Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.)

  • Gunnar JanssonEmail author
  • Darius Danusevičius
  • Helmut Grotehusman
  • Jan Kowalczyk
  • Diana Krajmerova
  • Tore Skrøppa
  • Heino Wolf
Part of the Managing Forest Ecosystems book series (MAFE, volume 25)


Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is one of the most important coniferous species in Europe both from an economic and ecological point of view. Solid wood products and pulp and paper products have the largest economic value. The patterns of variation observed in Norway spruce provenance trials show geographic variability on a large scale. Genetic variation is also present among offspring from natural populations within the same provenance region and among progenies from trees in the same population. This variation can often be larger than the variability among provenances. Tree improvement of Norway spruce started in Europe in the late 1940s. Breeding programmes were initiated in nearly all European countries but with different intensities. A common objective has been to create base material for seed procurement. Breeding objectives differ between countries, but most of them include adaptation and health, volume production and wood quality in some way. Genetic gains in volume per area unit from first round of seed orchards is around 10 % and from new seed orchards established with tested material expected to be between 20 and 25 %.


Picea abies Norway spruce Breeding programmes Genetic variation Genetic gain Deployment 



Elodie Bay, Wladyslaw Chalupka, Josef Frydl, Ducci Fulvio, Matti Haapanen, Jon Kehlet Hansen, Berthold Heinze, Bo Karlsson, Dierk Kownatzki, Doris Krabel, Roman Longauer, Georgeta Mihai, Gheorghe Parnuta, Luc Pâques, Volker Schneck, Arne Steffenrem, Rob Sykes, David Thompson, Marin Tudoroiu and Sven de Vries are acknowledged for contributing data for the manuscript and valuable comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunnar Jansson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Darius Danusevičius
    • 2
  • Helmut Grotehusman
    • 3
  • Jan Kowalczyk
    • 4
  • Diana Krajmerova
    • 5
  • Tore Skrøppa
    • 6
  • Heino Wolf
    • 7
  1. 1.Skogforsk (The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden)UppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Faculty of ForestryLithuanian University of AgricultureAkademija, Kaunas reg.Lithuania
  3. 3.Abteilung WaldgenressourcenNordwestdeutsche Forstliche VersuchsanstaltHann. MündenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Silviculture and Forest Tree GeneticsForest Research InstituteSekocin Stary, RaszynPoland
  5. 5.Katedra fytológie, Lesnícka fakultaTechnická univerzita vo ZvoleneZvolenSlovakia
  6. 6.Department of Forest Biology and EnvironmentNorwegian Forest and Landscape InstituteÅsNorway
  7. 7.Referat Forstgenetik/Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Kompetenzzentrum Wald und Forstwirtschaft, Staatsbetrieb SachsenforstPirnaGermany

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