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Phosphoinositide Phosphatases: Just as Important as the Kinases

  • Jennifer M. Dyson
  • Clare G. Fedele
  • Elizabeth M. Davies
  • Jelena Becanovic
  • Christina A. MitchellEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 58)

Abstract

Phosphoinositide phosphatases comprise several large enzyme families with over 35 mammalian enzymes identified to date that degrade many phosphoinositide signals. Growth factor or insulin stimulation activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] to form phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3], which is rapidly dephosphorylated either by PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) to PtdIns(4,5)P2, or by the 5-phosphatases (inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases), generating PtdIns(3,4)P2. 5-phosphatases also hydrolyze PtdIns(4,5)P2 forming PtdIns(4)P. Ten mammalian 5-phosphatases have been identified, which regulate hematopoietic cell proliferation, synaptic vesicle recycling, insulin signaling, and embryonic development. Two 5-phosphatase genes, OCRL and INPP5E are mutated in Lowe and Joubert syndrome respectively. SHIP [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain inositol phosphatase] 2, and SKIP (skeletal muscle- and kidney-enriched inositol phosphatase) negatively regulate insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis. SHIP2 polymorphisms are associated with a predisposition to insulin resistance. SHIP1 controls hematopoietic cell proliferation and is mutated in some leukemias. The inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatases, INPP4A and INPP4B degrade PtdIns(3,4)P2 to PtdIns(3)P and regulate neuroexcitatory cell death, or act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer respectively. The Sac phosphatases degrade multiple phosphoinositides, such as PtdIns(3)P, PtdIns(4)P, PtdIns(5)P and PtdIns(3,5)P2 to form PtdIns. Mutation in the Sac phosphatase gene, FIG4, leads to a degenerative neuropathy. Therefore the phosphatases, like the lipid kinases, play major roles in regulating cellular functions and their mutation or altered expression leads to many human diseases.

Keywords

Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatases Sac phosphatases Trafficking Hematopoietic system 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer M. Dyson
    • 1
  • Clare G. Fedele
    • 1
  • Elizabeth M. Davies
    • 1
  • Jelena Becanovic
    • 1
  • Christina A. Mitchell
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

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