Combined Approaches to Study Virus Structures

  • Daniel Badia-Martinez
  • Hanna M. Oksanen
  • David I. Stuart
  • Nicola G. A. Abrescia
Chapter
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 68)

Abstract

A virus particle must work as a safe box for protecting its genome, but at the same time it has to undergo dramatic conformational changes in order to preserve itself by propagating in a cell infection. Thus, viruses are miniaturized wonders whose structural complexity requires them to be investigated by a combination of different techniques that can tackle both static and dynamic processes. In this chapter we will illustrate how major structural techniques such as X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy have been and can be combined with other techniques to determine the structure of complex viruses. The power of these hybrid method approaches are revealed through the various examples provided.

Keywords

Hybrid methods X-ray crystallography Electron microscopy Cryo-electron microscopy Electron tomography Cryo-electron tomography Small-angle X-ray scattering Virus Bacteriophage Capsid Mutagenesis Dissociation Crystal structure Fitting 

Abbreviations

2D

Two dimensional

3D

Three dimensional

BMV

Bromegrass mosaic virus

EM

Electron microscopy

ET

Electron tomography

Fab

Antigen-binding antibody fragment

FMDV

Foot-and-mouth disease virus

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HCV-LP

HCV-like particle

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HRV-16

Human rhinovirus 16

HSV

Herpes simplex virus

MR

Molecular replacement

NCS

Non-crystallographic symmetry

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

RVFV

Rift Valley fever virus

SANS

Small-angle neutron scattering

SAXS

Small-angle X-ray scattering

SBMV

Southern bean mosaic virus

SeMet

Seleno-methionine

SIV

Simian immunodeficiency virus

TBSV

Tomato bushy stunt virus

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TMV

Tobacco mosaic virus

TNV

Tobacco necrosis virus

VLP

Virus-like particle

WNV

West Nile virus

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Further Reading1

  1. Abeyrathne PD, Chami M, Pantelic RS, Goldie KN, Stahlberg H (2010) Preparation of 2D crystals of membrane proteins for high-resolution electron crystallography data collection. Methods Enzymol 481:25–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Badia-Martinez
    • 1
  • Hanna M. Oksanen
    • 2
  • David I. Stuart
    • 3
    • 4
  • Nicola G. A. Abrescia
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Structural Biology UnitCICbioGUNE, CIBERehd, Bizkaia Technology ParkDerioSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biosciences, Viikki BiocenterUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Division of Structural Biology, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human GeneticsUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  4. 4.Diamond Light Source LtdDidcotUK
  5. 5.Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for ScienceBilbaoSpain

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