Erosional and Depositional Textures and Structures in Coastal Karst Landscapes

  • Danko Taboroši
  • Miklós Kázmér
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 5)


Exposed surfaces of limestones on marine coastlines are characterized by a tremendous range of rock textures and structures. Many of them are features limited to coastal areas and are morphologically and genetically distinct from inland analogs. This distinction is due to idiosyncrasies of both coastal environments and coastal limestones. Processes operating in coastal settings are not limited to dissolution by fresh water and involve profound chemical and physical action of sea water and marine biota. In addition, these processes act upon rocks that are frequently younger and diagenetically less mature than inland limestones that have undergone deep burial and accompanying changes. The outcomes are distinct types of karren sculpturing, bioerosional markings, deposited and precipitated fabrics, bioconstructions, and compound structures that are unique to coastal karst. Many are limited to particular microenvironmental settings and certain elevations with respect to the sea level and can, therefore, be used as powerful paleoenvironmental and past sea level indicators.


Intertidal Zone Rock Surface Splash Zone Exposed Coast Rock Texture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abbott AT, Pottratz SW (1969) Marine pothole erosion, Oahu, Hawaii. Pac Sci 23(3):276–290Google Scholar
  2. Abensperg-Traun M, Wheaton GA, Eliot IG (1990) Bioerosion, notch formation and micromorphology in intertidal and supratidal zones of calcareous sandstone stack. J R Soc West Aust 73:47–56Google Scholar
  3. Ahr WM, Stanton RJ Jr (1973) The sedimentologic and paleoecologic significance of Lithotrya, a rock-boring barnacle. J Sediment Petrol 43:20–23Google Scholar
  4. Allen JRL (1985) Principles of physical sedimentology. George Allen & Unwin, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews C, Williams RBG (2000) Limpet erosion of chalk shore platforms in southeast England. Earth Surf Proc Land 25:1371–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ansell AD, Nair NB (1969) A comparative study of bivalves which bore mainly by mechanical means. Am Zool 9:857–868Google Scholar
  7. Antonioli F, Carulli GB, Furlani S, Auriemma R, Marocco R (2004) The enigma of submerged marine notches in northern Adriatic Sea. Quaternaria Nova 8:263–275Google Scholar
  8. Asgaard U, Bromley RG (2008) Echinometrid sea urchins, their trophic styles and corresponding bioerosion. In: Wisshak M, Tapanila L (eds) Current developments in bioerosion. Springer, Berlin, pp 279–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Azzopardi L, Schembri PJ (1997) Vermetid crusts from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). Mar Life 7(1–2):7–16Google Scholar
  10. Baceta JI, Wright VP, Pujalte V (2001) Palaeo-mixing zone karst features from Palaeocene carbonates of north Spain: criteria for recognizing a potentially widespread but rarely documented diagenetic system. Sediment Geol 139(3–4):205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Back W, Hanshaw BB, Herman JS, Van Driel JN (1986) Differential dissolution of a Pleistocene reef in the ground-water mixing zone of coastal Yucatán, Mexico. Geology 14(2):137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Basso D, Tomaselli V (1994) Palaeoecological potentiality of rhodoliths: a Mediterranean case history. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana Special volume 2:17–27Google Scholar
  13. Battistini R, Guilcher A (1982) Les plates-formes littorales à vasques en roches calcaires: repartition dans le monde, mer Méditerranée non comprise. Karst Littoraux, Comite National Français de Géographie, Actes du Colloquium de Perpignan 1:1–11Google Scholar
  14. Benac Č, Juračić M, Bakran-Petricioli T (2004) Submerged tidal notches in the Rijeka Bay NE Adriatic Sea: indicators of relative sea-level change and of recent tectonic movements. Mar Geol 212(1–4):21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bögli A (1951) Probleme der Karrenbildung. Geogr Helv 3:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bögli A (1960) Kalklösung und Karrenbildung. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplementband 2:4–21Google Scholar
  17. Bögli A (1964) Mischungkorrosion – ein Beitrag zum Verstärkungsproblem. Erdkunde 18:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bosence DWJ (1973) Recent serpulid reefs, Connemara, Eire. Nature 242:40–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bourke MC, Viles H (1997) A photographic atlas of rock breakdown features in geomorphic environments. Planetary Science Institute, Tucson/Arizona, 88 pGoogle Scholar
  20. Bressan G, Chemello R, Gravina MF, Gambi MC, Peirano A, Cocito S, Rosso A, Tursi A (2009) Other bioconcretions. In: Relini G (ed) Other types bioconstructions. Friuli Museum of Natural History. Udine, Italy, pp 90–114Google Scholar
  21. Bromley RG (1978) Bioerosion of Bermuda reefs. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 23(3–4):169–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brookes IA, Stevens RK (1985) Radiocarbon age of rock-boring, Hiatella arctica (Linné) and postglacial sea-level change at Cow Head, Newfoundland. Can J Earth Sci 22:136–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bull PA, Laverty M (1982) Observations on phytokarst. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 26:437–457Google Scholar
  24. Burke MA (1994) A quantitative analysis of marine kamenitza on the Carboniferous limestone between Skerries and Loughshinny, Co. Doublin. Thesis submitted as part of B.A. degree, Geography Department, Trinity College, Dublin, 198 pGoogle Scholar
  25. Carter NEA, Viles HA (2005) Bioprotection explored: the story of a little known earth surface process. Geomorphology 67(3–4):273–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chacón E, Berrendero E, Garcia-Pichel F (2006) Biogeological signatures of microboring cyanobacterial communities in marine carbonates from Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Sediment Geol 185:215–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chaix E (1895) Contribution a l’etude des lapies: la topographie du desert de Plate. Le Globe 34:67–108Google Scholar
  28. Chen C, Dai C-F (2009) Subtidal sabellarid reefs in Hualien, eastern Taiwan. Coral Reefs 28(1):275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen J, Blume HP, Beyer I (2002) Weathering of rocks induced by lichen colonization, a review. Catena 38:121–146Google Scholar
  30. Cocito S (2004) Bioconstruction and biodiversity: their mutual influence. Sci Mar 68(Suppl 1):137–144Google Scholar
  31. Conway K, Barrie J, Krautter M (2005) Geomorphology of unique reefs on the western Canadian shelf: sponge reefs mapped by multibeam bathymetry. Geo-Mar Lett 2005:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooke RU, Warren A, Goudie AS (1993) Desert geomorphology. UCL Press Limited, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Corbel J (1952) Les lapiaz marins. Revue Géographique de Lyon 37:379–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cowell DW, Ford DC (1983) Karst hydrology of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, Canada. J Hydrol 61(1–3):163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cucchi F (2009) Kamenitzas. In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds) Karst rock features – karren sculpturing. Carstologia 9. Založba ZRC/ZRC Publishing, Ljubljana, pp 139–150Google Scholar
  36. Cvijić J (1924) The evolution of lapiés: a study in karst physiography. Geogr Rev 14:26–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dalongeville M (1977) Formes littorales de corrosion dans les roches carbonatées au Liban: Etude morphologique. Méditerranée 3:21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dalongeville R (1995) Le rôle des organismes constructeurs dans la morphologie des littoraux de la mer Méditerranée: algues calcaires et vermetidés. Norois 165:73–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dalongeville M, Guilcher A (1982) Les plates-formes à vasques en Méditerranée, notamment leur extension vers le nord. Karst Littoraux, Comite National Français de Géographie, Actes du Colloquium de Perpignan 1:13–22Google Scholar
  40. De Waele J, Furlani S (2013) Seawater and biokarst effects on coastal limestones. In: Schroder J, Frumkin A (eds) Treatise on geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 341–350Google Scholar
  41. De Waele J, Mucedda M, Montanaro L (2009) Morphology and origin of coastal karst landforms in Miocene and Quaternary carbonate rocks along the central-western coast of Sardinia (Italy). Geomorphology 106:26–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Debrat JM (1974) Etude d’un karst calcaire littoral méditerranéen. Exemple du littoral de Nice à Menton. Méditerranée 17(17):63–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dionne J-C (1964) Notes Sur Les marmites Littorales. Revue de Geographie de Montreal 18(2):244–277Google Scholar
  44. Donn TF, Boardman MR (1988) Bioerosion of rocky carbonate coastlines on Andros Island, Bahamas. J Coastal Res 4(3):381–394Google Scholar
  45. Doty MS (1957) Rock intertidal surfaces. In: Hedgpeth J (ed) Treatise on marine ecology and paleoecology, vol 67. Memoirs of the Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 535–585Google Scholar
  46. Drew D (2009) Coastal and lacustrine karren in western Ireland. In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds) Karst rock features – karren sculpturing. Carstologia 9. Založba ZRC/ZRC Publishing, Ljubljana, pp 503–512Google Scholar
  47. Dreybrodt W (1988) Processes in karst systems: physics, chemistry, and geology. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Duane MJ, Al-Mishwat AT, Rafique M (2003) Weathering and biokarst development on marine terraces, northwest Morocco. Earth Surf Proc Land 28(13):1439–1449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ekdale AA, Bromley RG, Pemberton SG (1984) Ichnology: the use of trace fossils in sedimentology and stratigraphy. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, pp 108–128Google Scholar
  50. Emery KO (1946) Marine solution basins. J Geol 54:209–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Emery KO (1962) Marine geology of Guam, U. S. Geological Survey professional paper 403-B. U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C., pp B1–B76Google Scholar
  52. Fairbridge RW (1952) Marine erosion. Seventh Pac Sci Congr Proc 3:347–359Google Scholar
  53. Fairbridge RW (1982) Karst coast. In: Schwartz ML (ed) The encyclopedia of beaches and coastal environments. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company, Stroudsburg, pp 500–502Google Scholar
  54. Focke JW (1978) Limestone cliff morphology on Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles), with special attention to the origin of notches and vermetid/coralline algal surf benches (“corniches”, “trottoirs”). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N.F. 22:329–349Google Scholar
  55. Folk R, Roberts H, Moore C (1973) Black phytokarst from hell, Cayman Islands, British West Indies. Geol Soc Am Bull 84:2351–2360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ford DC, Williams PW (1989) Karst geomorphology and hydrology. Unwin Hyman, Winchester, 320 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fórnos JJ, Pons GX, Gómez-Pujol L, Belaguer P (2006) The role of biological processes and rates of downwearing due to grazing organisms on Mallorcan carbonate coasts (western Mediterranean). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplementband 44:161–181Google Scholar
  58. Frey RW (1973) Concepts in the study of biogenic sedimentary structures. J Sediment Res 43:6–19Google Scholar
  59. Furlani S, Cucchi F, Forti P, Rossi A (2009) Comparison between coastal and inland karst limestone lowering rates in the northeastern Adriatic region (Italy and Croatia). Geomorphology 104:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Giaccone T, Giaccone G, Basso D, Bressan G (2009) Algae. In: Relini G (ed) Marine bioconstructions. Friuli Museum of Natural History. Udine, Italy, pp 29–48Google Scholar
  61. Gill ED, Lang JG (1983) Micro-erosion meter measurements of rock wear on the Otway coast of southeast Australia. Mar Geol 52:141–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ginés À (2009) Karrenfield landscapes and karren landforms. In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds) Karst rock features – karren sculpturing. Carstologia 9. Založba ZRC/ZRC Publishing, Ljubljana, pp 13–24Google Scholar
  63. Ginés À, Ginés J (1995) Les formes exocarstiques de l’illa de Mallorca. ENDINS 20. Mon Soc Hist Nat Balears 3:59–70Google Scholar
  64. Ginés À, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds) (2009) Karst rock features – karren sculpturing. Carstologia 9. Založba ZRC/ZRC Publishing, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  65. Ginsburg RN (1953) Intertidal erosion on the Florida keys. B Mar Sci 3:55–69Google Scholar
  66. Ginsburg RN, Schroeder JH (1973) Growth and submarine fossilization of algal cup reefs, Bermuda. Sedimentology 20(4):575–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Glaub I, Golubic S, Gektidis M, Radtke G, Vogel K (2007) Microborings and microbial endoliths: geological implications. In: Miller WC (ed) Trace fossils: concepts, problems, prospects. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 368–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Glumac B, Berrios L, Greer L, Curran HA (2004) Holocene tufa-coated serpulid mounds from the Dominican Republic: depositional and diagenetic history, with comparison to modern serpulid aggregates from Baffin Bay, Texas. In: Proceedings of the 11th symposium on the geology of the Bahamas and other carbonate regions, Gerace Research Centre, San Salvador, pp 49–65Google Scholar
  69. Gómez-Pujol L, Fornós JJ (2009) Coastal karren in the Balearic Islands. In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds) Karst rock features – karren sculpturing. Carstologia 9. Založba ZRC/ZRC Publishing, Ljubljana, pp 487–502Google Scholar
  70. Gómez-Pujol L, Fornós JJ (2010) Coastal karren features in temperate microtidal settings: spatial organization and temporal evolution. Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia 55(1):37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Grimes KG (2001) Karst features of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Helictite 37(2):41–58Google Scholar
  72. Guilcher A (1953) Essai sur la zonation et la distribution des formes littorals de dissolution du calcaire. Ann Geogr 62:161–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Guilcher A (1958) Coastal corrosion forms in limestones around the Bay of Biscay. Scot Geogr Mag 74(3):137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hadfield MG, Kay EA, Gillette MU, Lloyd MC (1972) The Vermetidae (mollusca gastropoda) of the Hawaiian Islands. Mar Biol 12:81–98Google Scholar
  75. Hanor JS (1978) Precipitation of beachrock cements: mixing of marine and meteoric waters vs. CO2-degassing. J Sediment Petrol 48:489–501Google Scholar
  76. Higgins CG (1980) Nips, notches, and the solution of coastal limestone: an overview of the problem with examples from Greece. Estuar Coast Mar Sci 10(1):15–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hodgkin EP (1964) Rate of erosion of intertidal limestone. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 8(4):385–392Google Scholar
  78. Holbye U (1989) Bowl-karren in the littoral karst of Nord-Arnoy, Norway. Cave Sci 16:19–26Google Scholar
  79. Holmes G, Ortiz J-C, Schönberg CHL (2009) Bioerosion rates of the sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900: spatial variation over short distances. Facies 55:203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hopley D (2005a) Coral reefs. In: Schwartz ML (ed) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 343–349Google Scholar
  81. Hopley D (2005b) Trottoirs. In: Schwartz ML (ed) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 1017Google Scholar
  82. Horwitz MH, Roberts TM (2010) Geomorphic zoning and eogenetic karst on limestones within the supratidal environment: San Salvador, Bahamas. Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia 55(1):17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Huggett RJ (2007) Fundamentals of geomorphology. Routledge, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  84. Hutchings PA, Peyrot-Clausade M (2002) The distribution and abundance of boring species of polychaetes and sipunculans in coral substrates in French Polynesia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 269:101–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jacobsen G, Hill PJ, Ghassemi F (1997) Geology and hydrogeology of Nauru Island. In: Vacher HL, Quinn T (eds) Geology and hydrology of carbonate Islands, vol 54, Developments in sedimentology. Elsevier Science BV, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  86. Jennings JN (1971) Karst. Australian National University Press, Canberra, 252 pGoogle Scholar
  87. Jennings JN (1985) Karst geomorphology. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, p 293Google Scholar
  88. Jones B (1989) The role of microorganisms in phytokarst development on dolostones and limestones, Grand Cayman, British West Indies. Can J Earth Sci 26:2204–2213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jones B (2010) Speleothems in a wave-cut notch, Cayman Brac, British West Indies: the integrated product of subaerial precipitation, dissolution, and microbes. Sediment Geol 232:15–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jones B, Hunter I (1995) Vermetid buildups from grand Cayman British West Indies. J Coastal Res 4:973–983Google Scholar
  91. Kázmér M, Taboroši D (2012) Bioerosion on the small scale – examples from the tropical and subtropical littoral. Hantkeniana 7:37–94, incl. 96 figs and 1 table, Budapest, HungaryGoogle Scholar
  92. Kelletat D (1985) Bio-destruktive und bio-konstruktive Formelemente en den spanischen Mittelmeerküsten. Geodynamik 6:1–20Google Scholar
  93. Kelletat D (1988) Quantitative investigations on coastal bioerosion in higher latitudes: an example from northern Scotland. Geoökodynamik, Bensheim 9:41–51Google Scholar
  94. Kempf M, Laborel J (1968) Formations de Vermets et d’Algues calcaires des côtes du Brésil. Rec Trav Stat Mar Endoume 43:9–23Google Scholar
  95. Kershaw S, Guo L (2001) Marine notches in coastal cliffs: indicators of relative sea-level change, Perachora Peninsula, central Greece. Mar Geol 179(3–4):213–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kleemann K (2001) Marine bioerosion. Lecture given at the University of Vienna, compiled by P Madl. Available on-line at: Last Accessed 16 Mar 2012
  97. Knight J (2005) Controls on the formation of coastal ventifacts. Geomorphology 64:243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kobluk DR, Risk JM (1977) Rate and nature of infestation of a carbonate substratum by a boring algae. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 27:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kogure T, Matsukura Y (2010) Critical notch depths for failure of coastal limestone cliffs: case study at Kuro-shima Island, Okinawa, Japan. Earth Surf Proc Land 35(9):1044–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Krumbein WE (1979) Photolithotropic and chemoorganotrophic activity of bacteria and algae as related to beachrock formation and degradation (Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai). Geomicrobiology 1:139–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Laborel J (2005) Algal rims. In: Schwartz ML (ed) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 24–25Google Scholar
  102. Laborel J, Laborel-Deguen F (1994) Biological indicators of relative sea-level variation and of co-seismic displacements in the Mediterranean area. J Coastal Res 10(2):395–415Google Scholar
  103. Laborel J, Laborel-Deguen F (1995) Biological indicators of Holocene sea-level and climatic variations on rocky coasts of tropical and subtropical regions. Quatern Int 31:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Laborel J, Morhange R, Lafont J, Campion L, Laborel-Deguen F, Sartoretto S (1994) Biological evidence of sea level rise during the last 4500 years on the rocky coasts of continental southwestern France and Corsica. Mar Geol 120:203–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ley RG (1977) The influence of lithology on marine karren. Abhandlung zur Karst und Höhlenkunde 15:81–100Google Scholar
  106. Ley RG (1979) The development of marine karren along the Bristol Channel Coastline. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplementband 32:75–89Google Scholar
  107. Liu P-J, Hsieh H-L (2000) Burrow architecture of the spionid polychaete Polydora villosa in the corals Montipora and Porites. Zool Stud 39(1):47–54Google Scholar
  108. Lovrić AŽ, Rac M, Milenković MH (2002) Diversity of old-Croatian names for seaweeds and maritime nature in the Adriatic Islands. Nat Croat 11(4):455–477Google Scholar
  109. Lundberg J (1977) Karren of the littoral zone, Burren District, Co. Clare, Ireland. In: Proceedings of the 7th international speleological congress, Sheffield, pp 291–293Google Scholar
  110. Lundberg J (2004) Coastal karst. In: Gunn J (ed) Encyclopedia of cave and karst science. Fitzroy Dearborn, New York/London, pp 231–233Google Scholar
  111. Lundberg J (2009) Coastal karren. In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds) Karst rock features – karren sculpturing. Carstologia 9. Založba ZRC/ZRC Publishing, Ljubljana, pp 249–264Google Scholar
  112. Lundberg J, Lauritzen SE (2002) The search for an arctic coastal karren model in Norway and Spitzbergen. In: Hewitt K, Byrne ML, English M, Young G (eds) Landscapes in transition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 185–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Macfadyen WA (1930) The undercutting of coral reef limestone on the coasts of some Islands in the Red Sea. Geogr J 75:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Malis CP, Ford DC (1995) Littoral karren along the western shore of Newfoundland. Geol Soc Am, Abstracts with Programs 27(6):A9–A56Google Scholar
  115. Mark H (2009) Karst landscapes in the Bay of Ha Long, Vietnam. Geographische Rundschau International Edition 5(1):48–51Google Scholar
  116. Martel EA (1921) Nouveau traité des eaux souterraines. Doin, Paris, 838 pGoogle Scholar
  117. Matsukura Y, Matsuoka N (1991) Rates of tafoni weathering on uplifted shore platforms in Nojima-zaki, Boso Peninsula, Japan. Earth Surf Proc Land 16:51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Miller WR, Mason TR (1994) Erosional features of coastal beachrock and eolianite outcrops in Natal and Zululand, South Africa. J Coastal Res 10:374–394Google Scholar
  119. Milliman JD (1974) Marine carbonates. [Part 1, recent sedimentary carbonates]. Springer, New York, 375 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mokady O, Lazar B, Loya Y (1996) Echinoid bioerosion as a major structuring force of Red Sea coral reefs. Biol Bull 190:367–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Molinier R (1955) Les plate-formes et corniches récifals de vermets (Vermetus cristatus Biondi) en Méditerranée occidentale. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences 240:361–363Google Scholar
  122. Monroe WH (1970) A glossary of karst terminology, Water supply paper, 1899-K. USGS, Washington, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  123. Moore DG (1954) Origin and development of sea caves. Bull Natl Speleological Soc 16:71–76Google Scholar
  124. Morton B, Scott PJB (1980) Morphological and functional specializations of the shell, musculature and pallial glands in the Lithophaginae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). J Zool Soc London 192:179–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Moses CA (2003) Observations on coastal biokarst, Hells Gate, Lord Howe Island, Australia. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 47:83–100Google Scholar
  126. Moses CA, Smith BJ (1993) A note on the role of Colema auriforma in solution basin development on a Carboniferous limestone substrate. Earth Surf Proc Land 18:363–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Moses CA, Smith BJ (1994) Limestone weathering in the supratidal zone: an example from Mallorca. In: Robinson DA, Williams RBG (eds) Rock weathering and landform evolution. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp 433–452Google Scholar
  128. Mylroie JE, Carew JL (1990) The flank margin model for dissolution cave development in carbonate platforms. Earth Surf Proc Land 15:413–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mylroie JE, Mylroie JR (2009) Coastal eogenetic karren of San Salvador Island. In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds) Karst rock features – karren sculpturing, Carstologia 9. Založba ZRC/ZRC Publishing, Ljubljana, pp 475–485Google Scholar
  130. Naylor LA, Viles HA, Carter NEA (2002) Biogeomorphology revisited: looking towards the future. Geomorphology 47:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Neumann AC (1966) Observations on coastal erosion in Bermuda and measurements of the boring rates of the sponge Cliona lampa. Limnol Oceanogr 11:92–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Newell ND, Purdy EG, Imbrie J (1960) Bahamian oölitic sand. J Geol 68(5):481–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Newman WA, Abbott DP (1980) Cirripedia. In: Morris RH, Abbott DP, Haderlie EC (eds) Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp 504–535Google Scholar
  134. Norton TA, Hawkins SJ, Manley NL, Williams GA, Watson DC (1990) Scraping a living: a review of littorinid grazing. Hydrobiologia 193(1):117–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Orme R, Riding R (1995) Halimeda segment reefs of the northern Great Barrier Reef. British Sedimentological Research Group. In: 1995 Annual meeting abstracts, Durham, p 64Google Scholar
  136. Palmer HS (1927) Lapies in Hawaiian Basalts. Geogr Rev 17(4):627–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Palmer M, Fórnos JJ, Balaguer P, Gómez-Pujol L, Pons GX, Villanueva G (2003) Spatial and seasonal variability of the macro-invertebrate community of a rocky coast in Mallorca (Balearic Islands): implications for bioerosion. Hydrobiologia 501:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Paskoff RP (2005) Karst coasts. In: Schwartz ML (ed) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 581–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Pirazzoli PA (1986) Marine notches. In: Plassche OVd (ed) Sea-level research: a manual for the collection and evaluation of data. Geo Books, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  140. Radtke G, Le Campion-Alsumard T, Golubic S (1996) Microbial assemblages of the bioerosional “notch” along tropical limestone coasts. Algol Stud 83:469–482Google Scholar
  141. Rasmussen KA, Frankenberg EW (1990) Intertidal bioerosion by the chiton Acanthopleura granulata: San Salvador, Bahamas. B Mar Sci 47/3:680–695Google Scholar
  142. Reece M, Mylroie JE, Jenson JW (2006) Notches in carbonate cliffs and hillslopes: origin and implications. In: Davis RL, Gamble DW (eds) Proceedings of the 12th symposium on the geology of the Bahamas and other carbonate regions, Gerace Research Centre, San Salvador, Bahamas, pp 143–152Google Scholar
  143. Reid RP, Macintyre IG, James NP (1990) Internal precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate: a fundamental problem for sedimentologists. Sediment Geol 68(3):163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Relini G (2009) Introduction. In: Relini G (ed) Marine bioconstructions. Friuli Museum of Natural History. Udine, Italy, pp 7–12Google Scholar
  145. Revelle R, Emery KO (1957) Chemical erosion of beach rock and exposed reef rock, U. S. Geological Survey professional paper 260-T. U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, pp 699–706Google Scholar
  146. Richardson K, Carling PA (2005) A typology of sculpted forms in open bedrock channels, Geological Society of America, Special Paper 392. Geological Society of America, Boulder, p 108Google Scholar
  147. Richmond BM (2002) Overview of Pacific island carbonate beach systems. In: Robbins LL, Magoon OT, Ewing L (eds) Carbonate beaches 2000, Key Largo, Florida, American Society of Civil Engineers conference proceedings, 5–8 Dec 2000, pp 218–228Google Scholar
  148. Riding R (2002) Structure and composition of organic reefs and carbonate mud mounds: concepts and categories. Earth Sci Rev 58:163–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Risk MJ, McGeachy JK (1978) Aspects of bioerosion of modern Caribbean reefs. Rev Biol Trop 26:85–105Google Scholar
  150. Robbins LL, Blackwelder PL (1992) Biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for the origin of whitings: a biologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation mechanism. Geology 20:464–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Russell RJ (1962) Origin of beach rock. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 6:1–16Google Scholar
  152. Rust D, Kershaw S (2000) Holocene tectonic uplift patterns in northeastern Sicily: evidence from marine notches in coastal outcrops. Mar Geol 167:105–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Safriel UN (1975) The role of vermetid gastropods in the formation of Mediterranean and Atlantic Reefs. Oecologia 20(1):85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Salomon J-N (2006) Les tsingy et leur genese. Spelunca 103:45–50Google Scholar
  155. Sawyer JA, Zuschin M (2010) Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages along a transect through the northern Gulf of Trieste (Adriatic Sea). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 285(3–4):152–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Schneider J (1976) Biological and inorganic factors in the destruction of limestone coasts. Contrib Sedimentology 6:1–112Google Scholar
  157. Schneider J, Le Campion Alsumard T (1999) Construction and destruction of carbonates by marine and freshwater cyanobacteria. Eur J Phycol 34:417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Schneider J, Torunski H (1983) Biokarst on limestone coasts, morphogenesis and sediment production. Mar Ecol 4:45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Schoppe S, Werding B (1996) The Boreholes of the Sea Urchin Genus Echinometra (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Echinometridae) as a Microhabitat in Tropical South America. Mar Ecol 17(1–3):181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Scoffin TP (1970) A conglomeratic beachrock in Bimini, Bahamas. J Sediment Petrol 40:756–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Scoffin TP, Stoddart DR (1983) Beachrock. In: Goudie AS, Pye K (eds) Chemical sediments and geomorphology: precipitates and residua in the near-surface environment. Academic, London, pp 401–425Google Scholar
  162. Silenzi S, Antonioli F, Chemello R (2004) A new marker for sea surface temperature trend during the last centuries in temperate areas: Vermetid reef. Global Planet Change 40:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Simms MJ (1990) Phytokarst and photokarren in Ireland. Cave Sci 17:131–133Google Scholar
  164. Southward AJ (1958) The zonation of plants and animals on rocky sea shores. Biol Rev 33(2):137–177Google Scholar
  165. Spencer T (1985a) Marine erosion rates and coastal morphology of reef limestones on Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. Coral Reefs 4:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Spencer T (1985b) Weathering rates on a Caribbean reef limestone; results and implications. Mar Geol 69:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Spencer T (1988) Limestone coastal morphology: the biological contribution. Prog Phys Geog 12:66–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Spencer T, Viles H (2002) Bioconstruction, bioerosion and disturbance on tropical coasts: coral reefs and rocky limestone shores. Geomorphology 48:23–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Stephenson WJ, Kirk RM (1998) Rates and patterns of erosion on shore platforms, Kaikoura, South Island, New Zealand. Earth Surf Proc Land 23:1071–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Stephenson TA, Stephenson A (1949) The universal features between tide marks on rocky coasts. J Ecol 37:289–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Stephenson TA, Stephenson A (1972) Life between tidemarks on rocky shores. Freeman, San Francisco, 425 pGoogle Scholar
  172. Stoddart DR, Cann JR (1965) Nature and origin of beach rock. J Sediment Petrol 35:243–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Stoddart DR, Taylor JD, Farrow GR, Fosberg FR (1971) The geomorphology of Aldabra. In: Westoll TS, Stoddart DR (eds) A discussion on the results of the Royal Society Expedition to Aldabra, 1967–1968. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, pp 31–65Google Scholar
  174. Stoessell RK, Ward WC, Ford BH, Schuffert JD (1989) Water chemistry and CaCO3 dissolution in the saline part of an open-flow mixing zone, coastal Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Bull Geol Soc Am 101:159–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Stone ED, Weiner S, Addadi L (2005) Morphology of goethite crystals in developing limpet teeth: assessing biological control over mineral formation. Cryst Growth Des 5(6):2131–2138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Sweeting MM (1972) Karst landforms. Macmillan/ Columbia University Press, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  177. Sweeting MM, Lancaster N (1982) Solutional and wind erosion forms on limestone in the Central Namib Desert. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 26:197–207Google Scholar
  178. Taboroši D, Stafford K (2004) Littoral dripstone and flowstone – non-spelean carbonate secondary deposits. Int J Speleol 32:85–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Taboroši D, Jenson JW, Mylroie JE (2004) Karren features in Island Karst: Guam, Mariana Islands. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 48:369–389Google Scholar
  180. Taboroši D, Mylroie JE, Hirakawa K (2006) Stalactites on tropical cliffs: remnants of breached caves or subaerial tufa deposits? Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 50:117–139Google Scholar
  181. Terry JP, Nunn PD (2003) Interpreting features of carbonate geomorphology on Niue Island, a raised coral atoll. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 131:43–57Google Scholar
  182. Torunski H (1979) Biological erosion and significance for the morphogenesis of limestone coasts and for nearshore sedimentation (Northern Adriatic). Senckenbergiana Maritima 11:193–265Google Scholar
  183. Trenhaile AS (1987) The geomorphology of rocky coasts. Clarendon, Oxford, 384 pGoogle Scholar
  184. Trenhaile AS (2003a) Trottoir. In: Goudie A (ed) Encyclopedia of geomorphology. Routledge, London, p 1069Google Scholar
  185. Trenhaile AS (2003b) Corniche. In: Goudie A (ed) Encyclopedia of geomorphology. Routledge, London, p 191Google Scholar
  186. Tribollet A (2008) The boring microflora in modern coral reef ecosystems: a review of its roles. In: Wisshak M, Tapanila L (eds) Current developments in bioerosion. Springer, Berlin, pp 67–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tribollet A, Golubic S (2011) Reef bioerosion: agents and processes. In: Dubinsky Z, Stambler N (eds) Coral reefs: an ecosystem in transition, part 5. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 435–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Trimmel H (1965) Speläologisches Fachwörterbuch. Landesverein für Höhlenkunde in Wien und Niederösterreich, Wien, 109 pGoogle Scholar
  189. Trudgill ST (1976) The subaerial and subsoil erosion of limestones on Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplementband 26:201–210Google Scholar
  190. Trudgill ST (1979) Spitzkarren on calcarenites, Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplementband 32:67–74Google Scholar
  191. Trudgill ST (1985) Limestone geomorphology. Longman, London/New York, 196 pGoogle Scholar
  192. Trudgill ST (1987) Bioerosion on intertidal limestone, Co. Clare, Eire: Zonation, process, and form. Mar Geol 74:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Trudgill ST (2003) Boring organism. In: Goudie A (ed) Encyclopedia of geomorphology. Routledge, London, pp 90–92Google Scholar
  194. Trudgill ST, High CJ, Hanna KK (1981) Improvements to the micro-erosion meter (MEM). British Geomorphol. Research Group. Tech Bull 29:3–17Google Scholar
  195. Tschang HL (1966) Marine potholes of Hong Kong. Chung Chi Journal 6:50–58Google Scholar
  196. Veress M (2010) Karst environments: karren formation in high mountains. Springer Verlag, Dordrecht/Heidelberg, 230 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Veress M, Szunyogh G, Tóth G, Zentai Z, Czöpek I (2006) The effect of the wind on karren formation on the Island of Diego De Almagro (Chile). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 50:425–445Google Scholar
  198. Vescogni A, Bosellini FR, Reuter M, Bracher TC (2008) Vermetid reefs and their use as palaeobathymetric markers: new insights from the Late Miocene of the Mediterranean (Southern Italy, Crete). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 267:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Viles HA (1984) Biokarst: review and prospect. Prog Phys Geog 8:523–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Viles HA (1987) Blue-green algae and terrestrial weathering on Aldabra atoll: an SEM and light microscope study. Earth Surf Proc Land 12:319–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Viles HA, Trudgill ST (1984) Long term remeasurements of micro-erosion meter rates, Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Earth Surf Proc Land 9:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Wargo RN, Ford SE (1993) The effects of shell infestation by Polydora sp. and infestation by Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) on the tissue condition of oysters, Crassotrea virginica. Estuaries 16:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Webb GE, Jell JS, Baker JC (1999) Cryptic intertidal microbialites in beachrock, Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef: implications for the origin of microcrystalline beachrock cement. Sediment Geol 126(1–4):317–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Wentworth CK (1939) Marine bench-forming processes II, solution benching. J Geomorph 2:3–25Google Scholar
  205. Wentworth CK (1944) Potholes, pits and pans, subaerial and marine. J Geol 52:117–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Whipple K, Hancock G, Anderson R (2000) River incision into bedrock: mechanics and relative efficacy of plucking, abrasion, and cavitation. Geol Soc Am Bull 112:490–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. White WB (1988) Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains. Oxford Press, New York, 464 pGoogle Scholar
  208. Wilkinson CR (1983) Role of sponges in coral reef structural processes. In: Barnes DJ (ed) Perspectives on coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Sciences and B. Clouston, Townsville/Canberra, pp 263–274Google Scholar
  209. Williams JA, Margolis SV (1974) Sipunculid burrows in coral reefs: evidence for chemical and mechanical excavation. Pac Sci 28(4):357–359Google Scholar
  210. Wilson MA (2007) Macroborings and the evolution of marine bioerosion. In: Miller WC (ed) Trace fossils: concepts, problems, prospects. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 356–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Wisshak M (2006) High-latitude bioerosion: the Kosterfjord experiment, vol 109, Lecture notes in earth sciences. Springer, Berlin/New York, pp 1–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Wziatek D, Vousdoukas MV, Terefenko P (2011) Wave-cut notches along the Algarve coast, S. Portugal: characteristics and formation mechanisms. J Coastal Res Special Issue 64:855–859 (Proceedings of the 11th international coastal symposium, Szczecin, Poland)Google Scholar
  213. Zseni A (2009) Subsoil shaping. In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds) Karst rock features–karren sculpturing, Carstologia 9. Založba ZRC/ZRC Publishing, Ljubljana, pp 103–121Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western PacificUniversity of GuamMangilaoGuam
  2. 2.Island Research and Education InitiativePalikir, PohnpeiMicronesia
  3. 3.Department of PaleontologyEötvös UniversityBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations