Mechanical Properties of Materials

Volume 190 of the series Solid Mechanics and Its Applications pp 195-257


Strengthening Mechanisms

  • Joshua PellegAffiliated withMaterials Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev

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The strengthening of materials is of great importance for engineering applications. Construction parts are designed not only to endure the anticipated forces, which are intentionally applied (those they are expected to withstand while in service), but also any sudden, short-duration forces that might cause catastrophic failure, if not taken into account. In order to avoid the probability of such failure, liberal safety factors are generally adopted by designers. Their approach is to strengthen materials beyond the magnitude which would be sufficient to prevent failure, even if a steady force was exerted during the entire period of their use. This extra strength value constitutes the safety factor required for ensuring the safe use of a construction part, even in the event that a sudden force of larger magnitude appeared during service. There are several mechanisms by which materials may be strengthened, listed below: