On the Vesicular Origin of the Cell Cycle
The relation between the phenomena of cell cycle and vesicle self-reproduction has been investigated. It is proposed that vesicle self-reproduction is a process whose mechanism, based on commonly accepted physicochemical principles, could be an essential factor in the transition from the nonliving to the living world. This proposal is supported by first demonstrating the vesicle properties that are relevant to this process. A prototype model of vesicle self-reproduction and its possible generalization are then described. Parallels are drawn between the behavior of the cell cycle and the process of vesicle self-reproduction. The suggestion that the cell cycle is an upgraded version of vesicle self-reproduction is substantiated by ascribing to the latter process the ability to evolve on the basis of selection between vesicle populations.
KeywordsMembrane Area Vesicle Size Prototype Model Membrane Tension Spontaneous Curvature
This work was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency through grants P1-0055 and J3-2268. The author thanks Roger Pain and Peter Walde for the critical reading of the manuscript. Mojca Mally allowed the use of her results before publication, and Bojan Božič helped with the adaptation of Fig. 2.
- Božič B, Svetina S (2009) Comment on “Thermodynamics of vesicle growth and instability”. Phys Rev E 80:013401(2)Google Scholar
- Deuling HJ, Helfrich W (1976) The curvature elasticity of fluid membranes: a catalogue of vesicle shapes. J Phys Fr 37:1334–1345Google Scholar
- Helfrich W (1973) Elastic properties of lipid bilayers: theory and possible experiments. Z Naturforsch 28c:693–703Google Scholar
- Lancet D, Shenhav B (2009) Compositional lipid protocells: reproduction without polynucleotides. In: Rasmussen S, Bedau MA, Chen L, Deamer D, Krakauer DC, Packard NH, Stadler PF (eds) Protocells: bridging nonliving and living matter. MIT, Cambridge, pp 233–252Google Scholar
- Lasic DD (1993) Liposomes: from physics to application. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Lipowsky R, Sackmann E (eds) (1995) Structure and dynamics of membranes, vols 1, 2. Elsevier Science B.V., AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Murray A, Hunt T (1993) The cell cycle: an introduction. Oxford University Press, New York/OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Reeves JP, Dowben RM (1969) Formation and properties of thin-walled vesicles. J Gen Physiol 73:49–60Google Scholar
- Svetina S, Žekš B (1996) Elastic properties of closed bilayer membranes and the shapes of giant phospholipid vesicles. In: Lasic DD, Berenholz Y (eds) Handbook of nonmedical applications of liposomes. Theory and basic sciences, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton/New York, pp 13–42Google Scholar
- Svetina S, Brumen M, Žekš B (1985) Lipid bilayer elasticity and the bilayer couple interpretation of red cell shape transformations and lysis. Stud Biophys 110:177–184Google Scholar