Cancer Stem Cell Antigens from Autologous Tumor Cell Lines in Patient-Specific Active Immunotherapy for Metastatic Cancer

  • Robert O. Dillman
  • Andrew N. Cornforth
  • Carol DePriest
Part of the Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells book series (STEM, volume 9)


Cancer is lethal because of metastatic spread, and is seldom curable, even in patients who can be rendered free of disease. Autologous, proliferating, self-renewing tumor cells (cancer stem cells and/or early progenitor cells), which are responsible for metastatic tumors, could be excellent sources of antigen for vaccines that could be used for the active specific immunotherapy of patients with advanced cancer. We have established proliferating pure tumor cell cultures from cancer samples, followed by further expansion for patient-specific therapeutic purposes. In clinical trials, patients were treated with a series of s.c. injections of irradiated autologous tumor cells (TCV), or autologous dendritic cells (DCV), loaded with antigens from their tumor cell line. Cell lines were successfully established for nearly half of patients, with the highest success rates in melanoma, renal cell, sarcoma, and glioblastoma. For patients with melanoma and renal cell, who were treated with TCV, observed 5-year survival rates were nearly three times longer than national figures. For patients with melanoma who were treated with DCV, the 5-year survival rate was five times greater than national estimates. In a randomized trial comparing DCV and TCV in patients with metastatic melanoma, at a median follow up of 2 years, survival is better in patients treated with DCV. Patient-specific active immunotherapy with antigens from autologous proliferating, self-renewing tumor cells is a feasible approach. Such treatment is associated with encouraging long-term survival rates, and results are superior in patients treated with DCV loaded with antigen from such cells. A higher success rate of establishing cancer stem cell cultures is needed, and additional clinical trials will be required to establish the clinical benefit.


Dendritic Cell Cancer Stem Cell Metastatic Melanoma Renal Cell Cancer Synovial Sarcoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert O. Dillman
    • 1
  • Andrew N. Cornforth
    • 2
  • Carol DePriest
    • 3
  1. 1.Hoag Institute for Research and EducationHoag Family Cancer Institute, Hoag HospitalNewport BeachUSA
  2. 2.Cancer Stem Cell DivisionCalifornia Stem Cell, Inc.IrvineUSA
  3. 3.Hoag Institute for Research and EducationHoag Family Cancer InstituteNewport BeachUSA

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