On Viruses, Bats and Men: A Natural History of Food-Borne Viral Infections

Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, cross-species infections from bats to humans are reviewed that do or do not use intermediate animal amplification hosts and that lead to human-human transmissions with various efficiencies. Rabies infections, Hendra virus infections in Australia, Nipah virus infections in Malaysia and Bangladesh and SARS coronavirus infection in China are explored from the public health perspective. Factors of bat biology are discussed which make them ideal virus reservoirs for emerging diseases. In line with the book theme, it is asked whether even in these epidemic conditions, viruses can be seen as essential agents of life where host species use their viruses to defend their ecological position against intruders. It is asked whether another essential function of animal viral infections could be the “killing the winning population” phenomenon known from phage biology which would stabilize species diversity in nature.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The author thanks his colleague Wolfram Brück for reading the manuscript.

References

  1. Arankalle VA, Bandyopadhyay BT, Ramdasi AY, Jadi R, Patil DR, Rahman M, Majumdar M, Banerjee PS, Hati AK, Goswami RP, Neogi DK, Mishra AC (2011) Genomic characterization of Nipah virus, West Bengal, India. Emerg Infect Dis 17(5):907–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badrane H, Tordo N (2001) Host switching in lyssavirus history from the chiroptera to the carnivora orders. J Virol 75(17):8096–8104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bausch DG, Nichol ST, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Borchert M, Rollin PE, Sleurs H, Campbell P, Tshioko FK, Roth C, Colebunders R, Pirard P, Mardel S, Olinda LA, Zeller H, Tshomba A, Kulidri A, Libande ML, Mulangu S, Formenty P, Grein T, Leirs H, Braack L, Ksiazek T, Zaki S, Bowen MD, Smit SB, Leman PA, Burt FJ, Kemp A, Swanepoel R, International Scientific and Technical Committee for Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever Control in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006) Marburg hemorrhagic fever associated with multiple genetic lineages of virus. N Engl J Med 355(9):909–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brüssow H (2007) The quest for food: a natural history of eating. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Calisher CH, Childs JE, Field HE, Holmes KV, Schountz T (2006) Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses. Clin Microbiol Rev 19(3):531–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chew MH, Arguin PM, Shay DK, Goh KT, Rollin PE, Shieh WJ, Zaki SR, Rota PA, Ling AE, Ksiazek TG, Chew SK, Anderson LJ (2000) Risk factors for Nipah virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore. J Infect Dis 181(5):1760–1763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chinese SARS Molecular Epidemiology Consortium (2004) Molecular evolution of the SARS coronavirus during the course of the SARS epidemic in China. Science 303(5664):1666–1669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chua KB, Goh KJ, Wong KT, Kamarulzaman A, Tan PS, Ksiazek TG, Zaki SR, Paul G, Lam SK, Tan CT (1999) Fatal encephalitis due to Nipah virus among pig-farmers in Malaysia. Lancet 354(9186):1257–1259Google Scholar
  9. Chua KB, Bellini WJ, Rota PA, Harcourt BH, Tamin A, Lam SK, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Zaki SR, Shieh W, Goldsmith CS, Gubler DJ, Roehrig JT, Eaton B, Gould AR, Olson J, Field H, Daniels P, Ling AE, Peters CJ, Anderson LJ, Mahy BW (2000) Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Science 288(5470):1432–1435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chua KB, Lam SK, Goh KJ, Hooi PS, Ksiazek TG, Kamarulzaman A, Olson J, Tan CT (2001) The presence of Nipah virus in respiratory secretions and urine of patients during an outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia. J Infect 42(1):40–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chua KB, Koh CL, Hooi PS, Wee KF, Khong JH, Chua BH, Chan YP, Lim ME, Lam SK (2002) Isolation of Nipah virus from Malaysian Island flying-foxes. Microbes Infect 4(2):145–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Serres G, Dallaire F, Côte M, Skowronski DM (2008) Bat rabies in the United States and Canada from 1950 through 2007: human cases with and without bat contact. Clin Infect Dis 46(9):1329–1337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Donaldson EF, Haskew AN, Gates JE, Huynh J, Moore CJ, Frieman MB (2010) Metagenomic analysis of the viromes of three North American bat species: viral diversity among different bat species that share a common habitat. J Virol 84(24):13004–13018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dye C, Gay N (2003) Modeling the SARS epidemic. Science 300(5627):1884–1885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Enserink M, Normile D (2003) Search for SARS origins stalls. Science 302(5646):766–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Epstein JH, Prakash V, Smith CS, Daszak P, McLaughlin AB, Meehan G, Field HE, Cunningham AA (2008) Henipavirus infection in fruit bats (Ppteropus giganteus), India. Emerg Infect Dis 14(8):1309–1311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Frick WF, Pollock JF, Hicks AC, Langwig KE, Reynolds DS, Turner GG, Butchkoski CM, Kunz TH (2010) An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species. Science 329(5992):679–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goh KJ, Tan CT, Chew NK, Tan PS, Kamarulzaman A, Sarji SA, Wong KT, Abdullah BJ, Chua KB, Lam SK (2000) Clinical features of Nipah virus encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia. N Engl J Med 342(17):1229–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Graham RL, Baric RS (2010) Recombination, reservoirs, and the modular spike: mechanisms of coronavirus cross-species transmission. J Virol 84(7):3134–3146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guan Y, Zheng BJ, He YQ, Liu XL, Zhuang ZX, Cheung CL, Luo SW, Li PH, Zhang LJ, Guan YJ, Butt KM, Wong KL, Chan KW, Lim W, Shortridge KF, Yuen KY, Peiris JS, Poon LL (2003) Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China. Science 302(5643):276–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gurley ES, Montgomery JM, Hossain MJ, Bell M, Azad AK, Islam MR, Molla MA, Carroll DS, Ksiazek TG, Rota PA, Lowe L, Comer JA, Rollin P, Czub M, Grolla A, Feldmann H, Luby SP, Woodward JL, Breiman RF (2007a) Person-to-person transmission of nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community. Emerg Infect Dis 13(7):1031–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gurley ES, Montgomery JM, Hossain MJ, Islam MR, Molla MA, Shamsuzzaman SM, Akram K, Zaman K, Asgari N, Comer JA, Azad AK, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Breiman RF (2007b) Risk of nosocomial transmission of nipah virus in a Bangladesh hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28(6):740–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Halpin K, Young PL, Field HE, Mackenzie JS (2000) Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus. J Gen Virol 81(Pt 8):1927–32Google Scholar
  24. Halpin K, Hyatt AD, Plowright RK, Epstein JH, Daszak P, Field HE, Wang L, Daniels PW, Henipavirus Ecology Research Group (2007) Emerging viruses: coming in on a wrinkled wing and a prayer. Clin Infect Dis 44(5):711–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Halpin K, Hyatt AD, Fogarty R, Middleton D, Bingham J, Epstein JH, Rahman SA, Hughes T, Smith C, Field HE, Daszak P, Henipavirus Ecology Research Group (2011) Pteropid bats are confirmed as the reservoir hosts of henipaviruses: a comprehensive experimental study of virus transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85(5):946–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harit AK, Ichhpujani RL, Gupta S, Gill KS, Lal S, Ganguly NK, Agarwal SP (2006) Nipah/Hendra virus outbreak in Siliguri, West Bengal, India in 2001. Indian J Med Res 123(4):553–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Homaira N, Rahman M, Hossain MJ, Epstein JH, Sultana R, Khan MS, Podder G, Nahar K, Ahmed B, Gurley ES, Daszak P, Lipkin WI, Rollin PE, Comer JA, Ksiazek TG, Luby SP (2010) Nipah virus outbreak with person-to-person transmission in a district of Bangladesh, 2007. Epidemiol Infect 138(11):1630–1636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hon CC, Lam TY, Shi ZL, Drummond AJ, Yip CW, Zeng F, Lam PY, Leung FC (2008) Evidence of the recombinant origin of a bat severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus and its implications on the direct ancestor of SARS coronavirus. J Virol 82(4):1819–1826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hossain MJ, Gurley ES, Montgomery JM, Bell M, Carroll DS, Hsu VP, Formenty P, Croisier A, Bertherat E, Faiz MA, Azad AK, Islam R, Molla MA, Ksiazek TG, Rota PA, Comer JA, Rollin PE, Luby SP, Breiman RF (2008) Clinical presentation of nipah virus infection in Bangladesh. Clin Infect Dis 46(7):977–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lam SK, Chua KB (2002) Nipah virus encephalitis outbreak in Malaysia. Clin Infect Dis 34 Suppl 2:S48–51Google Scholar
  31. Lau SK, Woo PC, Li KS, Huang Y, Tsoi HW, Wong BH, Wong SS, Leung SY, Chan KH, Yuen KY (2005) Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(39):14040–14045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lau SK, Li KS, Huang Y, Shek CT, Tse H, Wang M, Choi GK, Xu H, Lam CS, Guo R, Chan KH, Zheng BJ, Woo PC, Yuen KY (2010) Ecoepidemiology and complete genome comparison of different strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related rhinolophus bat coronavirus in China reveal bats as a reservoir for acute, self-limiting infection that allows recombination events. J Virol 84(6):2808–2819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leroy EM, Kumulungui B, Pourrut X, Rouquet P, Hassanin A, Yaba P, Délicat A, Paweska JT, Gonzalez JP, Swanepoel R (2005) Fruit bats as reservoirs of ebola virus. Nature 438(7068):575–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li W, Shi Z, Yu M, Ren W, Smith C, Epstein JH, Wang H, Crameri G, Hu Z, Zhang H, Zhang J, McEachern J, Field H, Daszak P, Eaton BT, Zhang S, Wang LF (2005) Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science 310(5748):676–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Li L, Victoria JG, Wang C, Jones M, Fellers GM, Kunz TH, Delwart E (2010) Bat guano virome: predominance of dietary viruses from insects and plants plus novel mammalian viruses. J Virol 84(14):6955–6965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu J (2003) SARS, wildlife, and human health. Science 302(5642):53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lo MK, Lowe L, Hummel KB, Sazzad HM, Gurley ES, Hossain MJ, Luby SP, Miller DM, Comer JA, Rollin PE, Bellini WJ, Rota PA (2012) Characterization of Nipah virus from outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008–2010. Emerg Infect Dis 18(2):248–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Luby SP, Rahman M, Hossain MJ, Blum LS, Husain MM, Gurley E, Khan R, Ahmed BN, Rahman S, Nahar N, Kenah E, Comer JA, Ksiazek TG (2006) Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis 12(12):1888–1894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Luby SP, Gurley ES, Hossain MJ (2009a) Transmission of human infection with Nipah virus. Clin Infect Dis 49(11):1743–1748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Luby SP, Hossain MJ, Gurley ES, Ahmed BN, Banu S, Khan SU, Homaira N, Rota PA, Rollin PE, Comer JA, Kenah E, Ksiazek TG, Rahman M (2009b) Recurrent zoonotic transmission of Nipah virus into humans, Bangladesh, 2001–2007. Emerg Infect Dis 15(8):1229–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marra MA, Jones SJ, Astell CR, Holt RA, Brooks-Wilson A, Butterfield YS, Khattra J, Asano JK, Barber SA, Chan SY, Cloutier A, Coughlin SM, Freeman D, Girn N, Griffith OL, Leach SR, Mayo M, McDonald H, Montgomery SB, Pandoh PK, Petrescu AS, Robertson AG, Schein JE, Siddiqui A, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Yang GS, Plummer F, Andonov A, Artsob H, Bastien N, Bernard K, Booth TF, Bowness D, Czub M, Drebot M, Fernando L, Flick R, Garbutt M, Gray M, Grolla A, Jones S, Feldmann H, Meyers A, Kabani A, Li Y, Normand S, Stroher U, Tipples GA, Tyler S, Vogrig R, Ward D, Watson B, Brunham RC, Krajden M, Petric M, Skowronski DM, Upton C, Roper RL (2003) The genome sequence of the SARS-associated coronavirus. Science 300(5624):1399–1404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marsh GA, Todd S, Foord A, Hansson E, Davies K, Wright L, Morrissy C, Halpin K, Middleton D, Field HE, Daniels P, Wang LF (2010) Genome sequence conservation of Hendra virus isolates during spillover to horses, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 16(11):1767–1769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Middleton DJ, Morrissy CJ, van der Heide BM, Russell GM, Braun MA, Westbury HA, Halpin K, Daniels PW (2007) Experimental Nipah virus infection in pteropid bats (Pteropus poliocephalus). J Comp Pathol 136(4):266–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Montgomery JM, Hossain MJ, Gurley E, Carroll GD, Croisier A, Bertherat E, Asgari N, Formenty P, Keeler N, Comer J, Bell MR, Akram K, Molla AR, Zaman K, Islam MR, Wagoner K, Mills JN, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Breiman RF (2008) Risk factors for Nipah virus encephalitis in Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis 14(10):1526–1532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mounts AW, Kaur H, Parashar UD, Ksiazek TG, Cannon D, Arokiasamy JT, Anderson LJ, Lye MS, Nipah Virus Nosocomial Study Group (2001) A cohort study of health care workers to assess nosocomial transmissibility of Nipah virus, Malaysia, 1999. J Infect Dis 183(5):810–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Murray K, Selleck P, Hooper P, Hyatt A, Gould A, Gleeson L, Westbury H, Hiley L, Selvey L, Rodwell B (1995) A morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans. Science 268(5207):94–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Normile D, Enserink M (2003) SARS in China. Tracking the roots of a killer. Science 301(5631):297–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. O’Sullivan JD, Allworth AM, Paterson DL, Snow TM, Boots R, Gleeson LJ, Gould AR, Hyatt AD, Bradfield J (1997) Fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses. Lancet 349(9045):93–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Paton NI, Leo YS, Zaki SR, Auchus AP, Lee KE, Ling AE, Chew SK, Ang B, Rollin PE, Umapathi T, Sng I, Lee CC, Lim E, Ksiazek TG (1999) Outbreak of Nipah-virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore. Lancet 354(9186):1253–1256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Philbey AW, Kirkland PD, Ross AD, Davis RJ, Gleeson AB, Love RJ, Daniels PW, Gould AR, Hyatt AD (1998) An apparently new virus (family Paramyxoviridae) infectious for pigs, humans, and fruit bats. Emerg Infect Dis 4(2):269–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Playford EG, McCall B, Smith G, Slinko V, Allen G, Smith I, Moore F, Taylor C, Kung YH, Field H (2010) Human Hendra virus encephalitis associated with equine outbreak, Australia, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis 16(2):219–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Plowright RK, Foley P, Field HE, Dobson AP, Foley JE, Eby P, Daszak P (2011) Urban habituation, ecological connectivity and epidemic dampening: the emergence of Hendra virus from flying foxes (Pteropus spp.). Proc Biol Sci 278(1725):3703–3712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pulliam JR, Epstein JH, Dushoff J, Rahman SA, Bunning M, Jamaluddin AA, Hyatt AD, Field HE, Dobson AP, Daszak P, Henipavirus Ecology Research Group (HERG) (2012) Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis. J R Soc Interface 9(66):89–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rahman SA, Hassan SS, Olival KJ, Mohamed M, Chang LY, Hassan L, Saad NM, Shohaimi SA, Mamat ZC, Naim MS, Epstein JH, Suri AS, Field HE, Daszak P, Henipavirus Ecology Research Group (2010) Characterization of Nipah virus from naturally infected Pteropus vampyrus bats, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis 16(12):1990–1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Riley S, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Abu-Raddad LJ, Hedley AJ, Leung GM, Ho LM, Lam TH, Thach TQ, Chau P, Chan KP, Lo SV, Leung PY, Tsang T, Ho W, Lee KH, Lau EM, Ferguson NM, Anderson RM (2003) Transmission dynamics of the etiological agent of SARS in Hong Kong: impact of public health interventions. Science 300(5627):1961–1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rota PA, Oberste MS, Monroe SS, Nix WA, Campagnoli R, Icenogle JP, Peñaranda S, Bankamp B, Maher K, Chen MH, Tong S, Tamin A, Lowe L, Frace M, DeRisi JL, Chen Q, Wang D, Erdman DD, Peret TC, Burns C, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Sanchez A, Liffick S, Holloway B, Limor J, McCaustland K, Olsen-Rasmussen M, Fouchier R, Günther S, Osterhaus AD, Drosten C, Pallansch MA, Anderson LJ, Bellini WJ (2003) Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science 300(5624):1394–1399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sohayati AR, Hassan L, Sharifah SH, Lazarus K, Zaini CM, Epstein JH, Shamsyul Naim N, Field HE, Arshad SS, Abdul Aziz J, Daszak P, Henipavirus Ecology Research Group (2011) Evidence for Nipah virus recrudescence and serological patterns of captive Pteropus vampyrus. Epidemiol Infect 139(10):1570–1579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Song HD, Tu CC, Zhang GW, Wang SY, Zheng K, Lei LC, Chen QX, Gao YW, Zhou HQ, Xiang H, Zheng HJ, Chern SW, Cheng F, Pan CM, Xuan H, Chen SJ, Luo HM, Zhou DH, Liu YF, He JF, Qin PZ, Li LH, Ren YQ, Liang WJ, Yu YD, Anderson L, Wang M, Xu RH, Wu XW, Zheng HY, Chen JD, Liang G, Gao Y, Liao M, Fang L, Jiang LY, Li H, Chen F, Di B, He LJ, Lin JY, Tong S, Kong X, Du L, Hao P, Tang H, Bernini A, Yu XJ, Spiga O, Guo ZM, Pan HY, He WZ, Manuguerra JC, Fontanet A, Danchin A, Niccolai N, Li YX, Wu CI, Zhao GP (2005) Cross-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(7):2430–2435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stone R (2011) Breaking the chain in Bangladesh. Science 331(6021):1128–1131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Streicker DG, Turmelle AS, Vonhof MJ, Kuzmin IV, McCracken GF, Rupprecht CE (2010) Host phylogeny constrains cross-species emergence and establishment of rabies virus in bats. Science 329(5992):676–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Swanepoel R, Smit SB, Rollin PE, Formenty P, Leman PA, Kemp A, Burt FJ, Grobbelaar AA, Croft J, Bausch DG, Zeller H, Leirs H, Braack LE, Libande ML, Zaki S, Nichol ST, Ksiazek TG, Paweska JT, International Scientific and Technical Committee for Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever Control in the Democratic Republic of Congo (2007) Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus. Emerg Infect Dis 13(12):1847–1851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tong S, Li Y, Rivailler P, Conrardy C, Castillo DA, Chen LM, Recuenco S, Ellison JA, Davis CT, York IA, Turmelle AS, Moran D, Rogers S, Shi M, Tao Y, Weil MR, Tang K, Rowe LA, Sammons S, Xu X, Frace M, Lindblade KA, Cox NJ, Anderson LJ, Rupprecht CE, Donis RO (2012) A distinct lineage of influenza a virus from bats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(11):4269–4274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Wommack KE, Colwell RR (2000) Virioplankton: viruses in aquatic ecosystems. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64(1):69–114Google Scholar
  64. Wong KT, Ong KC (2011) Pathology of acute henipavirus infection in humans and animals. Patholog Res Int 2011:567248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Yaiw KC, Crameri G, Wang L, Chong HT, Chua KB, Tan CT, Goh KJ, Shamala D, Wong KT (2007) Serological evidence of possible human infection with Tioman virus, a newly described paramyxovirus of bat origin. J Infect Dis 196(6):884–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yob JM, Field H, Rashdi AM, Morrissy C, van der Heide B, Rota P, bin Adzhar A, White J, Daniels P, Jamaluddin A, Ksiazek T (2001) Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis 7(3):439–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Young PL, Halpin K, Selleck PW, Field H, Gravel JL, Kelly MA, Mackenzie JS (1996) Serologic evidence for the presence in Pteropus bats of a paramyxovirus related to equine morbillivirus. Emerg Infect Dis 2(3):239–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yuan J, Hon CC, Li Y, Wang D, Xu G, Zhang H, Zhou P, Poon LL, Lam TT, Leung FC, Shi Z (2010) Intraspecies diversity of SARS-like coronaviruses in Rcbvhinolophus sinicus and its implications for the origin of SARS coronaviruses in humans. J Gen Virol 91:1058–1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BioAnalytical Science Department, Food and Health MicrobiologyNestlé Research Centre, Nestlé LtdLausanne 26Switzerland

Personalised recommendations