Gender and Mental Health

Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Men and women experience different kinds of mental health problems. While women exceed men in internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety, men exhibit more externalizing disorders such as substance abuse and antisocial behavior, which are problematic for others. These differences also vary by race and social class: for example, African Americans possess better mental health and, thus, a smaller gender gap in psychiatric problems. What explains these differences? We concentrate on conceptions of gender and gender practices. Research on gender and mental health suggests that conceptions of masculinity and femininity affect major risk factors for internalizing and externalizing problems, including the stressors men and women are exposed to, the coping strategies they use, the social relationships they engage in, and the personal resources and vulnerabilities they develop. This chapter investigates explanations in these areas for gender differences both in general and by race and class.

Keywords

gender mental health race stress coping schemas personal resources 

References

  1. Adrian, M. (2002). A critical perspective on cross-cultural contexts for addiction and multiculturalism: Their meanings and implications in the substance use field. Substance Use & Misuse, 37, 853–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association, Task Force on Resilience and Strength in Black Children and Adolescents. (2008). Resilience in African American children and adolescents: A vision for optimal development. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/cyf/resilience.html
  3. Anderson, E. (1990). Streetwise: Race, class, and change in an urban community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  5. Avison, W. R., & McAlpine, D. D. (1992). Gender differences in symptoms of depression among adolescents. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 77–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banaji, M. R., & Prentice, D. A. (1994). The self in social contexts. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 297–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benson, M. L., Wooldredge, J., Thistlethwaite, A. B., & Fox, G. L. (2004). The correlation between race and domestic violence is confounded with community context. Social Problems, 51, 326–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Billingsley, A. (1992). Climbing Jacob’s ladder: The enduring legacy of African-American families. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  9. Bird, C. E. (1999). Gender, household labor, and psychological distress: The impact of the amount and division of housework. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 32–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bjorck, J. P., Cuthbertson, W., Thurman, J. W., & Lee, Y. S. (2001). Ethnicity, coping, and distress among Korean Americans, Filipino Americans, and Caucasian Americans. Journal of Social Psychology, 141, 421–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blee, K. M., & Tickamyer, A. R. (1995). Racial differences in men’s attitudes about women’s gender roles. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Breslau, J., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Kendler, K. S., Su, M., Williams, D., & Kessler, R. C. (2005). Specifying race-ethnic differences in risk for psychiatric disorder in a USA national sample. Psychological Medicine, 36, 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Broman, C. L. (2005). Marital quality in black and white marriages. Journal of Family Issues, 26, 431–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, D. R., Eaton, W. W., & Sussman, L. (1990). Racial differences in prevalence of phobic disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178, 434–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. (1978). Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, T. L., Phillips, C. M., Abdullah, T., Vinson, E., & Robertson, J. (2011). Dispositional versus situational coping: Are the coping strategies African Americans use different for general versus racism-related stressors? Journal of Black Psychology, 37, 311–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Browne, I., & Misra, J. (2003). The intersection of gender and race in the labor market. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 487–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cancian, F. M., & Oliker, S. J. (2000). Caring and gender. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  19. Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 1185–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carter, J. S., Corra, M., & Carter, S. K. (2009). The interaction of race and gender: Changing gender-role attitudes, 1974–2006. Social Science Quarterly, 90, 196–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carter, P., Sellers, S. L., & Squires, C. (2002). Reflections on race/ethnicity, class and gender inclusive research. African American Research Perspectives, 8, 111–124.Google Scholar
  22. Cassidy, G. L., & Davies, L. (2003). Explaining gender differences in mastery among married parents. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66, 48–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Jayakody, R. (1994). Fictive kinship relations in black extended families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 25, 297–312.Google Scholar
  24. Choo, H. Y., & Ferree, M. M. (2010). Practicing intersectionality in sociological research: A critical analysis of inclusions, interactions, and institutions in the study of inequalities. Sociological Theory, 28, 129–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coates, D. L. (1987). Gender differences in the structure and support characteristics of black adolescents’ social networks. Sex Roles, 17, 667–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen, P. N., & Huffman, M. L. (2003). Individuals, jobs, and labor markets: The devaluation of women’s work. American Sociological Review, 68, 443–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coker, A. L., Smith, P. H., McKeown, R. E., & King, M. J. (2000). Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type: Physical, sexual, and psychological battering. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 553–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cole, E. R., & Zucker, A. N. (2007). Black and white women’s perspectives on femininity. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coles, T. (2009). Negotiating the field of masculinity: The production and reproduction of multiple dominant masculinities. Men and Masculinities, 12, 30–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Collins, P. H. (1994). Shifting the center: Race, class, and feminist theorizing about motherhood. In E. N. Glenn, G. Chang, & L. R. Forcey (Eds.), Mothering: Ideology, experience, and agency (pp. 45–66). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Compas, B. E., Orosan, P. G., & Grant, K. E. (1993). Adolescent stress and coping: Implications for psychopathology during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 331–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Connell, R. W. (1990). An iron man: The body and some contradictions of hegemonic masculinity. In M. A. Messner & D. F. Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men, and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 83–95). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  33. Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  34. Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender and Society, 19, 829–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Constantine, M. G., Alleyne, V. L., Wallace, B. C., & Franklin-Jackson, D. C. (2006). Africentric cultural values: Their relation to positive mental health in African American adolescent girls. Journal of Black Psychology, 32, 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cooper, M. (2000). Being the “Go-To Guy”: Fatherhood, masculinity, and the organization of work in Silicon Valley. Qualitative Sociology, 23, 379–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Copeland, E. P., & Hess, R. S. (1995). Differences in young adolescents’ coping strategies based on gender and ethnicity. Journal of Early Adolescence, 15, 203–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cotter, D. A., Hermsen, J. M., & Vanneman, R. (2011). End of the gender revolution. Retrieved July 24, 2011, from http://www.bsos.umd.edu/socy/vanneman/endofgr/default.html
  39. Day, A. L., & Livingstone, H. A. (2003). Gender differences in perceptions of stressors and utilization of social support among university students. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 35, 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. De Coster, S., & Heimer, K. (2006). Crime at the intersections: Race, class, gender, and violent offending. In R. D. Peterson, L. J. Krivo, & J. Hagan (Eds.), The many colors of crime: Inequalities of race, ethnicity, and crime in America (pp. 138–156). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  41. di Leonardo, M. (1987). The female world of cards and holidays: Women, families, and the work of kinship. Signs, 12, 440–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Duneier, M. (1992). Slim’s table: Race, respectability, and masculinity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. Elliott, M. (2001). Gender differences in causes of depression. Women & Health, 33, 163–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. England, P. (2010). The gender revolution: Uneven and stalled. Gender and Society, 24, 149–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. England, P., Allison, P., & Wu, Y. (2007). Does bad pay cause occupations to feminize, does feminization reduce pay, and how can we tell with longitudinal data? Social Science Research, 36, 1237–1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. England, P., & Folbre, N. (2005). Gender and economic sociology. In N. J. Smelser & R. Swedberg (Eds.), The handbook of economic sociology (pp. 627–649). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  47. Flax, J. (1993). Disputed subjects: Essays on psychoanalysis, politics, and philosophy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Franko, D. L., Striegel-Moore, R. H., Brown, K. M., Barton, B. A., McMahon, R. P., & Schreiber, G. B. (2004). Expanding our understanding of the relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms in black and white adolescent girls. Psychological Medicine, 34, 1319–1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fuhrer, R., & Stansfeld, S. A. (2002). How gender affects patterns of social relations and their impact on health: A comparison of one or multiple sources of support from “close persons”. Social Science & Medicine, 54, 811–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gerstel, N., & Gross, H. E. (1989). Women and the American family: Continuity and change. In J. Freeman (Ed.), Women: A feminist perspective (3rd ed., pp. 89–120). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  51. Gerstel, N., Riessman, C. K., & Rosenfield, S. (1985). Explaining the symptomatology of separated and divorced women and men: The role of material conditions and social networks. Social Forces, 64, 84–101.Google Scholar
  52. Goodwin, P. Y. (2003). African American and European American women’s marital well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 550–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gore, S., Aseltine, R. H., & Colten, M. E. (1993). Gender, social-relational involvement, and depression. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 3, 101–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Greenstein, T. N. (2000). Economic dependence, gender, and the division of labor in the home: A replication and extension. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 322–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Guisinger, S., & Blatt, S. (1994). Individuality and relatedness: Evolution of a fundamental dialectic. American Psychologist, 49, 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hagan, J. (1991). Destiny and drift: Subcultural preferences, status attainments, and the risks and rewards of youth. American Sociological Review, 56, 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Haines, V. A., & Hurlbert, J. S. (1992). Network range and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 254–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hänninen, V., & Arob, H. (1996). Sex differences in coping and depression among young adults. Social Science & Medicine, 43, 1453–1460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Harris, A. C. (1996). African American and Anglo-American gender identities: An empirical study. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 182–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris, I., Torres, J. B., & Allender, D. (1994). The responses of African American men to dominant norms of masculinity within the United States. Sex Roles, 31, 703–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harris, K. M., Edlund, M. J., & Larson, S. (2005). Racial and ethnic differences in the mental health problems and use of mental health care. Medical Care, 43, 775–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harris, R. J., & Firestone, J. M. (1998). Changes in predictors of gender role ideologies among women: A multivariate analysis. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 38, 239–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Harter, S. (1999). The construction of the self: A developmental perspective. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  64. Hatch, S. L., & Dohrenwend, B. P. (2007). Distribution of traumatic and other stressful life events by race/ethnicity, gender, SES and age: A review of the research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 313–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hegewisch, A., Liepmann, H., Hayes, J., & Hartmann, H. (2010, September). Separate and not equal? Gender segregation in the labor market and the gender wage gap (Briefing Paper No. IWPR C377). Washington, DC: Institute for Women’s Policy Research.Google Scholar
  66. Heimer, K. (1995). Gender, race, and the pathways to delinquency: An interactionist explanation. In J. Hagan & R. D. Peterson (Eds.), Crime and inequality (pp. 140–173). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Heimer, K., & De Coster, S. (1999). The gendering of violent delinquency. Criminology, 37, 277–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hill, S. A. (2002). Teaching and doing gender in African American families. Sex Roles, 47, 493–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hill, S. A., & Sprague, J. (1999). Parenting in black and white families: The interaction of gender with race and class. Gender and Society, 13, 480–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hirschfeld, R., Klerman, G. L., Chodoff, P., Korchin, S., & Barrett, J. (1976). Dependency-self-esteem-clinical depression. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 4, 373–388.Google Scholar
  71. Hunter, A. G., & Davis, J. E. (1992). Constructing gender: An exploration of Afro-American men’s conceptualization of manhood. Gender and Society, 6, 464–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hunter, A. G., & Sellers, S. L. (1998). Feminist attitudes among African American women and men. Gender and Society, 12, 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jackson, P. B., & Mustillo, S. (2001). I am woman: The impact of social identities on African American women’s mental health. Women & Health, 32, 33–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Josephs, R. A., Markus, H. R., & Tafarodi, R. W. (1992). Gender and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 391–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kane, E. (2000). Racial and ethnic variations in gender-related attitudes. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 419–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Keith, P. (2004). Resources, family ties, and well-being of never-married men and women. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 42, 51–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kessler, R. C. (2003). Epidemiology of women and depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 74, 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kessler, R. C., & McLeod, J. D. (1984). Sex differences in vulnerability to life events. American Sociological Review, 49, 620–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kessler, R. C., McLeod, J. D., & Wethington, E. (1985). The costs of caring: A perspective on the relationship between sex and psychological distress. In I. G. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds.), Social support: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 491–506). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nihjoff.Google Scholar
  80. Kibria, N. (1990). Power, patriarchy, and gender conflict in the Vietnamese immigrant community. Gender and Society, 4, 9–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kiecolt, K. J., Hughes, M., & Keith, V. M. (2008). Race, social relationships, and mental health. Personal Relationships, 15, 229–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kiecolt, K. J., Hughes, M., & Keith, V. M. (2009). Can a high sense of control and John Henryism be bad for mental health? Sociological Quarterly, 50, 693–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kim, H. K., & McKenry, P. C. (1998). Social networks and support: A comparison of African Americans, Asian Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 313–334.Google Scholar
  84. Kohn, L. P., & Hudson, K. M. (2002). Gender, ethnicity and depression: Intersectionality and context in mental health research with African American women. African American Research Perspectives, 8, 174–184.Google Scholar
  85. Kronenfeld, J. J. (1999). Gender and health status. In J. S. Chafetz (Ed.), Handbook of the sociology of gender (pp. 459–481). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  86. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  87. Lee, J., Lei, A., & Sue, S. (2001). The current state of mental health research on Asian Americans. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 3, 159–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lennon, M. C., & Limonic, L. (2009). Work and unemployment as stressors. In T. L. Scheid & T. N. Brown (Eds.), A handbook for the study of mental health: Social contexts, theories, and systems (2nd ed., pp. 213–225). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lennon, M. C., & Rosenfield, S. (1992). Women and mental health: The interaction of job and family conditions. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 316–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lennon, M. C., & Rosenfield, S. (1995). Relative fairness and the division of household work: The importance of options. American Journal of Sociology, 100, 506–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Levant, R. F., & Richmond, K. (2007). A review of research on masculinity ideologies using the male role norms inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15, 130–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Majors, R., & Billson, J. M. (1992). Cool pose. The dilemmas of black manhood in America. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  93. Matud, M. P. (2004). Gender differences in stress and coping styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1401–1415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McGuire, T. G., & Miranda, J. (2008). New evidence regarding racial and ethnic disparities in mental health: Policy implications. Health Affairs, 27, 393–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McLeod, J. D., & Owens, T. J. (2004). Psychological well-being in the early life course: Variations by socioeconomic status, gender, and race/ethnicity. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67, 257–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McMullin, J. A., & Cairney, J. (2004). Self-esteem and the intersection of age, class, and gender. Journal of Aging Studies, 18, 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Meyer, I. H., Schwartz, S., & Frost, D. M. (2008). Social patterning of stress and coping: Does disadvantaged social statuses confer more stress and fewer coping resources? Social Science & Medicine, 67, 368–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Milkie, M. A., & Peltola, P. (1999). Playing all the roles: Gender and the work-family balancing act. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 476–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Milkie, M., & Thoits, P. (1993, August). Gender differences in coping with positive and negative emotional experiences. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Sociological Association, Pittsburgh, PA.Google Scholar
  100. Miller, D. (1999). Racial socialization and racial identity: Can they promote resiliency for African American adolescents? Adolescence, 34, 493–501.Google Scholar
  101. Mirowsky, J. (1996). Age and the gender gap in depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 362–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. (1996). Fundamental analysis in research on well-being: Distress and the sense of control. The Gerontologist, 36, 584–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. (2003). Social causes of psychological distress (2nd ed.). New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.Google Scholar
  104. Morgan, D. (2004). Class and masculinity. In M. Kimmel, J. Hearn, & R. Connell (Eds.), Handbook of studies on men and masculinities (pp. 165–177). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  105. Mouzon, D. (2010). Can the strength of social ties explain the race paradox in mental health? Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.Google Scholar
  106. Mullings, L., & Schulz, A. J. (2006). Intersectionality and health: An introduction. In A. J. Schulz & L. Mullings (Eds.), Gender, race, class and health: Intersectional approaches (pp. 3–16). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  107. Muntaner, C., Eaton, W., Miech, R., & O’Campo, P. (2004). Socioeconomic position and major mental disorders. Epidemiologic Reviews, 26, 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nazroo, J. Y., Edwards, C., & Brown, G. W. (1997). Gender differences in the onset of depression following a shared life event: A study of couples. Psychological Medicine, 27, 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Newsom, J. T., Nishishiba, M., Morgan, D. L., & Rook, K. S. (2003). The relative importance of three domains of positive and negative social exchanges: A longitudinal model with comparable measures. Psychology and Aging, 18, 746–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990). Sex differences in depression. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., & Grayson, C. (1999). Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1061–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Norasakkunkit, V., & Kalick, S. M. (2002). Culture, ethnicity, and emotional distress measures: The role of self-construal and self-enhancement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 56–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Norris, F. H. (1992). Epidemiology of trauma: Frequency and impact of different potentially traumatic events on different demographic groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 409–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Owens, T. J., & King, A. B. (2001). Measuring self-esteem: Race, ethnicity, and gender considered. In T. J. Owens, S. Stryker, & N. Goodman (Eds.), Extending self-esteem theory and research: Sociological and psychological currents (pp. 56–84). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Patterson, O. (1998). Rituals of blood. Washington, DC: Civitas/Counterpoint.Google Scholar
  116. Pearlin, L. (1989). The sociological study of stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 241–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pearlin, L. (1999). The stress process revisited: Reflections on conceptions and their interrelationships. In C. Aneshensel & J. Phelan (Eds.), Handbook of psychiatric sociology (pp. 395–415). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  118. Pearlin, L. I. (2010). The life course and the stress process: Some conceptual comparisons. Journal of Gerontology, 65, 207–215.Google Scholar
  119. Pearlin, L., & Lieberman, M. A. (1979). Social sources of emotional distress. In R. G. Simmons (Ed.), Research in community and mental health: An annual compilation of research (Vol. 1, pp. 217–248). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  120. Pearlin, L., Nguyen, K. B., Schieman, S., & Milkie, M. (2007). The life course origins of mastery. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48, 164–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ptacek, J. T., Smith, R. E., & Dodge, K. (1994). Gender differences in coping with stress: When stressor and appraisals do not differ. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 421–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pudrovska, T., Schieman, S., Pearlin, L. I., & Nguyen, K. (2005). The sense of mastery as a mediator and moderator in the association between economic hardship and health in late life. Journal of Aging and Health, 17, 634–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pyke, K. D., & Johnson, D. L. (2003). Asian American women and racialized femininities: “Doing” gender across cultural worlds. Gender and Society, 17, 33–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ridgeway, C. L. (2009). Framed before we know it: How gender shapes social relations. Gender and Society, 23, 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Robins, R. W., & Trzesniewski, K. (2005). Self-esteem development across the lifespan. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 158–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rosario, M., Shinn, M., Morch, H., & Huckabee, C. B. (1988). Gender differences in coping and social supports: Testing socialization and role constraint theories. Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Roschelle, A. R. (1997). No more kin: Exploring race, class, and gender in family networks. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  128. Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Rosenfield, S. (1992). The costs of sharing: Wives’ employment and husbands’ mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 213–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rosenfield, S. (2012). Triple jeopardy? Mental health at the intersection of gender, race, and class [Special issue on women and health]. Social Science and Medicine 74, 1791–1801.Google Scholar
  131. Rosenfield, S., Lennon, M. C., & White, H. (2005). Mental health and the self: Self-salience and the emergence of internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 326–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rosenfield, S., Phillips, J., & White, H. (2006). Gender, race, and the self in mental health and crime. Social Problems, 53, 161–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rosenfield, S., & Smith, D. (2009). Gender and mental health: Do males and females have different amounts or types of problems? In T. L. Scheid & T. N. Brown (Eds.), A handbook for the study of mental health: Social contexts, theories, and systems (pp. 256–267). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (1992). Households, employment, and the sense of control. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (2002). Age and the gender gap in the sense of personal control. Social Psychology Quarterly, 65, 125–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Roxburgh, S. (2004). ‘There just aren’t enough hours in the day’: The mental health consequences of time pressure. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 115–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rudolph, B. A. (1997). Gender differences in adolescent depression: A consequence of exposure to adverse life circumstances and the loss of parent support. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  138. Salazar, C. F., & Abrams, L. P. (2005). Conceptualizing identity development in members of marginalized groups. Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory, and Research, 33, 47–59.Google Scholar
  139. Samaan, R. A. (2000). The influences of race, ethnicity, and poverty on the mental health of children. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 11, 100–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sarkisian, N., Gerena, M., & Gerstel, N. (2007). Extended family integration among Euro and Mexican Americans: Ethnicity, gender, and class. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 40–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sarkisian, N., & Gerstel, N. (2004). Kin support among Blacks and whites: Race and family organization. American Sociological Review, 69, 812–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schieman, S. (2002). Socioeconomic status, job conditions, and well-being: Self-concept explanations for gender-contingent effects. Sociological Quarterly, 43, 627–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schippers, M. (2007). Recovering the feminine other: Masculinity, femininity, and gender hegemony. Theory and Society, 36, 85–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Schnittker, J., & McLeod, J. D. (2005). The social psychology of health disparities. Annual Review of Sociology, 31, 75–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Schrock, D., & Schwalbe, M. (2009). Men, masculinity, and manhood acts. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 277–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Schwartz, S., & Meyer, I. H. (2010). Mental health disparities research: The impact of within and between group analyses on tests of social stress hypotheses. Social Science & Medicine, 70, 1111–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sellers, R. M., Rowley, S. A. J., Chavous, T. M., Shelton, J. N., & Smith, M. A. (1997). Multidimensional inventory of Black identity: A preliminary investigation of reliability and construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 805–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sellers, S. L., Bonham, V., Neighbors, H. W., & Amell, J. W. (1997). Effects of racial discrimination and health behaviors on mental and physical health of middle-class African American men. Health Education & Behavior, 36, 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Settles, I., Pratt-Hyatt, J., & Buchanan, N. (2008). Through the lens of race: Black and white women’s perceptions of womanhood. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 454–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Shelton, B. A., & John, D. (1993). Does marital status make a difference? Housework among married and cohabiting men and women. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 401–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Shields, S. A. (2008). Gender: An intersectionality perspective. Sex Roles, 59, 301–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Shows, C., & Gerstel, N. (2009). Fathering, class, and gender: A comparison of physicians and emergency medical technicians. Gender and Society, 23, 161–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Simon, R. W. (1995). Gender, multiple roles, role meaning, and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 182–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Simon, R. W. (1997). The meanings individuals attach to role-identities and their implications for mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38, 256–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Simon, R. W. (2002). Revisiting the relationships among gender, marital status, and mental health. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 1065–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Stack, C. B. (1983). All our kin: Strategies for survival in a black community. New York: Harper & Row (Original work published 1974).Google Scholar
  157. Strong, W. F., McQuillen, J. S., & Hughey, J. D. (1994). En el laberinto de machismo: A comparative analysis of macho attitudes among Hispanic and Anglo college students. Howard Journal of Communications, 5, 18–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Syed, M. (2010). Disciplinarity and methodology in intersectionality theory and research. American Psychologist, 65, 61–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tamres, L. K., Janicki, D., & Helgeson, V. S. (2002). Sex differences in coping behavior: A meta-analytic review and an examination of relative coping. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 2–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Tannen, D. (1996). Gender and discourse. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Taylor, J., & Turner, R. J. (2004). A longitudinal study of the role and significance of mattering to others for depressive symptoms. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 42, 310–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Taylor, R. J., & Chatters, L. M. (1988). Church members as source of informal social support. Review of Religious Research, 30, 193–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Thoits, P. A. (1992). Identity structures and psychological well-being: Gender and marital status comparisons. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 236–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Thoits, P. A. (1995). Stress, coping and social support processes: Where are we? What next? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 53–79 (Extra Issue).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Thoits, P. A. (2009). Sociological approaches to mental illness. In T. L. Scheid & T. N. Brown (Eds.), A handbook for the study of mental health: Social contexts, theories, and systems (pp. 106–124). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Thoits, P. A. (2010). Stress and health: Major findings and policy implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51, 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Tremblay, R. E., Pipl, R. O., Vitaro, F., & Dobkin, P. L. (1994). Predicting early onset of male antisocial behavior from preschool behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 732–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Turner, H. A. (1994). Gender and social support: Taking the bad with the good? Sex Roles, 30, 521–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Turner, H. A., & Turner, R. J. (1999). Gender, social status, and emotional reliance. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 360–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Turner, H. A., & Turner, R. J. (2005). Understanding variations in exposure to social stress. Health, 9, 209–240.Google Scholar
  171. Turner, R. J. (2010). Understanding health disparities: The promise of the stress process model. In W. R. Avison, C. S. Aneshensel, S. Schieman, & B. Wheaton (Eds.), Advances in the conceptualization and study of the stress process: Essays in honor of Leonard I. Pearlin (pp. 3–21). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  172. Turner, R. J., & Avison, W. R. (2003). Status variations in stress exposure among young adults: Implications for the interpretation of prior research. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44, 488–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Turner, R. J., & Gil, A. G. (2002). Psychiatric and substance use disorder in South Florida: Racial/ethnic and gender contrasts in a young adult cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Turner, R. J., & Lloyd, D. A. (1995). Lifetime traumas and mental health: The significance of cumulative adversity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 360–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Turner, R. J., & Lloyd, D. A. (2004). Stress burden and the lifetime incidence of psychiatric disorder in young adults racial and ethnic contrasts. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 481–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Turner, R. J., & Marino, F. (1994). Social support and social structure: A descriptive epidemiology. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 235, 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Turner, R. J., & Roszell, P. (1994). Psychosocial resources and the stress process. In W. R. Avison & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Stress and mental health: Contemporary issues and prospects for the future (pp. 179–210). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Turner, R. J., Taylor, J., & Van Gundy, K. V. (2004). Personal resources and depression in the transition to adulthood: Ethnic comparisons. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 34–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Turner, R. J., Wheaton, B., & Lloyd, D. A. (1995). The epidemiology of social stress. American Sociological Review, 60, 104–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Twenge, J. M., & Crocker, J. (2002). Race and self-esteem revisited: Reply to Hafdahl and Gray-Little. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 417–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Umberson, D., Anderson, K. L., Williams, K., & Chen, M. D. (2003). Relationship dynamics, emotion state, and domestic violence: A stress and masculinities perspective. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 65, 233–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Umberson, D., Chen, M. D., House, J. S., Hopkins, K., & Slaten, E. (1996). The effects of social relationships on psychological well-being: Are men and women really so different? American Sociological Review, 61, 837–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey. (2004). Marital status of the population 15 and older by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 2004 [Detailed table B12002A-1]. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  184. Vazquez-Nuttall, E., Romero-Garcia, I., & De Leon, B. (1987). Sex roles and perceptions of femininity and masculinity of Hispanic women: A review of the literature. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 393–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Vega, W. A., Gil, A., & Zimmerman, R. (1993a). Patterns of drug use among Cuban-American, African-American, and white non-Hispanic boys. American Journal of Public Health, 8, 257–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Vega, W., Gil, A., Zimmerman, R. S., & Warheit, G. J. (1993b). Risk factors for suicidal behavior among Hispanic, African-American, and non-Hispanic white boys in early adolescence. Ethnicity & Disease, 3, 229–241.Google Scholar
  187. Walen, H. R., & Lachman, M. E. (2000). Social support and strain from partner, family, and friends: Costs and benefits for men and women in adulthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17, 5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Warheit, G. J., Vega, W. A., Khoury, E., Gil, A. A., & Elfenbein, P. (1996). A comparative analysis of cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic, African American and non-Hispanic white adolescents. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 901–922.Google Scholar
  189. Warner, L. A., Kessler, R. C., Hughes, M., Anthony, J. C., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Prevalence and correlates of drug use and dependence in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 219–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Washburn-Ormachea, J. M., Hillman, S. B., & Sawilowsky, S. S. (2004). Gender and gender-role orientation differences on adolescents’ coping with peer stressors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Watkins, D. C., Walker, R. L., & Griffith, D. M. (2010). A meta-study of Black male mental health and well-being. Journal of Black Psychology, 36, 303–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Williams, D., Takeuchi, D., & Adair, R. K. (1992). Marital status and psychiatric disorders among Blacks and whites. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 140–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Williams, D. R., Costa, M., & Leavell, J. P. (2009). Race and mental health: Patterns and challenges. In T. L. Scheid & T. N. Brown (Eds.), A handbook for the study of mental health: Social contexts, theories, and systems (pp. 268–290). Charlotte, NC: University of North Carolina Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. World Health Organization. (2006). Gender disparities in mental health. Washington, DC: Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence.Google Scholar
  195. Wright, E. O. (2000). Class counts. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Zwicker, A., & DeLongis, A. (2010). Gender, stress, and coping. In J. C. Chrisler & D. R. McCrear (Eds.), Handbook of gender research in psychology (pp. 495–517). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging ResearchRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging ResearchRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations