Crystallographic Structure Refinement in a Nutshell

  • Pavel V. AfonineEmail author
  • Paul D. Adams
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology book series (NAPSA)


The objective of these notes is to provide a general overview of modern crystallographic structure refinement. No specific or technical details are presented, but concepts only. However, references are provided to the relevant literature for those who desire to learn more.


Crystallographic structure refinement TLS ADP Twinning Maximum-likelihood Real-space 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA

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