Satellite-Based Ocean Surface Turbulent Fluxes

Chapter

Abstract

Ocean surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat, and water vapor respond to and determine the coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean and are excellent indicators of air–sea interactions at most temporal and spatial scales. These fluxes can be determined from bulk properties at the sea surface. By combining satellite observations of bulk properties such as sea surface temperature, wind, and humidity, estimates of these fluxes are available globally. The bulk aerodynamic formulations of these fluxes are first reviewed. Satellite retrieval techniques of these bulk properties and operational or semi-operational ocean surface flux products such as the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Observations (HOAPS), the Japanese Oceanic Fluxes with the Use of Remote Observations (J-OFURO), and the US NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Satellite-Based Sea Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF), as well as merged approach of the Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Fluxes for the global ocean (OAFlux) are described, and their error and uncertainties are briefly discussed.

Keywords

Bulk formulae Momentum Heat and latent heat flues Air–sea interactions HOAPS J-OFURO GSSTF OAFlux 

Abbreviations

AATSR

Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer

ADEOS

Advanced Earth Observing Satellite

ADEOS-2

Advanced Earth Observing Satellite 2

AIRS

Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

AMSR-E

Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System

AMSU

Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit

ASCAT

Advanced Scatterometer

AVHRR

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CFSR

Climate Forecast System Reanalysis

COARE

Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment

DMSP

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

DOE

Department of Energy

ECMWF

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

EIA

Earth incidence angle

ERA-40

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ 40-year reanalysis

ERS-1

Earth Resource Satellite 1

ERS-2

Earth Resource Satellite 2

FGGE

First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment

GARP

Global Atmospheric Research Experiment

GES

DISC Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center

GOES

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GSSTF

Goddard Space Flight Center Satellite-based Sea surface Turbulent Fluxes

HOAPS

Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and fluxes from Satellite observations

JMA

Japanese Meteorological Agency

J-OFURO

Japanese Oceanic Fluxes with the Use of Remote Observations

JRA-25

Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis

LHF

Latent heat flux

MERRA

Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications

MGDSST

Merged satellite and in-situ data Global Daily SST

MODIS

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NCAR

National Center for Atmospheric Research

NCEP

National Centers for Environmental Prediction

NSCAT

NASA Scatterometer

OAFlux

Objectively Analyzed Air-sea Fluxes

QuikSCAT

Quick Scatterometer

SAR

Synthetic Aperture Radars

SASS

Seasat-A Scatterometer System

SHF

Sensible heat flux

SMMR

Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

SSM/I

Special Sensor Microwave Imager

SSMIS

Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder

SST

Sea surface temperature

TMI

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager

TRMM

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study is supported by the MEaSUREs Program of NASA Science Mission Directorate – Earth Science Division.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, College of ScienceGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  2. 2.Joint Center for Earth Systems TechnologyUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Code 612.0, Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes LaboratoryNASA/Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA

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