G Protein Signaling Components in Filamentous Fungal Genomes
In fungi, heterotrimeric G proteins regulate a number of critical developmental processes including growth, mating and pathogenesis. Signals may originate from extracellular ligands or from internal sources. These signals are conveyed from G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) or nonreceptor guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to a heterotrimeric G protein composed of α, β and γ subunits. GPCRs and nonreceptor GEFs activate the Gα subunit, causing the disassociation of the heterotrimer. Both the Gα and Gβγ heterodimer are free to act upon downstream effectors. Two prominent output pathways are the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Changes in growth, mating and pathogenesis can be initiated through G protein signals and executed downstream by these or as yet uncharacterized signaling pathways.
KeywordsAdenylyl Cyclase Pheromone Receptor Opposite Mating Type GTPase Domain Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Activity
- Casselton L, Feldbrügge, M (2010) Mating and Sexual Morphogenesis in Basidiomycete Fungi. In: Borkovich, KA, Ebbole, DJ (eds) Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 536–555Google Scholar
- Dohlman HG, Song J, Ma D, Courchesne WE, Thorner J (1996) Sst2, a negative regulator of pheromone signaling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: expression, localization, and genetic interaction and physical association with Gpa1 (the G-protein alpha subunit). Mol Cell Biol 16:5194–5209PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim H, Wright SJ, Park G, Ouyang S, Krystofova S, Borkovich KA (2012) Roles for Receptors, Pheromones, G proteins and Mating Type Genes During Sexual Reproduction in Neurospora crassa. Genetics (in press). doi: 10.1534/genetics.111.136358
- Müller F, Krüger D, Sattlegger E, Hoffmann B, Ballario P, Kanaan M, Barthelmess IB (1995) The cpc-2 gene of Neurospora crassa encodes a protein entirely composed of WD-repeat segments that is involved in general amino acid control and female fertility. Mol Gen Genet 248:162–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar