Cadmium: From Toxicity to Essentiality pp 99-115

Part of the Metal Ions in Life Sciences book series (MILS, volume 11)

Imaging and Sensing of Cadmium in Cells

Abstract

Cadmium is one of the highly toxic transition metals for human beings and is known as a human carcinogen. Once humans are exposed to Cd2+ on a chronic basis, Cd2+ primarily accumulates in the liver and kidney where it forms complexes with small peptides and proteins via sulfhydryl groups. Complexed Cd2+ or the ionic Cd2+ is then taken up by target cells and tissues and exerts the toxicity. However, the question of how non-essential Cd2+ crosses the cell membranes remains unanswered. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of Cd2+-induced physiological signaling disruption in cells is still not fully elucidated. Investigations of Cd2+ uptake kinetics, distributions, and concentrations in cells require chemical tools for its detection. Because of the easy use and high spatiotemporal resolution, optical imaging using fluorescence microscopy is a well-suited method for monitoring Cd2+ in biological samples. This chapter summarizes design principles of small molecule fluorescent sensors for Cd2+ detection in aqueous solution and their photophysical and metal-binding properties. Also the applications of probes for fluorescence imaging of Cd2+ in a variety of cell types are demonstrated.

Keywords

cadmium ion cellular uptake fluorescent probe fluorescence imaging molecular design 

Abbreviations

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

AM

acetoxymethyl

ATSDR

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

BAPTA

bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid

BODIPY

4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene

C120

7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin

CHO

Chinese hamster ovary

Cys

cysteine

DBI

5-dimethylamino-2-(2-pyridinyl)-benzoimidazole

DC

dendritic cell

DPA

di(2-picolyl)amine

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

FAD

flavin adenine dinucleotide

GSH

glutathione

HEPES

4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid

HUVEC

human umbilical vein endothelial cell

ICT

intramolecular charge transfer

MOPS

3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

NADH

reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NIR

near-infrared

PCT

photoinduced charge transfer

PET

photoinduced electron transfer

PI

propidium iodide

PPT

photoinduced proton transfer

ROS

reactive oxygen species

TPEN

N,N,N’,N’-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine

Tris

2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol

YC

Yellow Cameleon

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies and Graduate School of Global Environmental StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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