Lime Mortar with Natural Hydraulic Components: Characterisation of Reaction Rims with FTIR Imaging in ATR-Mode

  • Anja Diekamp
  • Roland Stalder
  • Jürgen Konzett
  • Peter W. Mirwald
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 7)

Abstract

Reaction rims of natural hydraulic relicts in historic mortars were investigated using a novel technology; a FTIR-spectrometer equipped with a focal plane array detector enabling in ATR-mode IR imaging with a spatial resolution of 1.0 μm. IR spectra show two regions with main absorption bands at 1,280–1,580 cm−1 and 900–1,120 cm−1. Bands at 1,450 and 1,396 cm−1 correspond to the asymmetric stretching of CO 3 2− , indicating two different forms of CaCO3; the 900–1,120 cm−1 group of bands is assigned to Si-O stretching vibrations indicating C–S–H phases. The ratio of the integral absorbance of these two main regions of absorption bands shows an inhomogeneous spatial distribution in the reaction rim. From this variation we conclude that the reaction rims consist of areas containing both calcite and aragonite in addition to C–S–H phases and areas containing aragonite and C–S–H phases, the latter with a lower Ca/Si ratio and a higher degree of polymerization. SiO2 gel is present in both areas.

Keywords

Calcium Silicate Hydrate Focal Plane Array Lower Wave Number Polished Thin Section Lime Mortar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

This study was carried out within the framework an EU-Interreg project entitled “Interdisciplinary investigations of selected monuments as key examples for optimized planning of conservation measures” and a national project entitled “Historic building materials in Tyrol”. The funding for these projects, provided by the EU, the Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture, the state of Tyrol and the Autonomous Province of Bolzano – South Tyrol is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Lindqvist, J.E., Johansson, S.: Sub-hydraulic binders in historic mortars. In: Groot, C. (ed.) Repairs Mortars for Historic Masonry. RILEM Proceedings pro067, pp. 224–230, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L. France (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Richardson, I.G.: The calcium silicate hydrates. Cement Concr. Res. 38, 137–158 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rilem TC 203-RHM: Repair mortars for historic masonry. Testing of hardened mortars, a process of questioning and interpreting. Mater. Struct. 42, 853–865 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Middendorf, B., Hughes, J.J., Callebaut, K., Baronio, G., Papayianni, I.: Investigative methods for the characterisation of historic mortars – Part 2: Chemical characterisation. Mater. Struct. 38, 771–780 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Middendorf, B., Kraus, K., Ott, Chr.: Influence of the fines of natural sands as pozzolanic components on the interpretation of the acid soluble silica content of historic lime mortars. In: Jaffe, R.C. (ed.) Proceedings of the International Building Lime Symposium, Orlando, FL, 9–11 March 2005, p. 11. http://www.nationallime.org/IBLS05Papers/Middendorf_Influence.pdf (2005). Accessed 1 June 2010
  6. 6.
    Blaeuer, C., Kueng, A.: Examples of microscopic analysis of historic mortars by means of polarising light microscopy of dispersions and thin sections. Mater. Charact. 58, 1199–1207 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P., Bakolas, A., Moropoulou, A.: Physico-chemical study of Cretan ancient mortars. Cement Concr. Res. 33(5), 651–661 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bakolas, A., Biscontin, G., Contardi, V., Franceschi, E., Moropoulou, A., Palazzi, D., Zendri, E.: Thermoanalytical research on traditional mortars in Venice. Thermochim. Acta 269(270), 817–828 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Diekamp, A., Konzett, J., Wertl, W., Tessadri, R., Mirwald, P.W.: Dolomitic lime mortar – a commonly used building material for medieval buildings in Western Austria and Northern Italy. In: Lukaszewicz, J.W., Niemcewicz, P. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, vol. I, pp. 597–604, 15–20 September 2008, Torun, Poland (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Elsen, J.: Microscopy of historic mortars – a review. Cement Concr. Res. 36, 1416–1424 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elsen, J., Brutsaert, A., Deckers, M., Brulet, R.: Microscopical study of ancient mortars from Tournai (Belgium). Mater. Charact. 53, 289–294 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Diekamp, A., Konzett, J., Bidner, T., Mirwald, P.W.: Kalkmörtel und Kalkputz in Tirol. In: Bläuer-Böhm, C., Zehnder, K. (eds.) Eurolime Newsletter No. 4; Proceedings of the 4th International Eurolime Meeting, 4–6 August 2005, Freilichtmuseum Ballenberg, Schweiz (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Joseph, E., Prati, S., Sciutto, G., Ioele, M., Santopadre, P., Mazzeo, R.: Performance evaluation of mapping and linear imaging FTIR microspectroscopy for the characterisation of paint cross sections. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 396, 899–910 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Andersen, F.A., Brecevic, L.: Infrared spectra of amorphous and crystalline calcium carbonate. Acta. Chem. Scand. 45, 1018–1024 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yu, P., Kirkpatrick, R.J., Poe, B., McMillan, P.F., Cong, X.: Structure of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C–S–H): near-, mid-, and far-infrared spectroscopy. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 742–748 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Downs, R.T.: The RRUFF Project: an integrated study of the chemistry, crystallography, Raman and infrared spectroscopy of minerals. Program and Abstracts of the 19th General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association in Kobe, Japan, pp. 3–13. http://rruff.info (2006). Accessed 1 June 2010
  17. 17.
    Black, L., Breen, C., Yarwood, J., Garbev, K., Stemmermann, P., Gasharova, B.: Structural features of C–S–H(I) and its carbonation in air – a Raman spectroscopic study. Part II: carbonated phases. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 908–917 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anja Diekamp
    • 1
  • Roland Stalder
    • 1
  • Jürgen Konzett
    • 1
  • Peter W. Mirwald
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Mineralogy and PetrographyUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations