Communal Values and Individualism in Our Era of Globalization: A Comparative Longitudinal Study of Three Different Societies

  • Hilde Eileen Nafstad
  • Rolv Mikkel Blakar
  • Albert Botchway
  • Erlend Sand Bruer
  • Petra Filkukova
  • Kim Rand-Hendriksen
Chapter
Part of the Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology book series (CAPP, volume 3)

Abstract

Ideologies shape people’s belief systems about what constitutes a good life and well-being and how to navigate between considerations of own well-being versus the well-being of others. In every culture, there is a powerful set of ideals about collectivism and individualism, and societies have to find a balance between individual independence and collective interdependence. Based on its own local historical and cultural traditions, every society has to negotiate its own balance between individual and communal values. Conceptions of what makes a good life have thus, in essential and fundamental ways, to consider both individual autonomy and personal growth and the individual’s partaking in developing, upholding, and maintaining his or her community. Conceiving globalization as an ideology or worldview, as a system of ideas and values circulating in the public realm influencing societies worldwide thereby defining and articulating local values and visions for social change, this study analyzes the influences of globalization on communal values and sense of community as reflected in language usage in public discourses (newspapers) in three different societies: a post-communist East European republic (the Czech Republic), a Nordic welfare state (Norway), and a modern West African society (Ghana).

Keywords

Czech Republic Boolean Function Developmental Pattern Developmental Trend Civic Virtue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agnew, H. L. (2008). Češi a země Koruny české. [Czechs and the lands of the Bohemian Crown]. Praha: Academia.Google Scholar
  2. Akotia, C. S., & Barimah, K. B. (2007). History of community psychology in Ghana. In S. M. Reich, M. Riemer, I. Prilleltensky, & M. Montero (Eds.), International community psychology. History and theories (pp. 407–414). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akotia, C. S., & Olowu, A. (2000). Toward an African-centered psychology: Voices of continental African Psychologists. Paper presented at the 32nd convention of the Association of Black Psychologists, August 2000.Google Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. J. (2002). The psychology of globalization. American Psychologist, 57, 774–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aryeetey, E., Harrigan, J., & Nissanke, M. (2000). Economic reforms in Ghana: The miracle and the mirage. Trenton: Africa World Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bakhtin, M. M. (1952/1986). Speech genres and other late essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  7. Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question. Toward a social-psychological answer. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. Bauman, Z. (2000). Liquid modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  9. Billig, M. (1997). Discursive, rhetorical, and ideological messages. In C. McGarty & S. A. Haslam (Eds.), The message of social psychology (pp. 36–53). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Blakar, R. M. (1973/2006). Språk er makt. Oslo: Pax.Google Scholar
  11. Blakar, R. M. (1979). Language as a means of social power. Theoretical-empirical explorations of language and language use as embedded in a social matrix. In J. L. Mey (Ed.), Pragmalinguistics. Theory and practice (pp. 131–169). The Hague: Mouton Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Carlquist, E., Nafstad, H. E., & Blakar, R. M. (2007). Community psychology in a traditional Scandinavian welfare society: The case of Norway. In S. Reich, M. Riemer, I. Prilleltensky, & M. Montero (Eds.), International community psychology: History and theories (pp. 282–298). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chryssochoou, X. (2004). Cultural diversity. Its social psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  14. Delle Fave, A., Massimini, F., & Bassi, M. (2011). Psychological selection and optimal experience across cultures. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  16. Hermans, H. J. M., & Kempen, H. J. G. (1998). Moving cultures. The perilous problems of cultural dichotomies in a globalizing society. American Psychologist, 53, 1111–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoffman, M. L. (1975). Developmental synthesis of affect and cognition and its implications for altruistic motivation. Developmental Psychology, 11, 607–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and moral development. Implications for caring and justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software in the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  20. Kroskrity, P. V. (Ed.). (2000). Regimes of language. Ideologies, polities, and identities. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  21. Lyons, J. (1968). An introduction to theoretical linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mutz, D. C. (1998). Impersonal influence. How perceptions of mass collectives affect political attitudes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nafstad, H. E. (2002). The neo-liberal ideology and the self-interest paradigm as resistance to change. Radical Psychology, 3, 3–21.Google Scholar
  24. Nafstad, H. E. (2005). Assumptions and values in the production of knowledge: Towards an area ethics of psychology and the social sciences. In S. Robinson & C. Katulushi (Eds.), Values in higher education (pp. 150–158). Vale of Glamorgan: Aureus Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Nafstad, H. E., Carlquist, E., Aasen, I. S., & Blakar, R. M. (2006). Assumptions in psychology and ideological shifts in society: A challenge for positive psychology. In A. Delle Fave (Ed.), Dimensions of well-being. Research and interventions (pp. 512–528). Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  26. Nafstad, H. E., Blakar, R. M., Carlquist, E., Phelps, J. M., & Rand-Hendriksen, K. (2007). Societal ideology and power: The influence of current neo-liberalism. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 17, 313–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nafstad, H. E., Blakar, R. M., Carlquist, E., Phelps, J. M., & Rand-Hendriksen, K. (2009a). Globalization, neo-liberalism and community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 43, 162–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nafstad, H. E., Blakar, R. M., Botchway, A., & Rand-Hendriksen, K. (2009b). Globalization, ideologies and well-being: A study of a West-African and a North-European society. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 305–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nafstad, H. E., Blakar, R. M., & Rand-Hendriksen, K. (2009c). The spirit of society and the virtue of gratitude: Shifting societal ideologies of gratitude. In T. Freire (Ed.), Understanding positive life. Research and practice on positive psychology (pp. 291–312). Lisboa: Climepsi Editores.Google Scholar
  30. Nafstad, H. E., Carlquist, E., & Blakar, R. M. (2012). Towards a psychology for a humankind and a planet under multiple threats: A social psychology of ideology. In J. P. Valentim (Ed.). Societal approaches in social psychology. Bern: Peter Lang Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Pennebaker, J. W., Mehl, M. R., & Niederhoffer, K. G. (2003). Psychological aspects of natural language use: Our words, our selves. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 547–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Rand-Hendriksen, K. (2008). Ideological changes measured through changes in language: Development, description and preliminary validation of a new archival method. Master thesis, University of Oslo, Oslo.Google Scholar
  34. Rommetveit, R. (1968). Words, meanings and messages. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  35. Rommetveit, R., & Blakar, R. M. (1979). Studies of language, thought and verbal communication. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  36. Ryan, R. M., Chirkov, V. I., Little, T. D., Sheldon, K. M., Timoshina, E., & Deci, E. L. (1999). The American dream in Russia: Extrinsic aspirations and well-being in two cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1509–1524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sampson, E. E. (1981). Cognitive psychology as ideology. American Psychologist, 36, 730–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Silverstein, M. (1985). Language and the culture of gender: At the intersection of structure, usage and ideology. In E. Mertz & R. J. Parmentier (Eds.), Semiotic mediation: Sociocultural and psychological perspectives (pp. 219–259). Orlando: Academic.Google Scholar
  39. Skrbis, Z., Kendall, G., & Woodward, I. (2004). Locating cosmopolitanism. Between humanist ideal and grounded social theory. Theory, Culture & Society, 21, 115–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stiglitz, J. E. (2002). Globalization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  41. Švejnar, J., & Hvížďala, K. (2008). Kam kráčíš, Česko? [Where do you go, Czechia?] Praha: Rybka Publishers.Google Scholar
  42. Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (1998). Mixed methodology. Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  43. Triandis, H. C. (1990). Cross-cultural studies of individualism and collectivism. In J. Berman (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1989 (pp. 41–133). Lincoln: University of Nebraska.Google Scholar
  44. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  45. Triandis, H. C., & Trafimow, D. (2001). Cross-national prevalence of collectivism. In C. Sedikides & M. B. Brewer (Eds.), Individual self, relational self, collective self (pp. 259–276). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  46. van Dijk, T. A. (1998). Ideology: A multidisciplinary approach. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  47. Wilson, R. W. (1992). Compliance ideologies. Rethinking political culture. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilde Eileen Nafstad
    • 1
  • Rolv Mikkel Blakar
    • 2
  • Albert Botchway
    • 3
  • Erlend Sand Bruer
    • 2
  • Petra Filkukova
    • 2
  • Kim Rand-Hendriksen
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Centre for the Study of Mind in Nature (CSMN)University of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.Department of PsychologySouthern Illinois University at CarbondaleOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of Health Management and Health Economics Medical FacultyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations