Advertisement

Modeling of Infilled Framed Structures

  • Panagiotis G. AsterisEmail author
  • Christis Z. Chrysostomou
  • Ioannis Giannopoulos
  • Paolo Ricci
Part of the Computational Methods in Applied Sciences book series (COMPUTMETHODS, volume 30)

Abstract

This chapter presents an assessment of the behavior of infilled framed structures. The feasibility of possible immediate implementation of some recent developments both in analysis and design of infilled frames for practical design is investigated. It is now widely recognized that masonry infill panels, used in reinforced concrete (R/C) frame structures, significantly enhance both the stiffness and the strength of the surrounding frame. However, their contribution is often not taken into account because of the lack of knowledge of the composite behavior of the surrounding frame and the infill panel. Currently, Seismic Design Guidelines contain provisions for the calculation of the stiffness of solid infilled frames mainly by modeling infill walls as “diagonal struts.” However, such provisions are not provided for infilled frames with openings. The present study, based on available finite element results, proposes analytical equation for obtaining the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the effective width of a diagonal strut representing a wall with an opening over that of the solid RC infilled frame. The validity of the proposed equations is demonstrated by comparing our results, against work done by various researchers.

Keywords

Infilled frames Masonry Seismic responses Shear distribution Stiffness 

References

  1. 1.
    El-Dakhakhni WW, Elgaaly M, Hamid AA (2003) Three-strut model for concrete masonry-infilled frames. J Struct Eng 129(2):177–185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kose MM (2009) Parameters affecting the fundamental period of RC buildings with infill walls. Eng Struct 31:93–102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith BS (1966) Behavior of square infilled frames. J Struct Div 92(ST1):381–403 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smith BS, Carter C (1969) A method of analysis for infilled frames. Proc Inst Civ Eng 44:31–48 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Page AW, Kleeman PW, Dhanasekar M (1985) An in-plane finite element analysis model for brick masonry. In: Proceedings of a session held in conjunction with Structures congress ’85, Chicago, pp 1–18 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mehrabi AB, Shing PB, Schuller M, Noland J (1966) Experimental evaluation of masonry-infilled RC frames. J Struct Eng 122(3):228–237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buonopane SG, White RN (1999) Pseudodynamic testing of masonry infilled reinforced concrete frame. J Struct Eng 125(6):578–589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Santhi MH, Knight GMS, Muthumani K (2005) Evaluation of seismic response of soft-storey infilled frames. Comput Concr 2(6):423–437 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Santhi MH, Knight GMS, Muthumani K (2005) Evaluation of seismic performance of gravity load designed reinforced concrete frames. J Perform Constr Facil 19(4):277–282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asteris PG, Kakaletsis DJ, Chrysostomou CZ, Smyrou EE (2011) Failure modes of infilled frames. Electron J Struct Eng 11(1):11–20 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liauw TC, Kwan KH (1984) Nonlinear behaviour of non-integral infilled frames. Comput Struct 18:551–560 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dhanasekar M, Page AW (1986) Influence of brick masonry infill properties on the behaviour of infilled frames. Proc Inst Civ Eng 2 Res Theory 81:593–605 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chrysostomou CZ (1991) Effects of degrading infill walls on the nonlinear seismic response of two-dimensional steel frames. PhD thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saneinejad A, Hobbs B (1995) Inelastic design of infilled frames. J Struct Eng 121(4):634–650 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chrysostomou CZ, Gergely P, Abel JF (2002) A six-strut model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel infilled frames. Int J Struct Stab Dyn 2(3):335–353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Asteris PG (2003) Lateral stiffness of brick masonry infilled plane frames. J Struct Eng 129(8):1071–1079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moghaddam HA (2004) Lateral load behavior of masonry infilled steel frames with repair and retrofit. J Struct Eng 130(1):56–63 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Asteris PG (2005) Closure to lateral stiffness of brick masonry infilled plane frames by P.G. Asteris. J Struct Eng 131(3):523–524 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Asteris PG (2008) Finite element micro-modeling of infilled frames. Electron J Struct Eng 8:1–11 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kakaletsis DJ, Karayannis CG (2009) Experimental investigation of infilled reinforced concrete frames with openings. ACI Struct J 106(2):132–141 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Asteris PG, Giannopoulos IP, Chrysostomou CZ (2012) Modeling of infilled frames with openings. Open Constr Build Technol J 6:81–91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Makarios TK, Asteris PG (2012) Numerical investigation of seismic behavior of spatial asymmetric multi-storey reinforced concrete buildings with masonry infill walls. Open Constr Build Technol J 6:113–125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Asteris PG, Cotsovos DM (2012) Numerical investigation of the effect of infill walls on the structural response of RC frames. Open Constr Build Technol J 6:164–181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moghaddam HA, Dowling PJ (1987) The state of the art in infilled frames. ESEE research report 87-2, Imperial College of Science and Technology, Civil Engineering Department, London Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Asteris PG, Antoniou ST, Sophianopoulos DS, Chrysostomou CZ (2011) Mathematical macromodeling of infilled frames: state of the art. J Struct Eng 137(12):1508–1517 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chrysostomou CZ, Asteris PG (2012) On the in-plane properties and capacities of infilled frames. Eng Struct 41:385–402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thomas FG (1953) The strength of brickwork. Struct Eng 31(2):44–46 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wood RH (1958) The stability of tall buildings. Proc Inst Civ Eng 11:69–102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mainstone RJ (1962) Discussion on steel frames with brickwork and concrete infilling. Proc Inst Civ Eng 23:94–99 Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wood RH (1959) Discussion on the stability of tall buildings. Proc Inst Civ Eng 12:517–518 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Polyakov SV (1960) On the interaction between masonry filler walls and enclosing frame when loading in the plane of the wall. In: Translation in earthquake engineering. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, San Francisco, pp 36–42 Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Holmes M (1961) Steel frames with brickwork and concrete infilling. Proc Inst Civ Eng 2 Res Theory 19:473–478 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Smith BS (1962) Lateral stiffness of infilled frames. J Struct Div 88(ST6):183–199 Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smith BS (1967) Methods for predicting the lateral stiffness and strength of multi-storey infilled frames. Build Sci 2:247–257 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hetenyi M (1946) Beams on elastic foundations. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mainstone RJ (1971) On the stiffnesses and strengths of infilled frames. Proc Inst Civ Eng Suppl (iv):57–90 Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mainstone RJ, Weeks GA (1970) The influence of bounding frame on the racking stiffness and strength of brick walls. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international brick masonry conference. Building Research Establishment, Watford, pp 165–171 Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mainstone RJ (1974) Supplementary note on the stiffness and strengths of infilled frames. Current paper CP 13/74, Building Research Station, Garston, Watford Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Federal Emergency Management Agency (1997) NEHRP commentary on the guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings. FEMA-274, Applied Technology Council, Washington Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Federal Emergency Management Agency (1998) Evaluation of earthquake damaged concrete and masonry wall buildings: basic procedures manual. FEMA-306, Applied Technology Council, Washington Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reflak J, Fajfar P (1991) Elastic analysis of infilled frames using substructures. In: Proceedings of the 6th Canadian conference on earthquake engineering, Toronto, pp 285–292 Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Syrmakezis CA, Vratsanou VY (1986) Influence of infill walls to R.C. frames response. In: Proceedings of the eighth European conference on earthquake engineering, Lisbon, vol 3, pp 47–53 Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liauw TC, Kwan KH (1983) Plastic theory of infilled frames with finite interface shear strength. Proc Inst Civil Eng 2 Res Theory 75:707–723 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liauw TC, Kwan KH (1983) Plastic theory of non-integral infilled frames. Proc Inst Civil Eng 2 Res Theory 75:379–396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Klingner RE, Bertero VV (1976) Infilled frames in earthquake-resistant construction. Report EERC 76-32, University of California, Berkeley Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Soroushian P, Obaseki K, Choi K-B (1988) Nonlinear modeling and seismic analysis of masonry shear walls. J Struct Eng 114(5):1106–1119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Crisafulli FJ (1997) Seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete structures with masonry infills. PhD thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Crisafulli FJ, Carr AJ (2007) Proposed macro-model for the analysis of infilled frame structures. Bull New Zealand Soc Earthq Eng 40(2):69–77 Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Carr AJ (2004) RUAUMOKO: inelastic dynamic analysis. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury. http://www.ruaumoko.co.nz
  50. 50.
    SeismoSoft (2009) SeismoStruct—a computer program for the static and dynamic analysis of framed structures. http://www.seismosoft.com
  51. 51.
    Smyrou E (2006) Implementation and verification of a masonry panel model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of infilled rc frames. Dissertation for the MSc in earthquake engineering, European School for Advanced Studies in Reduction of Seismic Risk (ROSE SCHOOL), Universita degli Studi di Pavia Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Smyrou E, Blandon-Uribe C, Antoniou S, Pinho R, Crowley H (2006) Implementation and verification of a masonry panel model for nonlinear pseudo-dynamic analysis of infilled RC frames. In: Proceedings of the first European conference on earthquake engineering and seismology, Geneva Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pinto A, Verzeletti G, Molina J, Varum H, Pinho R, Coelho E (1999) Pseudo-dynamic tests on non-seismic resisting RC frames (bare and selective retrofit frames). Joint Research Centre, Ispra Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Campos-Costa A, Pinto AV (1999) European seismic hazard scenarios—an approach to the definition of input motions for testing and reliability assessment of civil engineering structures. JRC special publication X.99.XX, ELSA, JRC, Ispra Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dolšek M (2009) Incremental dynamic analysis with consideration of modeling uncertainties. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 38(6):805–825 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vamvatsikos D, Fragiadakis M (2009) Incremental dynamic analysis for estimating seismic performance sensitivity and uncertainty. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 39(2):141–163 Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Celarec D, Dolšek M (2010) The influence of epistemic uncertainties on the seismic performance of RC frame building. In: Proceedings of the 14th European conference on earthquake engineering, paper 534 Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Celarec D, Ricci P, Dolšek M (2012) The sensitivity of seismic response parameters to the uncertain modelling variables of masonry-infilled reinforced concrete frames. Eng Struct 35:165–177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    ASCE Standard ASCE/SEI 41-06 (2007) Seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings. American Society of Civil Engineers Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    CEN (2004) Eurocode 8: design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part I: General rules, seismic action and rules for buildings. Brussels Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dorji J, Thambiratnam DP (2009) Modelling and analysis of infilled frame structures under seismic loads. Open Constr Build Technol J 3:119–126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panagiotis G. Asteris
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christis Z. Chrysostomou
    • 2
  • Ioannis Giannopoulos
    • 1
  • Paolo Ricci
    • 3
  1. 1.Computational Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Civil & Construction Engineering EducatorsSchool of Pedagogical & Technological EducationAthensGreece
  2. 2.Dept. of Civil Engineering & GeomaticsCyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus
  3. 3.Department of Structural EngineeringUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations