis and implications for our perception of the land surface. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 87:1381–1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Douville H, Chauvin F, Broqua H (2001) Influence of soil moisture on the Asian and African monsoons. Part1: mean monsoon and daily precipitation. J Clim 14:2381–2403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ek M, Mitchell K, Lin Y, Rogers E, Grunmann P, Koren V, Gayno G, Tarpley D (2003) Implementation of Noah land surface model advances in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational mesoscale Eta model. J Geophys Res 108:8851. doi: 10.1029/2002JD003296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Foley JA, Asner GP, Costa MH, Coe MT, DeFries R, Gibbs HK, Howard EA et al (2007) Amazonia revealed: forest degradation and loss of ecosystem goods and services in the Amazon basin. Front Ecol Environ 5(1):25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gedney N, Valdes PJ (2000) The effect of Amazonian deforestation on the northern hemisphere circulation and climate. Geophys Res Lett 27:3053–3056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Giorgi F, Jones C, Asrar GR (2009) Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: the CORDEX framework. WMO Bull 58(3):175–183Google Scholar
  25. Gornitz V, Rosenzweig C, Hillel D (1997) Effects of anthropogenic intervention in the land hydrologic cycle on global sea level rise. Glob Planet Change 14:147–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guerschman JP, Paruelo JM, Burke IC (2003) Land use impacts on the normalized difference vegetation index in temperate Argentina. Ecol Appl 13:616–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guimberteau M, Laval K, Perrier A, Polcher J (2011) Global effect of irrigation and its impact on the onset of the Indian summer monsoon. Clim Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-011-1252-5 Google Scholar
  28. Haddeland I and coauthors (2011) Multimodel estimate of the global terrestrial water balance: setup and first results. J Hydrometeorol 12:869–884Google Scholar
  29. Haddeland I, Lettenmaier DP, Skaugen T (2006) Effects of irrigation on the water and energy balances of the Colorado and Mekong river basins. J Hydrol 324(1–4):210–223. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.09.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hanasaki N, Kanae S, Oki T (2006) A reservoir operation scheme for global river routing models. J Hydrol 327(1–2):22–41. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanasaki N, Inuzuka T, Kanae S, Oki T (2010) An estimation of global virtual water flow and sources of water withdrawal for major crops and livestock products using a global hydrological model. J Hydrol 384(3–4):232–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoare D, Frost P (2004) Phenological description of natural vegetation in southern Africa using remotely-sensed vegetation data. Appl Veg Sci 7:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. IPCC (2011) Summary for policymakers. In: Field CB et al (eds) Intergovernmental panel on climate change special report on managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Kalnay E, Cai M (2003) Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature 423:528–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kanae S, Oki T, Musiake K (2001) Impact of deforestation on regional precipitation over the Indochina Peninsula. J Hydrometeorol 2:51–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Konikow LF (2011) Contribution of global groundwater depletion since 1900 to sea-level rise. Geophys Res Lett 38, L17401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Körner C (1994) Scaling from species to vegetation: the usefulness of functional groups. In: Schulze ED, Mooney HA (eds) Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Springer, Berlin, pp 117–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Korzun VI (1978) World water balance and water resources of the earth, studies and reports in hydrology, vol 25. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  39. Kundzewicz ZW, Mata LJ, Arnell NW, Döll P, Kabat P, Jiménez B, Miller KA, Oki T, Sen Z, Shiklomanov IA (2007) Freshwater resources and their management. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 173–210Google Scholar
  40. Lee S-J, Berbery EH (2012) Land cover change effects on the climate of the La Plata basin. J Hydrometeor 13:84–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee E, Chase TN, Rajagopalan B, Barry RG, Biggs TW, Lawrence PJ (2009) Effects of irrigation and vegetation activity on early Indian summer monsoon variability. Int J Climatol 29:573–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lloyd D (1990) A phenological classification of terrestrial vegetation cover using shortwave vegetation index imagery. Int J Remote Sens 11:2269–2279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mahmood R, Pielke RA, Hubbard KG, Niyogi D, Bonan G, Lawrence P, Mcnider R, Mcalpine C, Etter A, Gameda S (2010) Impacts of land use/land cover change on climate and future research priorities. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 91:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McNaughton KG, Spriggs TW (1989) An evaluation of the Priestley Taylor equation. IAHS Press, Wallingford, pp 89–104, IAHS publ 177Google Scholar
  45. Milchunas DG, Lauenroth WK (1995) Inertia in plant community structure: state changes after cessation of nutrient enrichment stress. Ecol Appl 5:452–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  47. Moiwo JP, Wenxi L, Tao F (2012) GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China. Water Sci Technol 65(9):1606–1614. doi: 10.2166/wst.2012.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Monteith JL (1972) Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems. J Appl Ecol 9:747–766. doi: 10.2307/2401901 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nemani RR, Running SW (1997) Land cover characterization using multitemporal red, near-IR, and thermal-IR data from NOAA/AVHRR. Ecol Appl 7:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Oesterheld M, DiBella CM, Kerdiles H (1998) Relation between NOAA-AVHRR satellite data and stocking rate of rangelands. Ecol Appl 8:207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Oki T (1999) The global water cycle. In: Browning K, Gurney R (eds) Global energy and water cycles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 10–27Google Scholar
  52. Oki T (2005) The hydrologic cycles and global circulation. In: Anderson MG (ed) Encyclopedia of hydrological sciences. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  53. Oki T, Kanae S (2006) Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science 313(5790):1068–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Oki T, Musiake K, Matsuyama H, Masuda K (1995) Global atmospheric water balance and runoff from large river basins. Hydrol Proc 9:655–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Oki T, Nishimura T, Dirmeyer P (1999) Assessment of annual runoff from land surface models using Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP). J Meteorol Soc Jpn 77:235–255Google Scholar
  56. Oki T, Entekhabi D, Harrold T (2004) The global water cycle. In: Sparks R, Hawkesworth C (eds) State of the planet: frontiers and challenges in geophysics, No. 150 in geophysical monograph series. AGU Publication, Washington, DC, p 414Google Scholar
  57. Oki T, Valeo C, Heal K (eds) (2006) Hydrology 2020: an integrating science to meet world water challenges. IAHS Press, Wallingford, IAHS Publication, 300Google Scholar
  58. Paruelo JM, Lauenroth WK (1995) Regional patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in North American shrublands and grasslands. Ecology 76:1888–1898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Paruelo JM, Epstein HE, Lauenroth WK, Burke IC (1997) ANPP estimates from NDVI for the central grassland region of the United States. Ecology 78:953–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Paruelo JM, Jobbagy EG, Sala OE (2001) Current distribution of ecosystem functional types in temperate South America. Ecosystems 4:683–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Paruelo J, Alcaraz-Segura D, Volante JN (2011) El seguimiento del nivel de provisión de los servicios ecosistémicos. In: Laterra P, Jobbágy EG, Paruelo JM (eds) Valoración de servicios ecosistémicos: conceptos, herramientas y aplicaciones para el ordenamiento territorial. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires, pp 141–160Google Scholar
  62. Pettorelli N and coauthors (2005) Trends in ecology & evolution using the satellite-derived NDVI to assess ecological responses to environmental change. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016953470500162X
  63. Phillips and coauthors (2009) Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest. Science 323(5919):1344–1347. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/323/5919/1344.short
  64. Pielke RA and coauthors (2007) An overview of regional land-use and land-cover impacts on rainfall. Tellus 59B:587–601Google Scholar
  65. Pielke RA, Avissar R (1990) Influence of structure on local and regional climate. Landsc Ecol 4:133–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pielke RA, Marland G, Betts RA, Chase TN, Eastman JL, Niles JO, Niyogi DS, Running SW (2002) The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system: relevance to climate-change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A Math Phys Eng Sci 360:1705Google Scholar
  67. Pielke RA Sr, Pitman A, Niyogi D, Mahmood R, McAlpine C, Hossain F, Goldewijk KK, Nair U, Betts R, Fall S, Reichstein M, Kabat P, de Noblet N (2011) Land use/land cover changes and climate: modeling analysis and observational evidence. WIREs Clim Change 2:828–850. doi: 10.1002/wcc.144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pitman AJ and coauthors (2009) Uncertainties in climate responses to past land cover change: first results from the LUCID intercomparison study. Geophys Res Lett 36:L14814. doi:10.1029/2009GL039076Google Scholar
  69. Pokhrel YN, Hanasaki N, Yeh PJ-F, Yamada TJ, Kanae S, Oki T (2012a) Model estimates of sea-level change due to anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial water storage. Nat Geosci. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1038/Ngeo1476
  70. Pokhrel Y, Hanasaki N, Koirala S, Cho J, Yeh PJ-F, Kim H, Kanae S, Oki T (2012b) Incorporating anthropogenic water regulation modules into a land surface model. J Hydrometeor 13:255–269. doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-11-013.1Google Scholar
  71. Porporato A, Daly E, Rodriguez‐Iturbe I (2004) Soil water balance and ecosystem response to climate change. Am Naturalist 164:625–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Potter CS, Brooks V (1998) Global analysis of empirical relations between annual climate and seasonality of NDVI. Int J Remote Sens 19:2921–2948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Reale O, Dirmeyer P (2000) Modeling the effects of vegetation on Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical Period: Part I: climate history and model sensitivity. Glob Planet Change 25:163–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reale O, Shukla J (2000) Modeling the effects of vegetation on Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical Period: Part II. Model simulation. Glob Planet Change 25:185–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rodell M, Velicogna I, Famiglietti JS (2009) Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India. Nature 460:999–1002. doi: 10.1038/460789a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Roderick ML, Farquhar GD (2011) A simple framework for relating variations in runoff to variations in climatic conditions and catchment properties. Water Resour Res 47:W00G07. doi: 10.1029/2010WR009826 Google Scholar
  77. Saeed F, Hagemann S, Jacob D (2011) A framework for the evaluation of South Asian summer monsoon in a regional climate model applied to REMO. Int J Climatol. doi: 10.1002/joc.2285 Google Scholar
  78. Shiklomanov IA (ed) (1997) Assessment of water resources and water availability in the world. Background report for the comprehensive assessment of the freshwater resources of the world, WMO/SEI. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  79. Stephenson NL (1990) Climatic control of vegetation distribution: the role of the water balance. Am Naturalist 135:649–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stohlgren TJ, Chase TN, Pielke RA Sr, Kittel TGF, Baron JS (1998) Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas. Glob Change Policy 4:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Taylor CM and coauthors (2011) New perspectives on land–atmosphere feedbacks from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary analysis. Atmos Sci Lett 12:38–44. doi: 10.1002/asl.336 Google Scholar
  82. Teuling AJ and coauthors (2010) Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves. Nat Geosci 3:722–727. doi: 10.1038/ngeo950 Google Scholar
  83. Tucker CJ, Sellers PS (1986) Satellite remote-sensing of primary production. Int J Remote Sens 7:1395–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tuinenburg OA, Hutjes RWA, Jacobs CMJ, Kabat P (2011) Diagnosis of local land–Atmosphere feedbacks in India. J Clim 24:251–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Valentini R, Baldocchi DD, Tenhunen JD, Kabat P (1999) Ecological controls on land-surface atmospheric interactions. In: Integrating hydrology, ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemistry in complex landscapes. Wiley, Berlin, pp 105–116Google Scholar
  86. van den Hurk B, Martin B, Paul D, Andy P, Jan P, Joe S (2011) Acceleration of land surface model development over a decade of glass. Bull Am Meteor Soc 92(12):1593–1600. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00007.1 Google Scholar
  87. Virginia RA, Wall DH, Levin SA (2001) Principles of ecosystem function. Encyclopedia of biodiversity. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 345–352.Google Scholar
  88. Volante JN, Alcaraz-Segura D, Mosciaro MJ, Viglizzo EF, Paruelo JM (2012) Ecosystem functional changes associated with land clearing in NW Argentina. Agric Ecosyst Environ 154:12–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vörösmarty CJ, McIntyre PB, Gessner MO, Dudgeon D, Prusevich A, Green P, Glidden S, Bunn SE, Sullivan CA, Reidy Liermann C, Davies PM (2010) Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467(7315):555–561. doi: 10.1038/nature09440 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wada Y et al (2010) Global depletion of groundwater resources. Geophys Res Lett 37, L20402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weaver CP, Avissar R (2001) Atmospheric disturbances caused by human modification of the landscape. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 82:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Werth D, Avissar R (2002) The local and global effects of Amazon deforestation. J Geophys Res 107:8087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. WHO/UNICEF (2012) Progress on drinking water and sanitation: 2012 update, WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2012/jmp2012.pdf
  94. Wood EF, Roundy JK, Troy TJ, van Beek LPH, Bierkens MFP, Blyth E, de Roo A, Döll P, Mike E, Famiglietti J, Gochis D, van de Giesen N, Houser P, Jaffé PR, Kollet S, Lehner B, Lettenmaier DP, Peters-Lidard C, Sivapalan M, Sheffield J, Wade A, Whitehead P (2011) Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth’s terrestrial water. Water Resour Res 47:W05301. doi: 10.1029/2010WR010090
  95. Wright JP, Naeem S, Hector A, Lehman C, Reich PB, Schmid B, Tilman D (2006) Conventional functional classification schemes underestimate the relationship with ecosystem functioning. Ecol Lett 9:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yang D, Shao W, Yeh PJ-F, Yang H, Kanae S, Oki T (2009) Impact of vegetation coverage on regional water balance in the nonhumid regions of China. Water Resour Res 45:W00A14. doi: 10.1029/2008WR006948 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhao M, Running SW (2010) Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009. Science 329:940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhang L, Hickel K, Dawes WR, Chiew FHS, Western AW, Briggs PR (2004) A rational function approach for estimating mean annual evapotranspiration. Water Resour Res 40:W02502. doi:  10.1029/2003WR002710

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taikan Oki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eleanor M. Blyth
    • 2
  • Ernesto Hugo Berbery
    • 3
  • Domingo Alcaraz-Segura
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Industrial ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.The Centre for Ecology & HydrologyWallingfordUK
  3. 3.Earth System Science Interdisciplinary CenterUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Botany, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations