Communication Between Plant, Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Helper Bacteria
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Development of mutualistic symbioses between ectomycorrhizal fungi and their host trees involves multiple gene networks that are involved in a complex series of interdependent, sequential developmental steps. Through secreted signals and nutrient interactions, rhizospheric bacteria play a major role in the development of mycorrhizal symbioses. Current research into symbiosis development and functioning is aimed at understanding these plant–microbe interactions in the framework of environmental, developmental and physiological processes that underlie colonization and morphogenesis. After a brief introduction to the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, the present chapter aims (1) to highlight recent work on the early signal exchange taking place between symbionts and their associated bacteria, and (2) to sketch out the way that functional genomics is altering our thinking about how soil microbes alter host functioning during ectomycorrhizal root development.
KeywordsAuxins Effectors Secretome Gene expression Helper bacteria Mycorrhizosphere Root hairs Transduction pathways
We thank colleagues at INRA-Nancy (France) for their input and collaboration, specifically Annegret Kohler, Claire Veneault-Fourrey and Judith Felten whose contributions made this work possible. The authors also thank Dr Krista Plett for careful reading of the manuscript. This project was funded by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (project FungEffector, ANR-06-BLAN-0399) and Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. This research was also sponsored by the Genomic Science Program of the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 (Plant-Microbe Interface).
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