Cadmium: From Toxicity to Essentiality pp 395-413

Part of the Metal Ions in Life Sciences book series (MILS, volume 11)

Cadmium Toxicity in Plants

Abstract

Cadmium is an important pollutant in the environment, toxic to most organisms and a potential threat to human health: Crops and other plants take up Cd from the soil or water and may enrich it in their roots and shoots. In this review, we summarize natural and anthropogenic reasons for the occurrence of Cd toxicity, and evaluate the observed phytotoxic effects of plants growing in Cd-supplemented soil or nutrient solution. Cd-induced effects include oxidative stress, genotoxicity, inhibition of the photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibition of root metabolism. We explain proposed and possible interactions between these modes of toxicity. While discussing recent and older studies, we further emphasize the environmental relevance of the experiments and the physiological response of the plant.

Keywords

cadmium cytotoxicity genotoxocity oxidative stress photosynthesis inhibition substitution of essential metals 

Abbreviations

APX

ascorbate peroxidase

ATP

adenosine 5'-triphosphate

CAT

catalase

Chl

chlorophyll

DAB

diaminobenzidine

dNTP

deoxyribonucleotide

ETDA

ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid

EPR

electron paramagnetic resonance

F0

minimal fluorescence quantum yield of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence of a photosynthetic organism in dark adapted state, when the plastoquinone pool is completely oxidized

Fm

maximal fluorescence quantum yield of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence of a photosynthetic organism in dark adapted state during an oversaturating light flash, leading to complete reduction of the plastoquinone pool

Fv

Fm–F0 = variable fluorescence

GR

glutathione reductase

GSH

glutathione

LHC II

light harvesting complex II

MI

mitotic index, number of cells in metaphase stage

MN

micronucleus

NADPH

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

PS I

photosystem I

PS II

photosystem II

RAPD

rapid amplification of polymorphism DNA analyses

RC

reaction center

ROS

reactive oxygen species

RuBisCO

ribulose-1,5-bisphosphat-carboxylase/-oxygenase

SOD

superoxide dismutase

SMART

somatic mutation and recombination test

WT

wild-type

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachbereich BiologieUniversität KonstanzKonstanzGermany

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