Determination of Cadmium in Biological Samples

  • Katrin Klotz
  • Wobbeke Weistenhöfer
  • Hans Drexler
Part of the Metal Ions in Life Sciences book series (MILS, volume 11)

Abstract

Analyses of cadmium concentrations in biological material are performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), but also electrochemical methods, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The predominant sample matrices include blood, plasma, serum, and urine, as well as hair, saliva, and tissue of kidney cortex, lung, and liver. While cadmium in blood reveals rather the recent exposure situation, cadmium in urine reflects the body burden and is an indicator for the cumulative long term exposure.

After chronic exposure, cadmium accumulates in the human body and causes kidney diseases, especially lesions of proximal tubular cells. A tubular proteinuria causes an increase in urinary excretion of microproteins. Excretions of retinol binding protein (RBP), β2-microglobulin (β2-M), and α1-microglobulin are validated biomarkers for analyzing cadmium effects. For this purpose, immunological procedures such as ELISA, and radio- and latex-immunoassays are used.

However, proteinuria is not specific to cadmium, but can also occur after exposure to other nephrotoxic agents or due to various kidney diseases. In summary, cadmium in urine and blood are the most specific biomarkers of cadmium exposure. A combination of parameters of exposure (cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine) and parameters of effect (e.g., β2-M, RBP) is required to reveal cadmium-induced nephrological effects.

Keywords

AAS analysis biomonitoring blood cadmium ICP-MS immunoassay urine 

Abbreviations

α1-Μ

α1-microglobulin = protein HC

AAS

atomic absorption spectrometry

AES

atomic emission spectroscopy

β2-M

β2-microglobulin

BPTH

1,5-bis[phenyl-(2-pyridyl)-methylene]-thiocarbonohyrazide

DPASV

differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

DPTH

1,5-bis(di-2-pyridyl)methylene thiocarbohydrazide

EC-THGA

end-capped transversal heating graphite tubes

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

E-QUAS

External Quality Assessment Scheme

ET-AAS

electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

ETV-ICP-MS

electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

FI-ICP-AES

flow injection inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

GF-AAS

graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

HMA

hexamethylene ammonium

HMDC

hexamethylene dithiocarbamidate

ICP-AES

inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

ICP-MS

inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

ICP-OES

inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

LA-ICP-MS

laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

LOD

limit of detection

M

molar

MIBK

methyl isobutyl ketone

NAA

neutron activation analysis

NAG

N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase

PSA

potentiometric stripping analysis

QMS

quadrupole mass spectrometry

RBP

retinol-binding protein

SF-MS

sector field mass spectrometry

XRF

X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

Notes

Acknowledgment

We wish to thank Dr. Thomas Göen and Mrs Piia Lämmlein for their support in preparing this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katrin Klotz
    • 1
  • Wobbeke Weistenhöfer
    • 1
  • Hans Drexler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational, Social and Environmental MedicineFriedrich-Alexander University (FAU) of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

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